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Thoughts on promoting inclusiveness in dairy development
Thoughts on Promoting Inclusiveness in Dairy Development A. Omore, L. Kurwijila, S. Worsley Tanzania National Dairy Stakeholders’ Meeting Dar es Salaam, 22 February 2013
Key questionsGiven current status and desire to extend the frontiers ofcommercial dairy value chains in Tanzania….• Where are the new frontiers?• What has so far hindered dairy development in these areas? • What are the main technological challenges? • What are the main organisational challenges? • What are the policy and institutional barriers, whether written and un-written (mind-sets)? • What kinds of partnerships can overcome the challenges?
More Milk in Tanzania ProjectA recent synthesis identified 4inter-related key problems
Key problems More Milk in Tanzania Project1. Dominant direct milk sales of small volumes that preclude economies of scale, resulting in high costs of production and marketing Milk marketing outlets (NBS, 2003) Milk Buyer % Neighbours 86.1 Local market 5.5 Secondary market 0.5 Processors 1.4 Large scale farms 0.2 3% Processed milk Trader at farm 4.5 and dairy products Other 1.7 Informally TOTAL 100.0 97% marketed raw milk (liitle value addition)
Key problems (cont’d)2. Credit facilities are lacking. This contributes to low access to basic inputs and services or working capital to purchase them3. Lack of appropriate organizational models for pre- commercial producers. These are required to facilitate collective action4. Seasonality of rainfall and related effects are strong. This is reflected in producers’ management of their animals’ reproductive cycle and transhumance. It exacerbates seasonality of feed availability and milk volumes
Huge seasonal fluctuation in milk supply from traditional herd Milk collection by a small scale processor from traditional herd in Morogoro, 2009 13000 12500 12000 11500 11000 10500 10000 9500Volume of milk (litres/month) 9000 8500 8000 7500 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Month Average/month Total supply
Large yield gaps: 6000Milk yield per Lactation (Kg) 5000 x3 4000 x3 x3 3000 x3 2000 x2 y2 x2 1000 x1 x1 0 y1 Indigenous Crossbred Exotic Indigenous Crossbreds Synthetics Exotics Mixed rain fed Mixed rain fed Large-scale temperate/highlan humid/sub-humid commercial ranches d Xi = Yield gaps due to “animal husbandry practices” : 33 - 76 % Yi = Gap in productivity due to “genotype”: 18 - 74% Source: Mwacharo et al., 2009
Low per capita milk consumption Per capita milk consumption in EAC countries (Kenya, 2009; Rwanda 2011, Tanzania 2010 amd Uganda 2009)220200180160140120 Per capita100 WHO recommendation80604020 0 Kenya Rwanda Tanzania Uganda
Gap between investments in milk prodn., collection and processing capacity Gap between investments in milk prodn1. , collection and processing2 (1NBS , 2003 and 2TDB data 2012) 110000 105000 100000 95000 90000 85000 80000 75000Volume of milk/day 70000 65000 60000 Marketable surplus milk /d (28% of wet season 55000 NBS-2003) 50000 Processing capacity (2012) 45000 40000 35000 Milk collection capacity (2012) 30000 25000 20000 Milk collected l/day (2012) 15000 10000 5000 0 Region
Examples of promotion of industry vs.inclusivenessIndustry approach Inclusiveness approach1. Invest where there are 1. Target the poor likely to be high returns <$2/day2. Go where there’s 2. Go to marginalised already some dairy areas development 3. Meet the small-scale producers in there3. Promote capital current markets, that intensive approaches are often informal like chilling plants 4. Explore working with4. Promote modern current assets of the breeds only poor, including traditional breeds
DDF is in a good position to promote inclusivenessand complement specific projectsPossible DDF roles1. Promoting a more inclusive orientation in investments through strengthening of public-private partnerships2. Promoting professionalization and best practices3. Acting as a platform for information and knowledge sharing including: • as a national innovation platform to address systemic bottlenecks and co-create solutions • facilitating mentoring of milk-shed level dairy innovation platforms