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Facilitating scaling: Initial ideas for Livestock CRP Integrated Core Project


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Presented by Helena Posthumus at the Livestock CRP Priority Countries Planning Meeting, Nairobi, 26–27 March 2019

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Facilitating scaling: Initial ideas for Livestock CRP Integrated Core Project

  1. 1. Facilitating scaling: Initial ideas for Livestock CRP Integrated Core Project Helena Posthumus 1 Livestock CRP Priority Countries Planning Meeting 26 – 27 March 2019 Nairobi, Kenya
  2. 2. Scaling for impact Scaling of what? Livestock innovations / solutions that:  contribute to development outcomes  address key bottlenecks in livestock value chains  meet a pressing demand or need at scale (demand-driven by end users)  are scalable… (given context, conditions, capacities, resources) 2
  3. 3. R4D continuum (GIZ) 4 Discovery Proof of concept Pilot project Scaling 10s 100s 1000s 100,000sBeneficiaries Theory Applicability, practice Large-scale adoptionResearch to product Academic Development / NGOs Private & public sectorPartnerships Peer-reviewed academic articles Communication for local context and knowledgeCommunication Most for research Most for implementation partners Private / public fundsFunding Research institute Development project Farmers, entrepreneurs, service providersRisk bearer
  4. 4. 5 Schut et al. 2009
  5. 5. A framework for scaling of agricultural innovations 6 Common, public responsibility, resources & risks Private or public responsibility, resources & risks
  6. 6. From pilot to scale: the problem of external validity External validity: ‘the extent to which the methods, materials and setting of a study approximate the real-world that is being examined’ Challenge: often the external validity of pilot projects is low…  Due to artificial conditions:  High capital investment  Project budget covering transaction costs  Highly skilled workforce  Contracts and partnership agreements to create enabling conditions  Different from the complex reality with limited resources, weak public institutions and independent actors pursuing own interests 7
  7. 7. Understanding and learning about scaling 8 Pilot Scale Pilot Pathways of impact Design for change Going to scale Understanding core elements, conditions and arrangements for success Design an effective change process (Theory of Change at scale) learning
  8. 8. Understanding external validity Some questions to understand external validity of pilot projects: • What are the enabling factors and conditions that make your intervention successful? • What are the economies and diseconomies of scale of best-bets? • What are the transaction costs (search & information costs; bargaining & decision costs; policing & enforcement costs), and who will pay in real life? • Who will become the bearer of risk and uncertainty? • Can agreements and conditions (enabling environment) created in pilot projects be replicated by (public or private) institutions at scale? 9
  9. 9. Scaling for impact Lessons on going from pilot to scale: • Do more than disseminate or replicate • Make sure there is a demand or need for the innovation at scale • Have a mix of activities which improve value chain relations, agricultural services and the institutional environment – linking up with relevant partners • Address the constraints and use the strengths of the target beneficiaries • Bring the right processes, set of arrangements and enabling conditions to scale (that make the innovation appropriate, effective and useful)… • …or assess whether the required set of arrangements and enabling conditions are present at scale for your best-bets • Complement on-going interventions and build on existing experiences (“clean sites” don’t exist…) 10
  10. 10. Ingredients for scaling (PPPlab) 11 Scaling ingredient What it provides to support scaling Technology An effective and efficient solution for the issue at stake Business case An attractive financial / economic proposition for users and others Awareness and demand A wish and readiness for the consumer or producer to use the solution Finance Effective financing options for users and providers or buyers Value chain development Effective input and supply provision and other support services Platforms and collaboration Strategic and operational collaboration between key stakeholders Public sector governance Enabling policies, regulations and mechanisms Lobby and advocacy A ‘change coalition’ that pursues scaling and influence others Knowledge and skills The required knowledge and professional capacity and recognition Data and ICT Evidence and facts that underpin and communicate the scaling ambition
  11. 11. So what…? Next steps At country level: - Identify common problem in livestock system and integrated package to resolve this – FOCUS! - What need or demand (at scale) is it addressing? - Assess stage at R4D continuum – where are you? - What conditions and requirements need to be in place to make the integrated package successful? - Which partners should you involve to get all scaling ingredients in place, how? 12 At CRP management unit level (with Impact @ Scale program): - Develop action-oriented analytical framework on scaling readiness - Developing theories of change at scale (scaling strategies) - Monitoring and learning on scaling strategies and processes