Clavery Tungaraza
Faculty of science, Sokoine University of
Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
Dairy/livestock and the
enviro...
Dairy/livestock status
Livestock activities are mixed
19.1 million cattle found in Tanzania, 3rd
in Africa
after Ethiopi...
Dairy/livestock status
Dairy not mentioned in National statistical figures
but livestock
NAPA (National Adaptation Progr...
Tanzania is an agro-pastoralist country
Tanzania Mainland Z'bar
Number of Rural Agricultural
households 5,838,523 5,706,3...
Status of the Environment
Climatic impacted country
 Severe and recurrent droughts
 drop of water levels of Lake Victor...
Impact to livestock
Shrinkage of rangeland
Fluctuation of product values,
eg. dry periods cattle price can fall from US$...
Impact to livestock
Milk and meat Productivity and quality fluctuate
following climatic conditions
Pastoralist migration...
Country situation
Carrying Capacity
Region Existing
Recommended
Excess
Mwanza 2, 180,275 63,360 2,116, 915
Shinyanga 3, 80...
Current Climate Zonation
Zone Sub-Zone and areas Rainfall (mm/yr)
1. COAST
North: Tanga (except Lushoto), Coast
and Dares ...
4. PLATEAUX
Western: Tabora, Rukwa (North and
Center), Mbeya North: Kigoma, Part of
Mara Southern: Ruvuma and Southern
Mor...
Dominant zones for livestock keepers
2. ARID LANDS
North: Serengeti, Ngorogoro Parks, Part
of Masailand
North: Unimodal,
u...
Environmental Impacts
Globally livestock listed to cause;
Land degradation
Air pollution
Climate change
 GHG emission ...
Environmental Impacts
On the GHG contribution (Giga tonnes CO2 equivalent)
Land use and land use change: 2.5 -vegetation ...
Challenges of assessing Environmental
Impacts
Lack of environmental baseline
Difficulties in assessing size of pasture l...
Dairy/livestock and the environment in Tanzania
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Dairy/livestock and the environment in Tanzania

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Presented by Clavery Tungaraza at the CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Consultation on Dairy and Environment Nairobi, Kenya, 18 September 2013

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Dairy/livestock and the environment in Tanzania

  1. 1. Clavery Tungaraza Faculty of science, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania Dairy/livestock and the environment in Tanzania CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Consultation on Dairy and Environment Nairobi, Kenya, 18 September 2013
  2. 2. Dairy/livestock status Livestock activities are mixed 19.1 million cattle found in Tanzania, 3rd in Africa after Ethiopia and Sudan.  ~605,000 are dairy cattle. Others, raised for dual purpose of milk and meat production. Vision by 2015 to have 900,000 dairy cattle
  3. 3. Dairy/livestock status Dairy not mentioned in National statistical figures but livestock NAPA (National Adaptation Programme of Action) never mentioned ‘Dairy’ but livestock
  4. 4. Tanzania is an agro-pastoralist country Tanzania Mainland Z'bar Number of Rural Agricultural households 5,838,523 5,706,329 132,19 3 Number of Households Growing Crops only 3,508,581 3,422,072 86,50 9 Number of Households Growing Crops and livestock 2,268,255 2,224,410 43,84 4 Number of Households with Livestock only 57,770 55,929 1,840 Number of Households doing Pastoralism 3,917 3,917 0
  5. 5. Status of the Environment Climatic impacted country  Severe and recurrent droughts  drop of water levels of Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Jipe  recession of 7 km of Lake Rukwa in about 50 years
  6. 6. Impact to livestock Shrinkage of rangeland Fluctuation of product values, eg. dry periods cattle price can fall from US$130 to US$13 Loss of animals sometimes massive eg. In 2009 in Loliondo, Ngorongoro, Simanjiro, Kiteto and Mwanga there was total loss of over 150,000 animals.
  7. 7. Impact to livestock Milk and meat Productivity and quality fluctuate following climatic conditions Pastoralist migration Conflicts - Farmers v/s pastoralists
  8. 8. Country situation Carrying Capacity Region Existing Recommended Excess Mwanza 2, 180,275 63,360 2,116, 915 Shinyanga 3, 806,677 87,800 3, 718, 877 Dodoma 798,105 160,167 637, 938 Singida 727,930 117,983 609, 947
  9. 9. Current Climate Zonation Zone Sub-Zone and areas Rainfall (mm/yr) 1. COAST North: Tanga (except Lushoto), Coast and Dares Salaam North: Bimodal, 750- 1200mm South: Eastern Lindi and Mtwara (except Makonde Plateau South: Unimodal, 800- 1200mm 2. ARID LANDS North: Serengeti, Ngorogoro Parks, Part of Masailand North: Unimodal, unreliable, 500-600mm Masai Steppe, Tarangire Park, Mkomazi Reserve, Pangani and Eastern Dodoma South: Unimodal and Unreliable, 400-600mm 3. SEMI-ARID LANDS Central Dodoma, Singida,Northern Iringa, some of Arusha, Shinyanga Southern: Morogoro, Lindi and Southwest Mtwara Central: unimodal and unreliable: 500-800mm Southeastern: Unimodal 600-800mm
  10. 10. 4. PLATEAUX Western: Tabora, Rukwa (North and Center), Mbeya North: Kigoma, Part of Mara Southern: Ruvuma and Southern Morogoro Western: unimodal, 800- 1000mm Southern: unimodal, veryreliable, 900-1300mm 5. SOUTHERN AND WESTERN HIGHLANDS Southern: A broad ridge of from N. Morogoro to N. LakeNyasa, covering part of Iringa, MbeyaSouthwestern: Ufipa plateau inSumbawanga Western: Along the shore of Lake Tanganyika in Kigoma and Kagera Southern: unimodal, reliable, local rain shadows, 800-1400mm Southern: unimodal, reliable, 800- 1000mm Western: bimodal, 1000-2000mm 6. NOTHERN HIGHLANDS Northern: foot of mt Kilimanjaro and Mt. Meru. Eastern Rift Valley to Eyasi Granite Mts Uluguru in Morogoro, Pare Mts in Kilimanjaro and Usambara Mts in Tanga, Tarime highlands in Mara Northern: Bimodal, varies widely 1000-2000mm Granitic mts. Bimodal and very reliable 1000-2000m 7. ALLUVIAL PLAINS K-kilomberao (Morogoro) R- Rufuji (Coast) U- Usangu (Mbeya) W- Wami(Morogoro) K—Unimodal, very reliable, 900-1300mm R-Unimodal, often inadequate 800- 1200mmU-Unimodal, 500- 800mm W-Unimodal, 600- 1800mm
  11. 11. Dominant zones for livestock keepers 2. ARID LANDS North: Serengeti, Ngorogoro Parks, Part of Masailand North: Unimodal, unreliable , 500- 600mm Masai Steppe, Tarangire Park, Mkomazi Reserve, Pangani and Eastern Dodoma South: Unimodal and unreliable, 400- 600mm 3. SEMI-ARID LANDS Central Dodoma, Singida,Northern Iringa, some of Arusha, Shinyanga Southern: Morogoro Also Lindi and Southwest Mtwara Central: unimodal and unreliable: 500- 800mm Southeastern: Unimodal 600-800mm
  12. 12. Environmental Impacts Globally livestock listed to cause; Land degradation Air pollution Climate change  GHG emission (18%): 37% of methane, 9% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, and 65% of nitrous oxide Exacerbate water shortage and water pollution, Loss of biodiversity through land use change Influence human behaviour based on milk and meat consumption
  13. 13. Environmental Impacts On the GHG contribution (Giga tonnes CO2 equivalent) Land use and land use change: 2.5 -vegetation replaced by pasture and carbon release from soils Feed Production (except carbon released from soil): 0.4 -including fossil fuel and chemical fertilizer application Animal production: 1.9 -enteric fermentation from ruminants (CH4) and on-farm fossil fuel use (CO2) Manure Management: 2.2 -manure storage, application and deposition (CH4, N2O, NH3) Processing and transport: 0.03 -fuel
  14. 14. Challenges of assessing Environmental Impacts Lack of environmental baseline Difficulties in assessing size of pasture land due to grazing nature –migration & nomadic Deforestation based method difficulty due to crop production deforestation activities Varying types of livestock feeds – not industrial manufactured or input based production Pasture land not well-selected -the nomadic life Pasture dependent on natural land fertility Mixed feeds; pasture-grass-feeding vs. grain-feeding

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