Links of the Biodigester sector with the
Dairy sector and Environment
Peter Bos
CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Co...
SNV- TA
1 Outline
Intro on Biodigester
Dairy – Biogas sector
Bio-slurry as fertilizer
Energy use for dairy
farmers
Im...
2. Biodigester unit
3
Fig 1:
Fixed dome domestic biogas installation
Fig 1:
Fixed dome domestic biogas installation
4Title
5Title
The feasibility nexus
Technically possible
Economically attractive Environmentally sustainable
Socially acceptable
...
6Title
Financial and economic performance of domestic biogas installations
SNV Dom. Biogas Programs
Asia
Nepal
Vietnam
Cambodia
B...
3. Dairy and biogas
• Traditionally, small scale biogas and small scale dairy have always
been having tight links.
• => Fr...
Biochemical processes and
biogas
The dairy cow
Mature “developed (!)” dairy cow Live weight 635 kg
Milk production 20 – 35...
10
Farm system
Crop
production
system
Household
system
Animal
production
system
Biogas plant
Bio slurry
4. Bio-slurry as fertilizer
Improved soil fertility:
• Higher yield kg/ha
• Better quality, higher price/kg
• Savings on c...
Slurry use for aqua culture
• Food for fish
• Fast uptake of inorganic
materials by plankton
• Plankton food for fish
• Li...
Bio-slurry
• Dehydrated digested sludge can be used as feed supplement
for pig and poultry.
• Mushroom farming: increase i...
14
Wet Application
15
Dry Application
16
Bio-slurry use matters!
Small fraction of soils: < 2 % (in tropics)
OM:
• Living organisms: roots, fungi, earthworms, e...
5. Energy use for dairy farmers
• Use of biogas for heating of water to clean milking equipment
and cattle before and afte...
Domestic biogas & carbon
revenue
6. Improved EnvironmentBiogas & GHG reduction
Manure
handling
modality
Fossil- and
NRB fu...
Project boundary
Animal
manure
storage
Biogas stove
(thermal
energy to the
user)
Fertilizer for
fields
manure biogas
Bio-
...
Concluding
• The impact of a biogas installation on the dairy quality is high;
- improved hygienic conditions and cleannes...
Asante sana!
SNV - Kenya
Peter Bos, Senior Advisor Renewable Energy
pbos@snvworld.org
www.snvworld.org, http://africabioga...
22
Plant nutrients
Macronutrients
• Primary: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K)
• Secondary: calcium (Ca), magnes...
23
Macro nutrients
Nitrogen (N)
• proteins, enzymes and metabolic processes.
• chlorophyll ⇨ photosynthesis.
• rapid growt...
24
Fertilizers
Organic fertilizer:
 Broad range of nutrients
 Low in N-P-K
 Long term effect (indirect)
 Soil organic ...
Domestic biogas & carbon
revenue
Manure handling modality
Methane emissions per animal type “i” in “j” systems:
CH4
i = ∑j...
Domestic biogas & carbon
revenue
Biomass and fossil fuel substitution
Baseline emissions for thermal energy for one househ...
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Links of the Biodigester sector with the dairy sector and environment

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Presented by Peter Bos at the CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Consultation on Dairy and Environment Nairobi, Kenya, 18 September 2013

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Links of the Biodigester sector with the dairy sector and environment

  1. 1. Links of the Biodigester sector with the Dairy sector and Environment Peter Bos CLEANED Project East Africa Stakeholder Consultation on Dairy and Environment Nairobi, Kenya, 18 September 2013
  2. 2. SNV- TA 1 Outline Intro on Biodigester Dairy – Biogas sector Bio-slurry as fertilizer Energy use for dairy farmers Improved Environment
  3. 3. 2. Biodigester unit 3 Fig 1: Fixed dome domestic biogas installation Fig 1: Fixed dome domestic biogas installation
  4. 4. 4Title
  5. 5. 5Title The feasibility nexus Technically possible Economically attractive Environmentally sustainable Socially acceptable Programme environment Political context Feasibility nexus
  6. 6. 6Title
  7. 7. Financial and economic performance of domestic biogas installations SNV Dom. Biogas Programs Asia Nepal Vietnam Cambodia Bangladesh Laos Pakistan Indonesia Africa Rwanda Ethiopia Tanzania Kenya Uganda Burkina Faso
  8. 8. 3. Dairy and biogas • Traditionally, small scale biogas and small scale dairy have always been having tight links. • => From a biogas point of view: zero stabled- dairy cows / overnight stabling, are the producer of the substrate for the biogas installation. • => From a dairy perspective: a biogas installation contribute to a proper and hygienic management of cow dung, the production of energy for hot/warm water to clean milking equipment and cattle before and after milking, nutrients cycling…. 8
  9. 9. Biochemical processes and biogas The dairy cow Mature “developed (!)” dairy cow Live weight 635 kg Milk production 20 – 35 kg / day Main dung characteristics: Daily fresh manure production: 51 kg per day (61 litres / day) Total solids: 6.4 kg (TS (= DM) ~ 13% of fresh wght) Macro nutrients: Micro nutrients / trace elements Nitrogen Nk: Phosphorus P: 0.04 kg Potassium K: 0.16 kgTypical substrates Cow dung 0.025 0.050 Pig dung 0.040 0.070 Poultry litter 0.065 0.120 Nigh soil 0.030 0.070 specific biogas production [m 3 /kg] “Developing” cattle: •Weight <250 kg •Milk production 1-5 kg/day •TS >20% of fresh wght
  10. 10. 10 Farm system Crop production system Household system Animal production system Biogas plant Bio slurry
  11. 11. 4. Bio-slurry as fertilizer Improved soil fertility: • Higher yield kg/ha • Better quality, higher price/kg • Savings on chemical fertilizer • Savings on pesticides Bio-slurry can be used fresh or mixed with agricultural residues to make compost! Often the financial benefits of bio-slurry is greater than that of biogas! 11Title
  12. 12. Slurry use for aqua culture • Food for fish • Fast uptake of inorganic materials by plankton • Plankton food for fish • Little use of O2, better water quality • Less risks for fish diseases • Increase in fish growth of 15- 30% compared to fresh dung 12Title
  13. 13. Bio-slurry • Dehydrated digested sludge can be used as feed supplement for pig and poultry. • Mushroom farming: increase in yields of 15% more compared to that of usual medium using bio-slurry and reducing pick time by 7 days. 13
  14. 14. 14 Wet Application
  15. 15. 15 Dry Application
  16. 16. 16 Bio-slurry use matters! Small fraction of soils: < 2 % (in tropics) OM: • Living organisms: roots, fungi, earthworms, etc. • Dead material: plant residues, fym, compost, humus, etc Positive effects: • Soil structure (roots, air) • Water retention capacity • Soil fertility (CEC = cation exchange capacity) • Buffers soil pH • Resistance to erosion
  17. 17. 5. Energy use for dairy farmers • Use of biogas for heating of water to clean milking equipment and cattle before and after milking. • To a lesser extent, biogas-energy has been applied for on-farm milk processing, mainly pasteurizing raw milk • Innovative idea; use of biogas for milk chilling at HH level both micro-scale (6-16 M3) and medium sized digesters (24-60 M3). - special designed milk coolers operating on biogas - use of generators operating on biogas Preliminary calculations indicate that the per-head production of cattle dung produces sufficient energy to cool down the per head milk production. 17
  18. 18. Domestic biogas & carbon revenue 6. Improved EnvironmentBiogas & GHG reduction Manure handling modality Fossil- and NRB fuel substitution Chemical fertilizer substitution
  19. 19. Project boundary Animal manure storage Biogas stove (thermal energy to the user) Fertilizer for fields manure biogas Bio- slurry
  20. 20. Concluding • The impact of a biogas installation on the dairy quality is high; - improved hygienic conditions and cleanness • - energy for heating, pasteurisation and possible chilling • - organic potential fertilizer for crops / fodder grasses / fishponds. • - reduced GHG emissions by saving NRM fuels. • => resulting that Nestle supported the construction of bio- digesters for all its farmer-producers in Indonesia. 20
  21. 21. Asante sana! SNV - Kenya Peter Bos, Senior Advisor Renewable Energy pbos@snvworld.org www.snvworld.org, http://africabiogas.org/ For more information, please contact:
  22. 22. 22 Plant nutrients Macronutrients • Primary: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) • Secondary: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) Micronutrients (trace elements) • boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), chloride (Cl), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn) Non-Mineral Nutrients • hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), carbon (C) Measured: dry weight in % or g/kg or ppm (= parts per million)
  23. 23. 23 Macro nutrients Nitrogen (N) • proteins, enzymes and metabolic processes. • chlorophyll ⇨ photosynthesis. • rapid growth, seed and fruit production, quality. Phosphorus (P) • photosynthesis rapid growth. • formation of all oils, sugars, starches, etc. • encourages blooming and root growth. Potassium (K) • building of protein, photosynthesis, fruit quality. • reduction of diseases.
  24. 24. 24 Fertilizers Organic fertilizer:  Broad range of nutrients  Low in N-P-K  Long term effect (indirect)  Soil organic matter content Chemical fertilizers:  Short term effect (direct)  High in N, P or K Integrated Soil Fertility Management:  Optimal combination of organic and chemical fertilizers
  25. 25. Domestic biogas & carbon revenue Manure handling modality Methane emissions per animal type “i” in “j” systems: CH4 i = ∑j Bo i x VSi x MS%ij x MCFj CH4= Methane emissions [kgm-3] Bo= Biodegradability [m3 CH4 (kgVS)-1] MS%= Manure management system usage [%] MCF= Methane conversion factor [%] VS= Volatile solids [kgyr-1]
  26. 26. Domestic biogas & carbon revenue Biomass and fossil fuel substitution Baseline emissions for thermal energy for one household: BEth, h = ∑j (( F i,bl,h) x NCVi x EFco2 i) Beth,h = Baseline hh emissions from thermal energy [t CO2eq] Fi, bl, h= Amount of fuel i in baseline situation per hh [kg, m3 or ltr] NCVi = Net calorific value fuel i [GJkg-1etc] EFco2 i= CO2 emission factor for fuel i [tCO2kg-1]

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