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Livestock production and poverty alleviation in arid and semi-arid tropical rangelands

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Presented by Carlos Seré, Augustine Ayantunde, Alan Duncan, Ade Freeman, Mario Herrero, Shirley Tarawali, and Iain Wright at the XXI International Grassland Congress and VIII International Rangeland Congress, held in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China from 29 June - 5 July 2008

Livestock production and poverty alleviation in arid and semi-arid tropical rangelands

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Livestock production and poverty alleviation –
challenges and opportunities in arid and semi-arid
        tropical rangeland based systems

  C. Seré, A. Ayantunde, A. Duncan, A. Freeman, M. Herrero,
                   S. Tarawali and I. Wright
Overview
• Rangelands are the largest land use system on Earth. They
  predominate in arid and semi-arid areas of the World.
• Large numbers of poor and vulnerable people live in them.
• Arid and semi-arid rangeland systems constrained by low
  primary productivity, low population densities, lack of market
  access and infrastructure and high transaction costs.
• Population density and climate change creating important
  changes in land use, access to resources and livelihood
  strategies of pastoralists.
• Arid and semi-arid rangeland systems no longer only livestock
  enterprises but multiple use systems – e.g. ecosystem
  services, mitigating climate change, tourism, other diversified
  livelihood strategies
• Research agendas need address trade-offs and synergies
  from multiple uses pastoral ecosystems to benefit poor people
Livestock production and poverty alleviation in arid and semi-arid tropical rangelands
Global Poverty Map
Human population and livestock numbers in arid and arid
                      lands of the world


                                  Tot. people     Cattle TLU     Sheep TLU      Goat TLU
        REGION      Area (Km2)     (yr 2000)         total          total         total
EAST ASIA                39,286         517,388        142,511        136,593        78,475
NORTH AFRICA             51,364      1,931,660         137,064        218,806        92,353
SOUTH ASIA               44,078      5,821,210         642,833        187,932       150,070
LAC                   1,006,230      8,886,420       9,796,930        447,039       413,432
SE ASIA                  38,750         386,390        221,684            729          4,768
WEST AFRICA             841,451     15,579,500       4,309,350      1,077,310     1,283,290
CENTRAL AFRICA          572,019      3,228,620       1,636,200        123,222       284,505
EAST AFRICA           1,535,010     14,826,800      12,858,600      2,111,240     2,123,430
SOUTHERN AFRICA       2,051,810     12,739,900       5,735,070        280,616       488,221
AUSTRALIA/OCEANIA     1,672,811         311,839      7,054,910      2,252,895          5,529
Total                 6,179,998     63,917,888      35,480,242      4,583,487     4,918,544
Drivers of change in pastoral
                  regions
•   Human Population density:
    – Can increase competition between rangelands and marginal
      cropping areas
    – Increase of cropping and sedentarisation has led to land
      fragmentation, which in turn decreases grazing ranges and
      mobility.
•   Overall, livestock numbers in these region are slowly increasing
    due to increase demand on livestock products.
     – However, livestock rate of growth lower than human population
       growth rate animal numbers per capita decreasing in arid/semi
       arid areas.
•   Land tenure and land use changes
•   Climate change is also a driver, with uncertainty and its impacts will
    be felt severely years to come.
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Livestock production and poverty alleviation in arid and semi-arid tropical rangelands

  • 1. Livestock production and poverty alleviation – challenges and opportunities in arid and semi-arid tropical rangeland based systems C. Seré, A. Ayantunde, A. Duncan, A. Freeman, M. Herrero, S. Tarawali and I. Wright
  • 2. Overview • Rangelands are the largest land use system on Earth. They predominate in arid and semi-arid areas of the World. • Large numbers of poor and vulnerable people live in them. • Arid and semi-arid rangeland systems constrained by low primary productivity, low population densities, lack of market access and infrastructure and high transaction costs. • Population density and climate change creating important changes in land use, access to resources and livelihood strategies of pastoralists. • Arid and semi-arid rangeland systems no longer only livestock enterprises but multiple use systems – e.g. ecosystem services, mitigating climate change, tourism, other diversified livelihood strategies • Research agendas need address trade-offs and synergies from multiple uses pastoral ecosystems to benefit poor people
  • 5. Human population and livestock numbers in arid and arid lands of the world Tot. people Cattle TLU Sheep TLU Goat TLU REGION Area (Km2) (yr 2000) total total total EAST ASIA 39,286 517,388 142,511 136,593 78,475 NORTH AFRICA 51,364 1,931,660 137,064 218,806 92,353 SOUTH ASIA 44,078 5,821,210 642,833 187,932 150,070 LAC 1,006,230 8,886,420 9,796,930 447,039 413,432 SE ASIA 38,750 386,390 221,684 729 4,768 WEST AFRICA 841,451 15,579,500 4,309,350 1,077,310 1,283,290 CENTRAL AFRICA 572,019 3,228,620 1,636,200 123,222 284,505 EAST AFRICA 1,535,010 14,826,800 12,858,600 2,111,240 2,123,430 SOUTHERN AFRICA 2,051,810 12,739,900 5,735,070 280,616 488,221 AUSTRALIA/OCEANIA 1,672,811 311,839 7,054,910 2,252,895 5,529 Total 6,179,998 63,917,888 35,480,242 4,583,487 4,918,544
  • 6. Drivers of change in pastoral regions • Human Population density: – Can increase competition between rangelands and marginal cropping areas – Increase of cropping and sedentarisation has led to land fragmentation, which in turn decreases grazing ranges and mobility. • Overall, livestock numbers in these region are slowly increasing due to increase demand on livestock products. – However, livestock rate of growth lower than human population growth rate animal numbers per capita decreasing in arid/semi arid areas. • Land tenure and land use changes • Climate change is also a driver, with uncertainty and its impacts will be felt severely years to come.
  • 7. Consequences of the drivers of change • Transformation of land ownership from common to private property in some pastoral areas • Fragmentation and Sedentarisation of pastoral communities • Land degradation • Market development and evolution
  • 8. What are various scenarios due to climate change?
  • 9. Climate change – potential negative impacts • Increased dryness and higher temperatures • Reduction in primary productivity, land use changes, changing animal disease distributions, land degradation • Changes of species composition, livestock productivity, incomes and food security. Climate change will determine a new research agenda for the rangelands of the world
  • 13. Percentage changes in LGP to 2050, ECHam4 and scenarios A1F1 and B1
  • 14. Percentage changes in LGP to 2050, HadCM3 and scenarios A1F1 and B1
  • 15. Percentage changes in LGP, HadCM3 & scenario A1F1 2020 2050
  • 18. % change in LP to 2050, HadCM3, A1F1 (a high-emissions scenario)
  • 19. Development challenges For pastoral and agro pastoral systems, the overarching development challenge is to reduce poverty and vulnerability in these regions and also to provide livelihood strategies that provide sustainable pathways out of poverty. • Low population density and low carrying capacity of the ecosystem • How to link poor pastoralists to the national economies? - Mobility presents challenges for transfer of quality information on market prices, However with recent advances in communications technologies (i.e. mobile phones) this constraint is rapidly disappearing. • Systems of low priority for public investment
  • 20. Linking LGP changes to livelihoods A combination of two systems classifications as a proxy: ● Seré & Steinfeld (1996) livestock classification ● FAO “Farming Systems and Poverty” classification (Dixon & Gulliver, 2001)
  • 21. Areas within the LGA (arid-semiarid livestock) and MRA (arid-semiarid mixed) systems projected to undergo >20% reduction in LGP to 2050: HadCM3 A1 B1
  • 22. Climate impacts … … on systems … … that are vulnerable …
  • 23. Why is climate change so important to poor countries? Ethiopia: Rainfall Variability and 80 25 Growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 20 60 15 40 10 percentage 20 5 0 0 -5 1992 1998 1986 1997 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1993 1995 1996 1999 2000 1982 1983 1984 1985 1994 -20 -10 -15 -40 rainfall variation around the mean -20 -60 GDP growth -25 -80 -30 year de Jong (2005), World Bank (2005)
  • 24. Development challenges cont… • Natural resource degradation - Results from ILCA’s long- term monitoring studies in East and West Africa (Ellis, 1992; Hiernaux, 1993) have challenged the assumption that livestock is responsible for rangeland degradation and provided evidence that climate, and not livestock, is the main determinant of changes in the arid/semiarid environments and that the rangelands are resilient and capable of recovery. ILCA studies concluded that, “the strong seasonality of rangeland production in the Sahel limits the risk of overgrazing damaging the environment to short periods and consequently to confined areas.”
  • 25. Some researchable areas in arid and semi-arid pastoral and agro-pastoral systems
  • 26. Research area Opportunities for research Spatial • Spatial analysis: Where are the most analysis, vulnerable groups of pastoralists now impact and in the future assessment • Household level analysis: What determines the vulnerability of pastoralists • Trade-off analysis of multiple uses of rangeland ecosystems • Impact assessment and priority setting of integrated rangeland ecosystem uses
  • 27. Research area Opportunities for research Adaptation Management practices: options to • Rangeland management for multiple climate uses (animal production, payments of variability and ecosystems goods and services) • Rangeland management to mitigate change climate change effects • Strategies for selling and buying animals • Health management practices • Water harvesting techniques • Insurance-based schemes to reduce vulnerability • Early warning systems
  • 28. Research area Opportunities for research Diversification • Development of practical approaches to of income quantify delivery of environmental services sources by pastoralists and markets for such services • Exploitation of niche markets for livestock products with certain characteristics • Development of biofuel crops for ASALS • Mechanisms for promoting increased revenues for communities from wildlife conservation and tourism • Off farm income, remittances and/or exiting from pastoralism
  • 29. Research area Opportunities for research Increased • Collective action mechanisms for market access selling animal and other products • Novel methods of networking and sharing benefits of ecosystems • Increased information and communication on marketing options • Identification of new market options (specialization and diversification)
  • 30. Conclusions • Beyond traditional research paradigms for the rangelands have been largely about increasing the primary productivity of the land. • The new role this ecosystem can play requires a different more holistic research paradigm. (economic, social, ecological) of a diverse set of options for different members of society. • New collective action mechanisms • Rangeland systems will diversify but will also require a degree of specialisation of their livestock systems. increased integration of the pastoral economy with other regions. • Pastoralism is no longer seen as a tragedy for common grazing areas but rather as having the potential as a viable part of complex livelihood strategies. • Participation in C- Markets