Poultry production in Ethiopia: An overview

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Presented by Tadelle Dessie at the Chicken Health for Development Project Launch Workshop, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 18 January 2011.

Poultry production in Ethiopia: An overview

  1. 1. Poultry production in Ethiopia: an overview CH4D research team Presented by Tadelle Dessie Chicken Health 4 Development Project Launch ILRI, Addis Ababa   18 January 2011
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Past research and developement attempts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Studies on the village system (1990‘s) </li></ul><ul><li>What can we learn from past attempts </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  3. 3. Introduction Poultry <ul><li>Fulfilling different purposes in </li></ul><ul><li>different times </li></ul><ul><li>Transformed to big industry –in north </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of production systems </li></ul><ul><li>in DC’s </li></ul><ul><li>Large in number and wider in </li></ul><ul><li>distribution </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  4. 4. Production systems in Ethiopia <ul><li>Based on: </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts <ul><li>Village production system </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial production system </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale production system </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of the producer </li></ul><ul><li>Type and number of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Management system followed </li></ul>
  5. 5. Past research and developement attempts <ul><li>Pullets, fertile eggs and cocks </li></ul><ul><li>Private farms started </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at increasing Pn and pvity </li></ul><ul><li>Little attention to the system and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Modern poultry production - 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>But it was with out testing the locals </li></ul>Even though local chicken have: -a number of fitness treats -Good mothers -Requires low input etc Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  6. 6. Studies on the village poultry proction systems (1990‘s) <ul><li>Four PhD theses </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis based works </li></ul><ul><li>A number of MSc theses </li></ul><ul><li>Starting from the 1990’s –local ecotypes </li></ul><ul><li>A number of DVM theses </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>local ecotypes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exotic birds as a reference breed </li></ul></ul></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  7. 7. Main objective <ul><li>To advance a system oriented identification, characterisation and evaluation of local chicken ecotypes and the system </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  8. 8. Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  9. 9. Specific objectives <ul><li>Assess functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand production objectives and purposes </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  10. 10. Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand production objectives and purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Valuate performance traits </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  11. 11. Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand production objectives and purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Valuate performance traits </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and analyse constraints and opportunities </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  12. 12. Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand production objectives and purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Valuate performance traits </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and analyse constraints and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the phenotypic performance (both intake and output traits) </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  13. 13. Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand production objectives and purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Valuate performance traits </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and analyse constraints and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the phenotypic performance (both intake and output traits) </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate the genetic distance between and within the ecotypes </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  14. 14. Specific objectives <ul><li>Asses functions and importance of chicken production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand production objectives and purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Valuate performance traits </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and analyse constraints and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the phenotypic performance (both intake and output traits) </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate the genetic distance between and within the ecotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Breed improvement –selection- on station- egg production </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  15. 15. Materials & Methods <ul><li>Module I: On-farm investigation of poultry systems and ecotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Module II: On-station perfomance evaluation of the different ecotypes of local chicken </li></ul><ul><li>Module III: Measuring the genetic distance between and within the different chicken ecotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Module IV: Breed improvement -selection </li></ul>Four program modules/approches: Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  16. 16. Module I On-farm investigations <ul><li>Structures of the studies </li></ul><ul><li>agro-ecological zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranges 2 to 7 zones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A number of market sheds from each agro-ecological zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One to two villages / market shed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>25 to 30 households from each village </li></ul><ul><li> 150 to 350 households </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  17. 17. Module I On-farm investigation <ul><li>Methods of data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Structured questionnaire integrated </li></ul><ul><li>With Participatory methods </li></ul><ul><li>Transect walk and </li></ul><ul><li>Recall survey </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  18. 18. <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Two to seven ecotypes </li></ul><ul><li>(Eggs from Households or layers from the market) </li></ul><ul><li>Reference breed (White leghorn, Fayoumi) </li></ul>Module II On-station investigation <ul><li>Management chicks </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Research Centres and HLI’s </li></ul><ul><li>Deep litter system </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on starter and grower rations </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinated for NCD </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  19. 19. <ul><li>Body weight - every two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Feed intake -daily </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality -when it occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Carcass and related traits </li></ul><ul><li>Egg production traits </li></ul><ul><li>Functional traits e.g. Fertility and hatchability </li></ul><ul><li>Disease resistance is not considered </li></ul>Module II On-station investigation Data collected Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Pullet, fetile egg and cock distrbution Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  20. 20. Module III Measuring the genetic distance DNA Isolation Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts Genomic DNA Whole blood 3 … n=25 1 2 Ecotype 1 Ecotype 7 . . .
  21. 21. Module III Measuring the genetic distance Genetic markers <ul><li>Microsatellite markers </li></ul>- 10 to 25 primers Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  22. 22. Highlights of results a a a b b Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  23. 23. Village production system <ul><li>> 80% of meat and egg </li></ul><ul><li>> 90% of chicken population </li></ul><ul><li>Source of protein and small cash </li></ul><ul><li>Predominant production system </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous predominance of markets </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred by local consumers </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  24. 24. Hen performance history a a a b b 50% of chicks died Non -stimulated 46 eggs/year Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts -Disease -Predation -Feed -Information <ul><li>Constraints </li></ul>
  25. 25. Hen performance history and m easures to improve laying a a a b b Stimulated 76 eggs/year 50% of chicks died Non -stimulated 46 eggs/year Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  26. 26. Input-output relationships Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts Reproduction Sale Consumption Manure Output Market value Non-market value -Cleaning the environment -Socio-religious function -Tick control Foundation stock Replacement stock Grain supplements -SFRB Market value Non-market value Input
  27. 27. <ul><li>Prevalence rate - 97.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalent disease – 98.2% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newcastle (locally ‘fengil’ or ‘kofis’) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mortality- 31.4% - 66.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment – 95% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used Traditional method (Ethno-veterinary) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccination – 3.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment – 8.9 % </li></ul>Health & Disease control measures Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  28. 28. Mean use pattern of chicken (%) Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts <ul><li>Major functions village birds: </li></ul><ul><li>1 st . Sale as source of income (51.4%) </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd . Hatching (Replacement) (45%), </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd . Home consumption (44.3%), </li></ul><ul><li>4 th . Socio cultural and/or religious functions (36.4%), & </li></ul><ul><li>Major functions of Eggs: </li></ul><ul><li>1 st . Hatching (71.7 %), </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd . Sale for income (58 %) and </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd . Home consumption (68.6%). </li></ul>
  29. 29. Mean live body weight ( + SE) of chicken ecotypes Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts a d c b e e a c b b c c a c b b c c
  30. 30. Mean live body weight ( + SE) Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts  36%  35%  39%  36%
  31. 31. Mean daily body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fayoumi Ecotype ADG (g) 0 2 4 6 8 10 FCR Average Daily Gain (ADG) Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  32. 32. Mean daily body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fayoumi Ecotype ADG (g) 0 2 4 6 8 10 FCR Average Daily Gain (ADG) Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts a c b bc d d
  33. 33. Mean daily body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fayoumi Ecotype ADG (g) 0 2 4 6 8 10 FCR Average Daily Gain (ADG) Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts a a b b a a
  34. 34. Coefficients of variation (%) of live body weight (Animal-level) Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts 22-37 %
  35. 35. Mean Heterozygosity levels (gene diversity level) Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts Ecotypes Het. % Tilili 63 Horro 57 Chefe 63 Jarso 55 Tepi 61 Fayoumi 60 - 4% (MCW78 in Jarso ) to 92%(ADL268 in Tilili ) - Desplys high within ecotype genetic variation
  36. 36. Unbiased standard genetic distance (pairwise ecotype comparisons) -Retrieved using 100 permutations and 100 bootstrap replicates Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts Ecotypes Tilili Horro Chefe Jarso Tepi Fay. Tilili *** Horro 0.047 *** Chefe 0.095 0.089 *** Jarso 0.102 0.108 0.089 *** Tepi 0.094 0.094 0.193 0.188 *** Fayoumi 0.251 0.254 0.336 0.351 0.307 *** <ul><ul><li>- Moderate genetic divergence among ecotypes </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Neighbour Joining tree (unbiased standard genetic distance) Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts -Assorted the ecotypes according their origin -Bootstrapping values were between 53 to 100 % in NJ trees -Local ecotypes formed two distinct groups-cluster
  38. 38. Correlation between genetic and geographic distances r=0.62 -Isolation by distance based on normalised mantel statistic Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  39. 39. Summary of the study results! <ul><li>The production system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous and integral part of the farming system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form the basis for transforming from subsistence to more economically productive system based on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-scavenging model that combined technical improvement with institutional and organisational support aiming at increasing flock productivity </li></ul></ul></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  40. 40. Summary of the study results! <ul><li>The ecotypes: </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly large variation between ecotypes and presence of reasonable genetic divergence </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, it is recommended that testing the combing ablity by crossing between distant ecotypes </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  41. 41. Summary of the study results! <ul><li>The ecotypes: </li></ul><ul><li>The existance of large between bird variation within ecotypes for most traits and the presence of high hetrozygosity values as a gene diversity level </li></ul><ul><li>It is therefore, important to use this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>variability for rapid improvement of local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ecotypes through selection </li></ul></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts
  42. 42. Summary of the study results! <ul><li>The ecotypes: </li></ul><ul><li>High genetic variation manfested: </li></ul><ul><li> ...moderate genetic divergence among ecotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...unique alleles in most of tested loci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… high microsatellite polymorphism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...large number of alleles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… high heterozygosity values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainable utilisation and conservation. However more detailed stdy using more microsatllite loci and genome wide genotyping for traits of interest is recommended </li></ul>Contents Introduction Past research and developement attempts Studies on the village system (1990‘s) What can we learn from past attempts

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