CRP Livestock and IFAD SmaRT Project: Small Ruminant meat value chain Transformation in Ethiopia
CRP Livestock and IFAD SmaRT Project:
Small Ruminant meat value chain Transformation
Barbara Rischkowsky, ICARDA-ILRI-NARES SmaRT team
SmaRT Ethiopia workshop and field day on Small Ruminant
Community Based Breeding Program (CBBP)
Hosaena, Ethiopia, 27–28 March 2018
Objective: to improve the performance of sheep and goat
meat value chains in Ethiopia and in doing so to improve
livelihoods, incomes and assets, particularly of women,
through increased productivity, reduced risk and improved
market access along the value chain.
Vision: By 2023, people in Ethiopia benefit from equitable,
sustainable and efficient sheep and goat value chains: their
animals are more productive, livestock markets work for
producers, consumers and business, there are more, more
affordable and healthier small ruminant products, and the
livelihoods and capacities of people involved in the whole
chain are improved.”
Objective and vision of SmaRT
1. Consultative site selection process (June-Oct 2012)
2. Complimentary reviews and assessments (July 2012-Dec 2014)
3. Rapid Value Chain Analysis (VCA) and Rapid Integrated Food Safety
assessments at seven sites (Nov 2012-May 2013)
4. Multi-stakeholder meetings for prioritization and planning of site-
specific interventions and research (March/April 2013)
5. Development of research and development partnerships for
implementing prioritized interventions
6. Testing/Implementation/Evaluation of prioritized best-bet
interventions (July 2013-Dec 2016) and complimentary Cap Dev
7. Theory of Change and impact pathways for Ethiopian VC and MEL
8. Testing of integrated packages of proven best-bet
9. Development of business models
SR meat VCT in Ethiopia: framework
Need based capacity building of extension agents and producers on SR
management (input supply and production)
Small Ruminant Health (input supply and production):
Diagnostic and epidemiological studies for key diseases, assessment of economics,
capacity building of producers
Delivery services: delivery of quality vaccines, and drugs, organizing delivery of
Feeding and Breeding (input supply and production)
Site specific interventions based on available feed resources (adapted forages or
shrubs, efficient utilization of crop residues, improved fattening)
Organization/Institutional Interventions related to marketing:
Providing market actors, in particular producers, with up-to-date market price
Strengthening/Establishing producer marketing cooperatives
Create market linkages between producers and other actors including awareness of
Capacity building on transport, slaughtering, safe preparation and handling of ASF
Prioritized interventions areas
• Training of male and female farmers and development agents on small
ruminant respiratory disease transmission, control measures and
• Establish effective vaccination and preventive treatment practice for
major respiratory diseases and improve the vaccine handling,
administration, and adjust timing/schedule.
• Village level animal health data recording of morbidity and mortality
data due to the disease allows quantification of the impact of the
strategic prevention and control.
• Systematic follow-up of cases through post mortem analysis and
appropriate sample collection for laboratory analysis aiming at future
• Effectiveness of control programmes for respiratory disease based on
scientific judgement of the household/village animal health data
Integrated herd health approach to reduce
impact of respiratory diseases
• Program of training of trainers on causes, clinical signs, treatment,
control and adequate prevention methods, including animal
management practice targeting extension agents, drug store owners
and community animal health workers
• To introduce the concept of community-based anthelmintic
• To demonstrate to farmers how to identify the presence of parasite
infection which allows them to monitor their herds
• Time table for strategic anthelmintic treatments twice a year, at the
beginning of the rainy seasons for nematodes and trematodes.
• To monitor impact in selected households, data on animal
performance such as body condition, FAMACHA score, body weight,
and fecal egg are collected.
For all relevant diseases
• Disseminate information and establish a locally adopted
comprehensive ‘Seasonal Herd Health Calendar’
Community-based control of gastro-intestinal
1. Characterization of existing feed resources and feeding systems in
2. Introduction of improved sheep fattening methods to smallholders farmers.
3. Adoption survey
Feed and feeding systems
Assessments across four regions of Ethiopia using two tools:
1. FEAST – to assess of feed resources
2. Techfit – identification and characterization of feed technologies
o Conducted in 2 phases (2015 and 2016)
o A total of 600 farmers participated in each phase, with a
total of 1200 rams
o 4 breed types, Menz, Doyogena, Bonga and Horro
o Improved techniques included 3-month fattening, use of
feeding troughs, water troughs, balanced rations
o Identify the influence of attitude, subjective norm, and
perceived behavioral control on the intention of farmers
to use improved sheep fattening methods
450 farmers across the regions interviewed.
Development of a ration
balancing tools for sheep
For researchers &
Economic viability of supplemented rams vs. control rams
Improved sheep fattening techniques
Fattening profit (ETB)
Bonga Boka 1130(253)b 2839(309)a
Bonga Buta 1339(154)b 2764(309)a
Bonga Shuta 864(438)b 2547(253)a
Doyogena Ancha 1818(154)b 1530(121)a
Horro Leku 286(150)b 1382(113)a
Menz Mehalmeda 1084(219)a 1109(126)a
Menz Molale 1409(117)a 1173(78)a
Ration balancing tools for sheep
Live weight Changes in Ethiopian Arsi-Bale Sheep fed exclusively on faba
Selection for feed traits in food crops
Additional screening of haulms from genotypes should be undertaken in live
animals studies before final selection of dual, food-feed varieties.
Pregnancy Diagnosis Service Provision: Ultrasound-based
tool to manage sheep and goats reproduction
- Early detection of non pregnant
- Culling of sterile animals
- Screening for the number of
- Calculation of the age of fetuses
- Timely planning of conditions of
birth and rational use of feed
unit in the
Smart marketing – framework of the study
What we tested:
Information and collective action increase market participation and market returns of
men and women farmers.
trait preferences, revealed and expected prices, quantity demanded, quantity supplied,
availability of and access to market services, and key social [e.g., extraordinary social
occasions] and environmental [e.g., profound shifts in the weather] phenomena.
buying and selling
Lower costs of
buying and selling
trust and linkage
Transformation of the
SR production system
Increased returns to
Improved income for
male and female
• Farmers are acting together in the markets and hence
improving their bargaining power.
• Farmers are sharing the information they are receiving with
other farmers with high level of confidence and
• They are developing a sense of empowerment due to the
information received and the trainings they have attended.
• Farmers have reported that their marketing behavior has
changed such that they are postponing their buying and
• Farmers reported to be more comfortable in going to the
market. They are not worried about the hustle they used to
experience in the markets due to brokers and traders
Benefits from Smart Marketing observed so far
• The demand for market information is very high. The supply of it is
however very limited or nonexistent.
• Carefully designed market information system will empower farmers
who are often price takers.
• Yet, access to efficient telecommunication services cannot easily be
taken for granted.
• Collective action – when voluntary and focused – helps farmers
reduce transaction cost and increase bargaining power.
• Farmers have shown a lot of interest in acting collectively and yet
managing the group dynamics was not easy.
• Provision of market information and collective action certainly
improve farmers’ market participation and performance.
• Generation/management of the market data and
establishing/maintaining a dynamic group action in rural areas
require quite a lot of resources and institutional commitments.
The key argument
Lack of market infrastructure significantly undermines the
market margins farmers generate and elevates the prices
they pay for agricultural products when involved as buyers.
Livestock market facilities (sheds for now)
• Very few or no farmers used to bring their sheep and
goats to these markets in the rainy season simply
because of limited access [due to seasonal rivers] and no
sheds in the markets to protect themselves and their
animals from the rain.
• After the construction of the sheds, it was observed that
farmers – in areas where rivers were not cutting the
roads to markets -were able to bring in some animals to
the markets in the rainy season.
• Traders are also staying longer in the markets possibly
due to the sheds as the animals are no more exposed to
heat and rain while in the markets.
Benefits of market facilities observed so far
• Market sheds/facilities increase market participation and
satisfaction (in terms of price per head of animal) of farmers.
• Market sheds/facilities are built on plots of land owned by the
government and this leads to limited or no sense of
• Farmers could be subjected to taxing due to the sheds.
• The establishment costs are very high [financial + non-
• Scaling market facilities is possible and needs to be done but
requires a long-term strategy at macro level on how to
develop livestock/small ruminant markets – taking the social
and economic functions of markets [including the market
plots] in rural Ethiopia into consideration.
Using a thermometer in processing
• Prevents contamination by replacing temperature
control with fingers
• Better control of processing steps
•Simple process in which milk is heated to 73°C for 15
seconds where pathogenic bacteria are killed
•Using dairy culture is a simple way to produce
a stable product with desired characteristics:
o provides the required viscosity and proper texture
o develops the desired flavor
o helps to prevent pathogenic bacteria
Low cost dairy processing technologies
Milk fat separators to improve butter production
• Milk fat separation increases the
efficiency of butter processing
• Milk fat separators offer a solution to
handle bigger quantities of milk.
• Use of milk fat separator
o reduces labor needed for butter churning
o increases butter yield
o improves butter quality
o allows processing high value products
from skimmed milk to increase returns.
Low cost dairy processing technologies
• Interventions were tested in Abergelle
and Yabello targeting goat, cattle and
• Interventions are very simple to understand and to apply
• Interventions were well received and appreciated by communities
• Smoking of milk utensils is a traditional
practice to develop the product’s desired
• Smoking also assures quality and safety of milk
and dairy products.
• Traditional smoking often leaves residues, may
contaminate food, and can release toxins.
• The easy-to-use beekeeper smoker produces
high quality and safe products and satisfies
• Clean smoke free of contaminants, ash and
• Production of dense smoke even under windy
• Health safe smoking of plastic milk containers
Low cost dairy processing technologies
CGIAR Research Program on Livestock
The CGIAR Research Program on Livestock aims to increase the productivity of productivity of livestock agri-food
systems in sustainable ways, making meat, milk and eggs more available and affordable across the developing world.
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