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Overview of Small AnimalBrucellosis Control StrategiesDr. Steven OlsenDr. Steven OlsenNational Animal Disease CenterNation...
Control of Human BrucellosisControl of Human BrucellosisAddressing in domestic livestock mostAddressing in domestic livest...
Basic PrinciplesBasic PrinciplesIncrease Herd ImmunityIncrease Herd ImmunityIdentify/Characterize InfectionIdentify/Charac...
BrucellaBrucella spp.:Hostspp.:HostRelationshipsRelationshipsBrucella melitensisBrucella melitensis: sheep (breed: sheep (...
Small Ruminant BrucellosisSmall Ruminant BrucellosisVaccinesVaccinesB. melitensisB. melitensis:: Strain Rev1 (0.5-2 x10Str...
Protective Immunity againstProtective Immunity againstBrucella: Primarily Cell-mediatedBrucella: Primarily Cell-mediatedHu...
Thoughts on BrucellosisThoughts on BrucellosisVaccinesVaccinesVaccination alone will not eradicate brucellosisVaccination ...
Factors Affecting Effectiveness of aFactors Affecting Effectiveness of aVaccination ProgramVaccination ProgramEfficacy of ...
Lipopolysaccharide structureLipopolysaccharide structureof virulent and vaccine strainsof virulent and vaccine strainsLipi...
Tools that May Be UsefulTools that May Be UsefulBreak country down into smaller areasBreak country down into smaller areas...
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Overview of small animal brucellosis control strategies

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Presented by Steven Olsen at a workshop on an integrated approach to controlling brucellosis in Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 29-31 January 2013.

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Overview of small animal brucellosis control strategies

  1. 1. Overview of Small AnimalBrucellosis Control StrategiesDr. Steven OlsenDr. Steven OlsenNational Animal Disease CenterNational Animal Disease CenterAmes, IA 50010Ames, IA 50010Workshop: An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosisin Africa, Addis Ababa, 29-31 January 2013
  2. 2. Control of Human BrucellosisControl of Human BrucellosisAddressing in domestic livestock mostAddressing in domestic livestock mosteconomical approacheconomical approach- in 1 study benefit:cost ratio of 3.2 for- in 1 study benefit:cost ratio of 3.2 forvaccination (Roth et al 2004)vaccination (Roth et al 2004)Pasturization of milk productsPasturization of milk products
  3. 3. Basic PrinciplesBasic PrinciplesIncrease Herd ImmunityIncrease Herd ImmunityIdentify/Characterize InfectionIdentify/Characterize InfectionReduce Infection/Prevent Spread orReduce Infection/Prevent Spread orTransmissionTransmissionReduce RiskReduce RiskImprove Available Tools/TechniquesImprove Available Tools/Techniques
  4. 4. BrucellaBrucella spp.:Hostspp.:HostRelationshipsRelationshipsBrucella melitensisBrucella melitensis: sheep (breed: sheep (breeddifferences)differences) goats (moregoats (moresusceptible)susceptible)Brucella abortusBrucella abortus goatsgoats
  5. 5. Small Ruminant BrucellosisSmall Ruminant BrucellosisVaccinesVaccinesB. melitensisB. melitensis:: Strain Rev1 (0.5-2 x10Strain Rev1 (0.5-2 x1099CFU SQ or conjunctival)CFU SQ or conjunctival)B. suisB. suis strain 2 (China)strain 2 (China)B. abortusB. abortus nonenone
  6. 6. Protective Immunity againstProtective Immunity againstBrucella: Primarily Cell-mediatedBrucella: Primarily Cell-mediatedHumoral Immunity Cell-mediated Immunity **antibodiescytotoxicitymacrophage activationintracellular pathogensneoplasiahypersensitivityvirusesbacteriaparasitesAcquired Immunity
  7. 7. Thoughts on BrucellosisThoughts on BrucellosisVaccinesVaccinesVaccination alone will not eradicate brucellosisVaccination alone will not eradicate brucellosisVaccines are very good at reducing transmissionVaccines are very good at reducing transmissionand clinical disease; very poor at preventingand clinical disease; very poor at preventingseroconversion after exposureseroconversion after exposureLong-term protection related to cell-mediatedLong-term protection related to cell-mediatedimmunityimmunityAntibodies relatively unimportant for efficacyAntibodies relatively unimportant for efficacyMany vaccine strains can be pathogenic in humansMany vaccine strains can be pathogenic in humansor pregnant animalsor pregnant animals
  8. 8. Factors Affecting Effectiveness of aFactors Affecting Effectiveness of aVaccination ProgramVaccination ProgramEfficacy of Vaccine in Targeted SpeciesEfficacy of Vaccine in Targeted SpeciesDelivery MethodDelivery MethodPercentage of population vaccinatedPercentage of population vaccinatedDuration of ImmunityDuration of ImmunityCostCost
  9. 9. Lipopolysaccharide structureLipopolysaccharide structureof virulent and vaccine strainsof virulent and vaccine strainsLipid ABrucella abortus strain 19Brucella abortus field strainsBrucella abortus strain RB51Sugars O-side chainKDOLipid A KDO Sugars O-side chainLipid A SugarsKDOThe O-side chain is the immunodominant antigenof Brucella for antibody responses
  10. 10. Tools that May Be UsefulTools that May Be UsefulBreak country down into smaller areasBreak country down into smaller areasReward Herds/Areas for controllingReward Herds/Areas for controllingdiseasediseaseConcentrate Resources in Areas ofConcentrate Resources in Areas ofGreatest Infection or HumanGreatest Infection or HumanTransmissionTransmissionRisk ManagementRisk ManagementPublic EducationPublic Education

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