Biological control of aflatoxins


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Presented by Peter J. Cotty and Ranajit Bandyopadhyay at the Science Forum 2013, Bonn, Germany, 23?25 September 2013

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Biological control of aflatoxins

  1. 1. Biological control of Aflatoxins Peter J. Cotty, Agricultural Research Service, USDA University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Ibadan, Nigeria Breakout Session 4 on Food Security Science Forum 2013 Nutrition and health outcomes: targets for agricultural research, Bonn, Germany, 23‒25 September 2013
  2. 2. Opportunity Aflatoxins are highly toxic cancer causing fungal metabolites that contaminate crops and impact human health, development, and income throughout the warm production regions. With a single biological control technology aflatoxins can be reduced and eventually eliminated on treated crops, rotation crops, and throughout the environment. $50 million over the next decade will be used to adapt and disseminate this technology across sub-Saharan Africa. Aflatoxin prevention will have health and economic impacts throughout the warm regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America.
  3. 3. One Technology Many Benefits This technology will reduce aflatoxins in all susceptible crops (Groundnut, Maize, Chilies, etc.) both prior to and after harvest. Protection remains with the crop until it is actually consumed. The technology is adaptable to any target location. Does not assert selective pressure on aflatoxin producers. The technology works every time and is Less Expensive than sampling a small holders field and analyzing it for aflatoxins. Removes the need to increase and maintain host resistance to aflatoxins during the process of selecting high yielding cultivars. Resistance to aflatoxin contamination has been sought for over 3 decades in both groundnut and maize without development of commercially acceptable cultivars.
  4. 4. During Crop Development Irrigation, Weed Control, Fertilize Best cultivars, Insect Control During transport Rapid, Dry, No Damage During Processing Sort, Cull, Discard, Add binders. During Storage Dry, prevent moisture, cool Prevent damage: insects, rodents Prevent Formation of Dangerous Aflatoxin Levels Protect Crops Until Use
  5. 5. A single application at 10 kg/hectare is enough to consistently reduce aflatoxins in maize, groundnut, and other crops. Nigeria Biological Control: One Action by the Farmer Reduces Aflatoxins under all Conditions
  6. 6. As Applied After Fungal Growth Either Sorghum, Wheat, or Barley are used. The grain is killed by cooking before use. Sorghum is used in Africa.
  7. 7. AflatoxinB1(ng/gX10,000) Isolates (%) in Applied Atoxigenic Strain 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 20 40 60 80 100 Dots Represent Values for Replicate Plots Aflatoxin in Crop versus Atoxigenic Incidence Cotty, 1994. Phytopathology:1270-1277.
  8. 8. MAIZE: Aflatoxin reduction (%) Stage 2009 2010 2011 2012 Harvest 82 94 83 93 Storage 92 93 x x PEANUT: Aflatoxin reduction (%) Stage 2009 2010 2011 Harvest - 95 82 Storage 100 80 x Results from 482 on-farm trials 71% and 52% carry-over of inoculum 1 & 2 years after application
  9. 9. Crops are Protected in the Field and During Storage Aflatoxin reduction after 4 months poor storage (Field Treated Crops – Nigeria) 0 200 400 600 800 Birnin Gwari Lere Maigana Pampaida Aflatoxin(ppb) Control Treated 96 14 271 49 646 17 171 9 85% 82% 99% 95% % reduction in aflatoxin content in treated fields over control
  10. 10. Farmers threshing groundnut Farmers treating groundnut fields with AflaSafe Aflatoxin Reduction: 2010 : 87% at harvest; 89% after Storage 2011: 82% at harvest; 93% after Storage 2012: 86% at harvest; 83% after Storage Senegal 38 Farms Treated in 2010 40 Farms Treated in 2011 196 Farms Treated in 2012
  11. 11. Hola Irrigation Scheme, Coast Province, Kenya: 2012 Tests First Season Farmer Field Tests Treatment = 10 kg/ha Aflasafe KN01 Percent of Fields TotalAflatoxins Deadly (3,700 ppb & 2,270 ppb) Safe Food
  12. 12. Partners • Ministries of Health, Trade, & Agriculture • African Union and it’s Regional Economic Commissions • Technical Organizations (IR-4, • Regulatory Organizations • Farmers & Farmer Organizations • Universities & Cooperative Extension • Processors, Food & Feed Producers • Producers of Poultry, Fish, Pork, etc. • Middlemen, Marketers, Exporters • Implementers, Public & Private • Manufacturers
  13. 13. Plan Engage, Adapt, Disseminate, Develop, Optimize, repeat….. Pesticide Registrations, Agronomic Practices, Fungal Germplasm, Business Models, Manufacturing…..
  14. 14. 1st Generation Large-Scale Manufacture Arizona Cotton Research & Protection Council Phoenix, Arizona 2nd Generation Large-Scale Manufacture International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Ibadan, Nigeria 3rd Generation Large-Scale Manufacture 4th Generation Large-Scale Manufacture 5th Generation Large-Scale Manufacture
  15. 15. Return on Investment • More Health – Improved Immune Systems – Reduced Stunting – Slower spread of HIV – Better Utilization of Nutrients – Less Cancer – Healthier Lives The very reasons aflatoxins are regulated stringently in the developed world. • More Money – Export Value of Crops and Crop Products will be Increased.
  16. 16. Punch Line • The biological control works. It can be the principal tool for eliminating aflatoxins from the food supply and the environment. • Elimination of aflatoxins will have broad benefit.