The potato seed system in Uganda - An end-user perspective
The Potato Seed System in Uganda- an end-user PerspectiveJ First Bio-Innovate Regional Scientific Conference United Nations Conference Centre (UNCC-ECA) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-27 February 2013
Introduction and rationale• Potato (solanum tuberosum) is important for food security and livelihoods• However the sub-sector is hampered by low productivity brought about mainly by poor planting material.• Multiplication, distribution, maintaining standards, monitoring quality are essential in maintaining high quality planting material as seed for next generation’s crop in the face of other stresses.
Introduction and Rationale• Despite the importance of quality seed systems for potato productivity, it is ill defined in Uganda.• This situation makes scientific interventions difficult to implement• Study was conducted to understand existing systems of seed potato from the end-user perspective• Establish preferred quality characteristics, costs of acquiring planting material and WTP for quality attributes.
Data and methods• Data collected from a stratified sample of 181 potato farmers in Eastern and Central Uganda• Results reported here are for Kapchorwa district• Leading producer of potatoes in Eastern Uganda.• Analysis using STATA 12 – Descriptive analysis (Percentages and means) – Robust regression (Parameter estimates for WTP)
ResultsDescriptives Variable Mean Std DevAvailability of labor for HHs Male 91%Relative experience in potato Literacy level 84%production is 0.33 Age 42.8 11.3 HH size 7.6 4.4No change in: Education 9.3 4.2No of potato plots Exp in potato production 14.1 9.6Intensity of potato production No. of plots (20011) 1.1 0.8However, actual acreage under No. of plots (5 years ago) 1.4 0.9potato shrunk over the 5-yr Intensity of prodn. (2011) 97.4 11.6period. Intensity of prodn. (5yrs ago) 98.4 8.1NAADS groups, the Kapchorwa Potato acreage (2011) 1.25 1.24Farmers’ Association. Potato Acreage (5yrs ago) 2.1 0.8 Membership to FOs 80.3%
Results cont… Variety % Agriculture and Wanale are Wanale 12.3 most grown potato varieties Agriculture 42.0 AT Uganda 6.2 Over 75% of the potato Victoria 9.9 farmers reported that most Cruza 6.2 varieties were just introduced in the area Time lag from when variety was first implying that they were heard of till the time it was planted adopted from elsewhere.Relative adoption rate= 100120 90 80100 70 80 60 50 60 40 30 40 20 20 10 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2007 2011 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Variety: “Wanale” Variety: “Agriculture”
Source, type and price of planting material Local seed Other Variable Variety Mean USD producers 6% 6% Small size Wanale 42,200 15.92 Agriculture 41,100 15.51 SelfLocal traders 39% Medium size Wanale 41,250 15.57 14% Agriculture 41,600 15.70 Farmer-to- Average cost Wanale 41,725 15.75 farmer Agriculture 41,350 35% 15.60 Major source is own saved seed or neighbor Informal seed source hence quality and name of variety not usually known.
Preferred AttributesVariable Wanale Agriculture (%) (%)Tuber yield 30.3 26.5Storability 9.1 6.9 Tuber yield as the mostDrought tolerance 3.0 2.0 important characteristicTolerance to too much rains 0.0 2.0 attribute when choosingNutritional value 3.0 0.0 variety.Tolerance to blight 6.1 10.8Tolerance to moth 0.0 2.0Early maturity 21.2 16.7 Other Wanale attributesHigh dry matter content 0.0 1.0 included marketability and early maturity.Flesh color 0.0 1.0Viability 0.0 1.0Marketability 24.2 11.8Taste of tuber 3.0 17.6 Early maturity and taste of the tuber of “Agriculture”.
WTP – Measure of potential demand Variety Response Premium USD Wanale 44,583 2,858 1.08 It is not enough to Agriculture 44,359 3,009 1.14 deliver innovations to the end-user. WTP= β0+ It is important to assess whether theVariable innovations are being Coef. Standard error Sign.Constant taken up, what 854.53 247.62 *** challenges they face,Age -617.44 288.93 ** and what factorsEducation influence uptake. 676.8 620.33Time to renew seed -1785.09 279.47Do you sell seed produced? 2237.33 729.75 *** Dr. SeyoumPotato acreage -539.07 252.51 *Off-farm employment -2403.18 1045.48 **
Stages that planting material passes through (for a variety not previously grown)Hear/learn Identify Visits and Evaluate If satisfied, prospectingabout variety inspects performance for buyer negotiates onvariety source garden yield, maturity, price, size, makes partial plant health of payment existing plants At harvest time buyer returns to field, completes payment and collects seed Stages that planting material passes through (for a variety previously grown) Farmer Identifies Farmer agrees on volumes harvests farmer who to exchange and exchange own seed wishes to grow takes place same variety
LegislationLarge proportion of potato Variable Response %innovation end-users believe On Yes 82.5that there is legislation multiplicationHowever aspects in seed On distribution Yes 82.5legislation are missing. Aspects Lack of awareness of 34.6 lacking rules and regulationsMinimal implementation andmonitoring of existing seed regarding seed systemslegislation Development and 32.6 provision of high qualityYet the benefits from legislationcould be immense. planting materials Implementation and 14.2Effective implementation and monitoringmonitoring of seed legislationwould control the spread of Benefits Pest and disease control 33.3pests and diseases, it would Access to high quality 37.3increase access to high quality planting materialplanting material and therebyincrease productivity. Increase production 9.8
Monitoring, standards and quality control Largely monitored by theWho monitors quality None 39.0 farmers themselves orof planting material agricultural/extension Agric. officers/extension 42.9 officers workers NAADS coordinator 16.9 andStandards regarding Disease-free Seed 39.7 Believe their experiencedprodn. & distribution counterparts are better Maturity of tubers 22.7 placed to do monitoring. Variety identity 30.4 Variety purity 22.4 Few farmers knew of any Number of sprouts/eyes 32.4 standards on distribution Diameter of planting 22.1 material Yet, about ¾ of all farmersSell seed produced Yes 76.5 were in the business of producing, multiplying and selling planting material.Concern to policy makers and technology developers Technology ??????Researcher Farmer Farmer
While there are benefits to Time taken to Annually 38.0renewing seed every so often renew seedthe majority of farmers After 2years 30.0interviewed mentioned they After 3years 18.0renewed seed once a year, Every 3mnths 8.0after two years or even after Every 6mnths 6.0three years. Type of seed Certified 23.5 Not certified 76.5Reasons: Larger proportion of planting materialHigh cost of renewal exchanging hands was informal and of& unknown quality standardinaccessible improved seed If the situation is persists then we should expectsource. both the quality and quantity of harvest to decline over the years unless the people concerned with legislation, quality control and enforcement step up to the front
Conclusions• Smallholder production• Largely informal• A lot of recycling uncertified planting material• Lack of variety identify• Poor monitoring for quality>>> Low productivityOver 72% of farmers produce, exchange and sell potato seed.Those who sold were also willing to pay a premium for quality seed.Tuber yield and marketability are key attributes.
• There still exists opportunity to improve potato productivity given: – Appropriate varieties to address end-user needs of tuber yield and marketability (generated, disseminated) – Access to quality planting material (and quality controlled) – Private sector involvement in reducing informal exchange thus providing quality planting material
Acknowledgement• Bioinnovate program• ILRI• UNECA• Govt. of Sweden• Govt of Uganda• Farmers