Understanding the available diversity and number a lot has been done in the last 15en years
Not only the number but very big diversity (between and within diversity)
Research programs on highland goats at Holetta and the Adal goat at Werer were discontinued after a short period.
Research programs on highland goats at Holetta and the Adal goat at Werer were discontinued after a short period. Using a set of morphological characters and multivariate statistical analysis
Using a set of morphological characters and multivariate statistical analysis
- Contains a characteristic genotype (s) of animals on the farm. In a goat farm the genotype can be described as slow grower, low twining rate, low feed intake etc or the opposite for another genotype -Elements of the environment when human has less influence including weather, soil type, altitude, native forage. In some systems this component has big influence but some less influence -this component (fixed resource) includes land, labor etc but the management side includes the policies and practices of the farm including feeding system followed, health care, housing etc -Socio-economics component includes prices of inputs and outputs, tax, socio cultural roles of the animal etc -Interaction – how the genotype in the farm interacts with other systems and sub-systems. competition for land, input for other systems (fertilizer, traction etc
Heritablelity –capable of being transmuted to offspring's (the proportion of the supririty of the selected parents which appears in the offspring Selection deferential: The average superiority of selected parents compared to their contemporaries Generation interval: average age of parents where the offspring's are to replace them are born
Biodiversity, resource base, animal breed level characterization, and utility of the information for goat genetic resources in Ethiopia
Biodiversity, resource base, animal breed level characterization, and utility of theinformation for goat genetic resources in Ethiopia Tadelle Dessie (ILRI) ILRI - ICARDA Training Course on Methods and approaches ofPhenotypic characterization of Animal Genetic Resources (Goats) Addis Ababa, 20-21 December 2012
Outline of the presentation• General context• What is Biodiversity?• What is the resource base we have in this country?• What/why/how characterization?• What are the practical uses of production environment and breed level characterization information?
1. General context• World population to reach almost 9 billion over the next quarter of a century – Getting richer and urbanised • Increased demands for livestock products• NOT WITHOUT challenges !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1. General context –the main challenges Livestock Domains Global Challenges Feeding the world Climate change Globalization
1. General context: Importance of LivestockGlobally:Livestock contribution to human diets• 13 % of all dietary energy; 25 % of all dietary protein• 1.5 % of world GDP ( Ethiopia >15??? Kenya > 10% )• livelihood component to 1 billion people• The livestock sector is resource-hungry:• ~ 70% of total agricultural land• ~ 60 % of total anthropogenic biomass appropriation• ~ 29 % of agricultural water use• >15 % of greenhouse gas emissions (being re-calculated, and re-calculated) Steinfeld, 2012
1. General context- Role and importance of Farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR)• Nearly everyone consumes some animal-source food in their diet• Over one billion of the World’s poor depend on livestock, of whom 95% are extremely poor• Livestock development is an opportunity to reduce poverty and enhance food security• Some 150 million livestock keepers are landless (Thornton et al. 2002)• Livestock products: are reliable sources of high-quality, readily- absorbed protein and micronutrients• Livestock perform multiple functions
1. General context- Animal Farming & Implications on Resources• By 2050, 33 % more people to feed – 70 % more meat and milk required• 12 % of global land is crop land (1/3 thereof is for feed)• 26 % of global land is pasture,• Expansion of biofuels will continue• Expanded yields must come from productivity increase (i.e. better match of FAnGR with production environments–no room for expansion)• Environmental concerns over the livestock bads are increasing (more productive livestock emit less GHG/unit of product)
Challenges and opportunities of animal breeding for poverty/livelihood impact
Challenges and opportunities of animal breeding for poverty/livelihood impact Opportunity Population growth Income growth Urbanisation Increasing demand for livestock products Expanding post-production value addition Increased regional trade opportunities Livestock revolution Creative use of existing & emerging technology e.g. AI, sexed semen, CBBI, mobile telephony
Challenges and opportunities of animalbreeding for poverty/livelihood impact Challenges Rapid change in production system, Markets, Policy and institutions Climate change –requires adaptive genotypes Demand for higher food quality standards New institutions and institutional arrangements are required (& emerging!) NGOs, CBOs, private service providers e.g. AI providers), PPPs, etc
Livestock biodiversity: what’s itabout?Biodiversity refers to the number, variety and variability of livestockConstituent hierarchical elements: - Genes (individual animals) - Breeds ????/or populations - Species, and - Ecosystems, (production environment, farming system etc).
What is Livestock breed? A population may be regarded as a ‘breed’ if they fulfill the following criteria:(i) They are subjected to a common utilization pattern,(ii) common habitat/distribution area,(iii) they represent largely a closed gene pool, and(iv) they are regarded as ‘distinct’ by their breeders. Kohler-Rollefson (1997) Breed = unit of conservation
What is livestock diversity?Breed or population of livestock is a set ofindividuals reproductively isolated withunique adaptive attributes under thegenetic control of many interacting genesand the results of complex interactionbetween the genotypes and theenvironment 。
What is characterization?• The distillation of all the information/knowledge on & about a livestock breed/population:• Phenotypic characterization –Description of external characteristics, associated pests/pathogens etc. –Production characteristics within a defined/described production environment (management practices) –Its geographic distributions –Uses –economic and socio-cultural values
What is characterization?• Genetic characterization: –Pattern of trait inheritance –Genetic parameters –How it performs when crossed with other breeds –Genetic integrity/diversity and /or uniqueness (which genes & how they function?)
Why characterize?• In order to better understand & comprehensively describe the animal and production environment: – Provides options for informed utilization & management of AnGR (what & how?) • Develop informed improvement/conservation programs • Determine population trends & levels of threats etc. • Advocate for, make & supportive/relevant policies • Support/inform negotiations for transfers/exchange etc.
Livestock diversity - How much do we know about the resource? Characterize, • Usingquantify and map •Phenotypic and phenotypic moleculardiversity, neutral techniques and functional (microsatellites, diversity of mtDNA, SNPs etc)FAnGR to inform livestock •PhD and MScconservation and theses utilization
Animal genetic resources diversity -Ethiopia• The country is endowed with huge farm animal genetic diversity• Reasons for this diversity: – Ethiopia’s location near the historical entry point of many livestock populations from Asia – its diverse topographic and climatic conditions, – the huge livestock population size and – Diverse production systems (production environment) Species # of breeds Cattle 27 Sheep 9 Goats 12 Chicken 10
Livestock diversity in Ethiopia!• What are the factors which have shaped the diversity of livestock in Ethiopia? – Historic – Evolutionary (adaptation)
Threats to animal genetic diversity – The diversity has suffered considerably due to: • Climate change • Wars and tribal conflicts, • Recurring droughts/famines, • Interbreeding between traditionally isolated populations, • Uncontrolled crossbreeding programs – Systematic documentation of livestock biodiversity has been negligible –Info. system – No planned interventions to curb the threat of loss of genetic diversity
The genus Capra is divided in to eight species Ethiopian- two goat species - C. hircus (domestic goat) - C. ibex walie (Walia ibex – wild goat)
Domestic goat (C. hircus) The resource and genetic diversity - Total population 23 Million - The majority in arid and semi arid lowlands - Larger flocks
Past and present goat research & development EIAR – Small ruminant research in 1970 - - Holeta (highland goat) and Werer (Afar goat) - Management studies associated with breed evaluation and improvement programs - A full-fledged goat research program representing the semi-arid mixed farming systems has been carried on at the Adami Tulu research center since 1992. - However, during the past four decades goat research has always been a secondary component of the small ruminant research program
Past and present goat research & developmentDairy goat research and development project - Anglo-Nubian - FARM-Africa, ILRI, MOA, AU, AC - Improve milk production levels of local goats - Characterisation of indigenous goat populations - Sets of morphological characteristics - The domestic goats of Ethiopia and Eritrea have been classified into four major families/breed groups and 14 breeds
Domestic goat (C. hircus) • The Somali family (Short-eared Somali, Long-eared Somali, and Hararghe Highland), • The Nubian family (Nubian and Barka), • The small Rift valley family (Abergalle, Worre, Afar, Arsi-Bale, and Woyto-Guji) and • Small East African family (Western Highland, Keffa, Central Highland and West Lowland). • The names given to the goat types of Ethiopia reflect mainly their geographical locations and to some extent also their ethnic affiliation.
What do we mean by (livestock) system?What is system? – A group of interdependent category component partsWhat are the components of livestock system? – Animals (genotypes) – Physical environment – Fixed resources and management – Socio-economics – Relation with other systems or sub-systemsInteraction! – Between the different component parts
How much do we know about the system? Sources of information!• Collect background information about the breed in question and its production environment • Past and on going characterization/improvement works, censes etc • Map the stakeholders in the area (national, regional, district and village level) • Policy documents, marketing, institutions• Literature Review (Available knowledge and gaps) • PhD and MSc Theses, project reports, journal articles, papers in the proceedings, books etc (local and international)
How much do we know about the system and the animal to date? Sources of information! • Global public-domain databases DAD-IS of FAO: – [http://www.fao.org/dad-is] • EAAP Animal Genetic Databank: •[http://www.tiho-hannover.de/einricht/zucht/eaap/index.htm] • Oklahoma State University breeds database: – [http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/ breeds] • DAGRIS of ILRI: – [http://dagris.ilri.cgiar.org/]
The Approaches & Principles Planning & designs Site selection SamplingBaseline survey Frames/unit Codes/coding What to sample, PRA Aliquots indicators Market survey Sampling frames/unit Codes/coding Household survey indicators Feedbacks Flock/herd performance monitoring
LAYERS OF SOME LINKED INFORMATION TO CAPTURE, STORE & PROCESSGeo & Bio-physical data, including pathogen/pest & DNA samples Sources of livelihoods, indicators & constraints Markets and market information Animal roles & herd/flock performance inc. lks Technical info. Sources & Knowledge management Related policies and institutional frameworks Information system (Database)
Approaches & Methodologies• Exploratory (rapid type) For more details see: http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/ba0055e/ba0055e00.pdf and• Confirmatory (detailed and repeated) http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i2413e/i2413e00.pdfBUT: – Can developing countries afford the 2 steps? – Surveys are process heavy & expensive! Can they be more smartly planned & innovatively done?
Sampling, analysis and interpretation matters!• Random/purposive across geographic distributions• Village – within and whole –HH as a basic unit• Understand the production environment and rapid change in production system, Markets, Policy and institutions (e.g. Export market!!!!) – What to sample/measure/observe on the production environment, Markets, Policy and institutions?• Understand the within and between breed variability – What to sample/measure/observe on and around the animal? – Monitoring performances of animals for few but important traits? – Choice experiment, Raking experiment etc• Uses, benefits, objectives of the producers
Sampling, analysis and interpretation matters!• Breeding and breeding management practices• Major constraints• Use of new technologies (Geo-referencing, Cell phone etc• Indigenous knowledge (uses and management etc)• The right tools of data analysis and interpretation• Molecular characterization! Which technique to use and for what? – E.g. Use of SSR markers Vs deep sequencing! • sequencing costs declining fast (genotyping no longer the problem), but we need to smartly collect the associated phenotypic information
Global linkage: Chicken diversity global analysis Ethiopia is one of the Genetic hot spots
Practical uses of breed level characterization information? What, when and how?Purpose:• Sustainable and improved utilization and/or• Conservation
Sustainable and improved utilization• Two ways of improving productivity/performance of an animal/breed – Improving the environment of the animal (Genetic improvement is not always the solution) – Improving the genetic or genotype of an animal
Animal improvement is NOT necessarily about breeding -Improving the environment of the animal (Genetic improvement is not always the solution)It should comprise: – Understanding system changes and implications – Providing knowledge to enable poor farmers to adapt to these changes – Providing access to relevant market information – Creating (policy) environments that enable the poor to participate along the livestock value chain – Facilitating/developing institutional arrangements (including private sector) that empower farmers to make and implement decisions– The above-Set the stage for genetic improvement (including introduction of alternative genetics)
Improving the genetic or genotype of an animal/breed All activities/actions and decisions that are intended to improve, produce, deliver and sustain genotypes that are appropriate for the objective of the target livestock keepers depends on the choice and implementation of appropriate breed improvement programThe input for such a choice and decision making comes from goodunderstanding of the production environment, the animal, markets,polices, institutions etc THE SYSTEM Good understanding of the production environment, the animal, markets, polices, institutions etc as an input can be obtained from well planed and implemented production system and breed level characterisation work
Improving the genetic or genotype of an animal/breedApproaches of utilizing the potentials of better adopted indigenousbreeds must be developed when ever possibleBut realistic ways of breed improvement must be chosen and applied inthe context of environmental constraints; socioeconomic demands; withinthe scopes of management resource available. Aspects of sustainabilityand provision of future genetic diversity are criticalThe basic principle of conservation: There is no better way ofconserving a breed for future generation than consistently keeping thebreed or population viable by using an efficient, demand-driven and longterm breeding program suitable to commercial or cultural needs of theproducer
Improving the genetic or genotype of an animal/breedAn important feature of a genetic improvement program is – its effectaccumulate over timeAn economic benefits of a genetic improvement program alsoaccumulates So breeding programs should there fore be seen as an investments for sustainable improvements of animal stock and its potential to produce food or other goods
Practical uses of characterization information in designing breed improvement programs• Knowledge of the resources (breed), use, special characteristics, objectives of producers etc – Identify and use merits of animals, marching genotypes to production environment etc• Understanding the production environment and the resource available – Animals with high genetic potential requires better management – Match genotypes with environment
Practical uses of characterization information in designing breed improvement programs• Understand systems (and different component parts) – Match interventions (non-genetic) to production system• Producer preferences, choice experiments, ranking experiments etc; – Define breeding objectives (realistic and attainable)
Practical uses of characterization information in designing breed improvement programs• Understanding the production and productivity level, within and between breed variation – If need be the genetic potential of animals can be improved implementing one of the different breeding programs – Help in the choice of a breeding method ----which is perhaps the most important decision in designing a breeding program• Understand the mating system and selection practice followed by producers – Help in designing/refining a mating system and selection as a breeding tools
Practical uses of characterization information in designing breed improvement programs• A thorough analyse/understanding of the function of the animal in the entire system• An understanding of the many interaction among the many components of the system • Are the key to determine a trait of importance and optimum genotype for those traits in the system
Practical uses of characterization information in designing breedimprovement programs -Example:– If animals in a population showed greater variability (Phenotypic and Genetic) in productivity under similar management • That variability passes to their offsprings – Then the choice of Genetic (breed) improvement method will be Selection (allows superior animals to become the parents of the next generation) » But the traits of choice is important and should be heritable, variable and measurable for success » And genetic progress through selection depends on the heritability value of the trait of choice, selection deferential and generation interval
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Ultimately: Facilitating farmers to successfully breed the genotypes they desire
Genetic improvement of livestock is complex, butcan deliver substantial and long-lasting benefitsAs seen in the developed world, huge gains can beunlocked through genetics however… To fully benefit from breed improvement requires a system approach (community/farmer) participation, health, nutrition etc but… This can also be a catalyst for improving the wider system –triggering input supply, better marketing etc and… Unlike many other types of intervention, benefits can span generations
Long term commitment!!!!!Great Grand Father Grand Father Father Son
Some concluding remarks• Guidelines are guidelines; adapt them accordingly• Focus on key information but document well• Make it participatory and focus on the desired outcomes not the immediate outputs!• Employ appropriate analytical procedures, else!• Smart use of IT & IK can save energy, money and guarantee good outputs and desired outcomes!• Thoroughly test indigenous FAnGRs before condemning them!!!!!!!!!!!!!!• Consider how to document/catalogue, monitor the information & bio-bank samples collected