Management of SPVD: A model for production, multiplication and delivery of clean planting material in Uganda
Management of SPVD:A model for production, multiplication and delivery of clean planting material in Uganda Settumba Mukasa and Samuel Kyamanywa School of Agricultural Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. First Bio-Innovate Regional Scientific Conference United Nations Conference Centre (UNCC-ECA) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-27 February 2013 Cassava Potato Sweetpotato Bioinnovate Consortium
Background• Diseases of viral origin cause great yield loses in sweetpotato, an important and widely grown tuber crop in Uganda.• Currently, sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD) is the most devastating disease of sweetpotato in Uganda, ECA and worldwide.• SPVD is caused by duo infection and synergistic interaction of two viruses namely the aphid-borne Sweet potato feathery mottle virus and the whitefly-borne Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus.• SPVD causes yield losses of over 58 % and extinction of susceptible varieties including orange fleshed varieties that have been developed to fight vitamin A deficiency in tropical Africa.• Use of planting material not tested for viruses is the main means by which SPVD is spread.• The situation is further complicated by lack of adequate quantities of quality planting material and an efficient distribution system in ECA.
Subsistence Vs commercial growing of sweetpotatoes
Previous Research Progress at MAK• Progress has been registered at MAK in Uganda under the BIOEARN/Bioinnovate Programs and in partnership with CIP/HarvestPlus, and ASARECA programs in the areas of:• i) diagnostic protocols for the major viruses of sweetpotato in Uganda• ii) identification of elite and SPVD tolerant varieties,• iii) developing tissue culture based systems for virus elimination,• iv) optimising protocols for rapid in vitro sweetpotato multiplication,• v) developing a model for production, multiplication and delivery of quality tested planting material, and• vi) identifying policy issues that would ensure sustainability of a model for production and delivery of quality planting material.
Rationale• Despite the successful dissemination of elite varieties (including OFSP) many of them succumbed to the devastating SPVD.• Lack of good supply of virus free planting material does not allow sustainable cultivation and dissemination of elite varieties.• Putting in place a sustainable system for production and delivery requires: appropriate varieties, a battery of bio-techniques, resources to create awareness among growers and potential investors, and relevant policy guidelines.• Given the initial high costs and un-predictable market forces, there was need for Piloting Public-Private-Partnership in sweetpotato vine multiplication
ObjectivesThe main objective of this research was promote adoption of usingvirus free sweetpotato planting material sustainably through pilotingan appropriate model involving private and private actors.This pilot phase is envisaged to develop into a large-scaledecentralized system for sweetpotato vine multiplication.
The Approach• In this MAK-BIOCROPS-HarvestPlus partnership, MAK carried out activities on the rapid multiplication of virus tested sweetpotato planting using TC. • Low cost approaches • Locally avaiable materials• MAK provided virus free TC derived sweetpotato plantlets/cuttings to BIOCROPS (U) Ltd, which showed interest in commercial multiplication of certified (basic) disease-free planting material of existing and new varieties.• CIP/HarvestPlus is poised to deliver the expanded volumes of clean vines to farmers through vine multipliers/farmer groups from whom the farmers buy.• Creation of awareness along the quality sweetpotato planting material value chain (3 to 4 value chain actors).
Elite varieties for pilot multiplicationOrange fleshed: White fleshed: Bioinnovate clones (20 cones under farmer participatory evaluation)Ejumula DimbukaKabode (SPK 004/6/6) NASPOT 01Kakamega (SPK004) New KawogoVita (SPK 004/6) Semanda
Tissue Culture Research at MAK TC LAB:Optimisation of protocols for invitro rapid multiplication of sweetpotato varieties (New and SPVD tolerantvarieties, and OFSP varieties)A) In vitro rapid multiplication of sweetpotato in one of the culture rooms in the MakererePlant Tissue Culture Laboratory. B) In vitro sweetpotato shoot multiplication, rootinduction and hardening in re-cycled baby food jars.
Weaning of sweetpotato in thetraditional weaning chambers as forbananas could only registered up to50% survival rate. However, usingrecycled mineral water bottle thoughmore cumbersome, registered over95% survival. Weaning and hardening could also be carried out in bottles to raise mini vines for micro- cuttings and establishment in the screenhouse.
Further hardening of tissue culture derived plantlets in plastic pots (A) orcups (B) after weaning in bottles.
Nursery multiplication of elite sweetpotato clones in ascreenhouse at MUARIK (Kabanyolo).
Laboratory space General lab (M2) 50 Transfer room (M2) 60 Laminar chambers (#) 5 Growth room (M2) 110 R & D Labs (M2) 46
About BIOCROPS (U) LTD• A Ugandan-based Agricultural company• Established in 2008• Provides high quality planting material, plant products andsolutions• Located at Kabaga, Wakiso District, 15 Km Bombo Road
Nursery facilitiesInsect proof screen house Nuclear material 75 sqM floor
Annual production capacity 200,000 sweetpotato vines (500 vine bags; UGX 10,000,000) 200,000 banana plan
Creating Awareness:working through withvine multiplierswww.tclab.mak.ac.ug
Creating Awareness: working through with vine multipliers
Sweetpotato QPM Value Chain Actors 1: 10 : 100 Farmers: Xn X 2-4 X 1-2 Zone 1 TC Screen- Open Zone 2 Lab house field(s) Zone 3 Zone 4 ∞ 3 months 3 monthsCapacity: 40,000 TC plants (4,000 Acres)Virus test 100% 99% 95% 90%Season 02 September December MarchSeason 01 March June September
Key results and implications• Protocol for rapid in vitro multiplication of sweetpotato• A 3-tier production, multiplication and delivery model was piloted in Uganda.• Levels of awareness created among some commercial vine multipliers.• A public-private patnership (MAK-BIOCROPS-HarvestPlus) created, and this could used to further advance promotion of QPM.• Growers would access field multiplied materials from vine multipliers in their respective growing zones.• We have attracted other partners: ASARECA (baseline, protocols), ILRI (Passionfruit), BMGF (Cassava virus diagnostics).• However, for the sustainability of the sweetpotato seed system, there is need to have policy support (MAAIF/ASARECA).