Assessment of external factors(Appendix 2)In June 2012, a short consultation was undertaken with several global leaders and thinkers to identify the majorexternal (to ILRI) factors or forces that will affect policy and practice in agriculture and food production over the next10-15 years. Requests to provide a few bullet points were sent to over 40 experts and responses were received from26 individuals (from donors, scientific and development experts, research practitioners, development investors andcommerce).The seven key factors identified are listed below. For six of the seven, a short brief was prepared that describesaspects of how this factor could develop in the next 10-15 years, the extreme scenarios that could emerge and theirlikely impact, the drivers that will influence how this factor develops, and the potential impact of this factor on theevolution of smallholder livestock farming (both crop-livestock and pastoral systems).The seven factors• What quantity and quality of food will be available?• How much food will the world need?• How will the world perceive agriculture, particularly livestock in relation to global sustainable development challenges?• What is the future of smallholder agriculture and what does the transition look like?• What is the potential role of smallholder livestock agriculture in sustainable intensification?• How will the world address scarce and competing uses of natural resources?• How will the world perceive livestock agriculture in relation to the impacts on and of climate change?
Internal, external on line and face to face consultations (several formats and contexts…..)
Strong growth systems: There is urgent need to develop sustainable food systems that deliver key animal-sourcenutrients to the poor while facilitating a structural transition in the livestock sector of developing countries—atransition from most smallholders keeping livestock in low-productive systems to eventually fewer households raisingmore productive animals in more efficient, intensive and market-linked systems. These mostly mixed smallholdersystems now provide significant animal and crop products in the developing world and are likely to grow the most inaggregate. In many parts of Africa and Asia, the transition is happening slowly, with smallholder marketing systems stilllargely informal although there are pockets of more rapid change in higher potential systems with good market access.ILRI and its partners will work to make this transition as broad-based as possible, helping those who can to continueon their path to sustainable, highly productive and resource-efficient smallholder systems, or to accumulate sufficientcapital to exit from agriculture without falling back into poverty. This research aims to develop and up-scale practices,strategies and policies that support inclusive growth and maximize the well-being of people and the environment nowand in the future.Fragile growth systems: It will not be possible to create the same level of opportunities for rapid, marketfocused growth for all poor livestock keepers, especially in areas where growth in productivity is severely limitedby remoteness, harsh climates or environments or by poor institutions, infrastructure and market access. In theselivestock systems, what’s urgently needed are nuanced approaches that, where appropriate, help achieve incrementalgrowth in livestock production and market engagement that matches well with the natural resource base. In othersituations, rather than productivity, the emphasis will need to be on enhancing the important role livestock play inincreasing the resilience of people, communities and environments to variability in weather, markets or resourcedemands. Livestock research will help people make better use of their livestock-based livelihoods to feed their familiesand communities, protect their assets and conserve their natural resources.High growth with externalities: In parts of some developing countries particularly in Asia, where dynamic marketsand increasingly skilled human resources are already driving strong growth in livestock production, fast-changingsmall-scale livestock systems may be damaging the environment, exposing their communities to increased public healthrisks, and furthermore excluding participation of those livestock keepers and sellers living in deepest poverty. In thesecircumstances, what’s urgently needed is an understanding and anticipation of all possible negative impacts of smallscalelivestock intensification. Research can help promote or generate the incentives, technologies, strategies andproduct and organizational innovations that will mitigate health and environment risks while supporting the poorestpeople to comply with increasingly stringent livestock market standards.
Mention who are decision makersWhat practicesMetrics: Over a 5–10-year time period, livestock-related real income for 2.8 million people is increased by 30%, the supply of safe animal-source foods in ILRI’s target sites/countries1 is increased 30%, and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of livestock product produced are reduced. Simultaneously, in partnership with others, these results are scaled to tens of millions more people.Metrics: Within a 10–15-year time frame, the share of agricultural budgets invested in livestock in ILRI’s target countries are brought at least 20% closer to livestock’s contribution to agricultural GDP. Increased investor contributions to the livestock sector should drive greater representation of livestock commodities in development efforts. Metrics to assess the underpinning changes in attitudes and behaviour will be defined based on learning from taking pilot studies to scale in target countries.Metrics: ILRI has not previously articulated capacity at this level or covering such a diversity of engagement, spanning both institutions and individuals from farmers to local and global decision-makers. ILRI will therefore conduct a baseline assessment before specifying the exact metrics for this third strategic objective; the metrics will specify the number of individuals and key institutions to have developed greater capacity to make greater use of livestock research results—be it for better productivity on farms, improved environmental management or more strategic use of development resourcesILRI’s use of the terms ‘practice’ and ‘decision-makers’ in this strategy encompasses a wide range of scales andgroups. The following are examples of these wide ranges in livestock systems with high potential for growth andin those where increasing resilience rather than productivity is paramount.Where there exists high potential for economic growth in mixed crop-and-livestock systems of developingcountries, ‘inclusive growth’ for poverty reduction and food security can often be achieved through thedevelopment of pro-poor livestock value chains. Here, improving practice refers to the uptake of technologiesand institutional innovations that (1) increase on-farm livestock productivity in smallholder productionsystems as well as (2) efficiencies in their associated market channels, (3) improve the equitable distribution ofbenefits generated through more livestock employment and income, and (4) minimize livestock threats to theenvironment and public health. The men and women decision-makers who adopt these practices include notonly the livestock keepers and market agents who handle livestock and their products, but also the individuals,businesses and government agencies that support the value chain through the products and services they supplysuch as feed, veterinary care and public health regulation.In dryland pastoral and agro-pastoral systems, where harsh and highly variable climates pose considerable riskof loss of livestock assets, both household income and food security can be protected against climate shocks byimproved practices. In the case of drought, these might include making index-based livestock insurance availableto livestock herders, conducting early de-stocking in conjunction with private traders, and making better useof functioning livestock markets. In the case of flooding, which can trigger outbreaks of economically importantlivestock and zoonotic diseases such as Rift Valley fever, better practice might entail more reliable predictiveclimate models used in conjunction with early livestock vaccination campaigns to prevent regional marketclosures able to devastate the livelihoods of livestock producers, traders and others. Changes in practice herewould depend on choices made by decision-makers including local men and women livestock pastoralists andagro-pastoralists, market agents and slaughterhouse personnel as well as those at regional and global levels whoseactions, policies and investment decisions impact small-scale dryland livestock systems and enterprises.Changes in practice thus spans a range of choices made by decision-makers at all levels, from livestock producers(men and women in both small scale and extensive production systems), to market agents and others intimatelyengaged with raising, selling and consuming animals and their products, through to those at local, regional andglobal levels whose development actions, policy and investment decisions impact the livestock sector.
To achieve its three strategic objectives, ILRI must excel in five performance areas, referred to here as criticalsuccess factors, which were identified in an analysis of both the external environment (Appendix 2) and ILRI’s currentstrengths and weaknesses (Appendix 7) in relation to the mission and strategic objectives. The institute has excelledin many of these areas up to now, and has a solid foundation on which to build. The specific articulation of theseperformance areas as interacting and mutually supporting critical success factors recognises the need for ILRI as oneof many players to respond to the challenges to be addressed if the institute is to achieve its aspirational strategicobjectives. They also provide the institute with a structured way of planning and subsequently monitoring thesekey areas. The critical success factors provide a bridge between the institute’s three strategic objectives and theoperational frameworks for each these (Figure 2). Below, each of the five critical success factors is defined with a briefdescription of why it is essential, what it involves and how it will be operationalized. The set of critical success factorsprovides the means for ILRI to focus every dimension of its operations on achieving the institute’s strategic objectives,as well as to oversee and monitor the whole institute. Partnership is key to all of these; Box 4 on page 28 sets outsome principles for the way ILRI works with partners
Livestock research for food security and poverty reduction: ILRI strategy 2013–2022
Livestock research for food securityand poverty reductionILRI strategy 2013 – 2022‘better lives through livestock’
Mission(Purpose)WHY ILRI existsWHAT ILRI doesHOW the strategy isoperationalizedStrategic objectives(informed by strategic issues– external and internalenvironment))Critical success factorsperformance areasoverlappingdo NOT map to structureKey elements
Mission and visionILRI envisions a world where all people haveaccess to enough food and livelihood options tofulfill their potential.ILRI’s mission is to improve food and nutritionalsecurity and to reduce poverty in developingcountries through research for efficient, safe andsustainable use of livestock—ensuring betterlives through livestock.
Strategic issues thatinformStrategicobjectivesFood securitychallengeNeed todeliver atscaleRole ofwomenDiversity ofchallengesandopportunitiesfor the poorAddresshumanhealth andenvironmental issuesSignificantnew scienceDisproportionately lowlivestockfundingNeed forgreatercapacityILRI – fit forpurpose
What’s new?• Long term strategy• Outcomes and impacts(accountable; attribution;alignment)• Diversity: trajectories; species;ILRI strengths; partners• Livestock ‘goods’ and ‘bads’• Mainstreaming gender; humanhealth• Clientele: Beyond livestockproducers; partners; capacitydevelopment
Growth scenarios for livestock systems• ‘Strong growth’– Where good market access andincreasing productivity provideopportunities for continuedsmallholder participation.• ‘Fragile growth’– Where remoteness, marginal landresources or agroclimaticvulnerability restrict intensification.• ‘High growth with externalities’– Fast changing livestock systemspotentially damaging theenvironment and human health• Different research and developmentchallenges for poverty, food security,health and nutrition, environment
ILRI acts in three (mutually reinforcing) areas• To prove that better use of livestock can makea big difference in enough people’s livesthrough improved practice.• To influence decision-makers so that they willincrease investment in livestock systems.• To ensure there is sufficient capacity indeveloping countries and among investors touse increased investment effectively andefficiently.
Strategic objective 1ILRI and its partners willdevelop, test, adapt andpromote science-basedpractices that—beingsustainable and scalable—achieve better livesthrough livestock.
Strategic objective 2ILRI and its partners will providecompelling scientific evidence inways that persuade decision-makers—from farms toboardrooms and parliaments—that smarter policies and biggerlivestock investments can deliversignificant socio-economic, healthand environmental dividends toboth poor nations andhouseholds.
Strategic objective 3ILRI and its partners willwork to increase capacityamongst ILRI’s keystakeholders and theinstitute itself so that theycan make better use oflivestock science andinvestments for betterlives through livestock.
ILRI strategy and the CGIAR ConsortiumCGIAR consortiumILRIstrategyGlobal livestockissues
ILRI and CGIAR research programsDryland CerealsGrain LegumesLivestock and FishMaizeRiceRoots, Tubers and BananasWheatClimate Change, Agriculture and Food SecurityForests, Trees and AgroforestryWater, Land and EcosystemsHumidtropicsAquatic Agricultural SystemsDryland SystemsPolicies, Institutions, and MarketsAgriculture for Nutrition and HealthGenebanks
Critical success factorsTogether with partnership, five areas where ILRIneeds to excel to be able to deliver the strategyare the critical success factors.For each, an operational plan sets out objectives,targets and measurable indicators and is thebasis for regular monitoring, priority-setting andassessment of outcomes.