Balancing Livestock Needs and Soil Conservation: Assessment of Opportunities in Intensifying Cereal-Legume-Livestock Syste...
Outline <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives 1 and 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Househo...
Background <ul><li>Agricultural production growth slower than population growth in West Africa, </li></ul><ul><li>Cereal i...
Background Fertilizer consumption and crop yield Source: FAOSTAT Source: FAOSTAT South East Asia West Africa
Background Crop residue is fed to livestock or grazed by free-roaming  animals.
Off-farm uses of crop residue Granary for storing cereals and pulses. Fencing and roofing materials Fodder market at Kano ...
Project Objectives <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>To identify key areas where research can stimulate agricultural producti...
Project Approach <ul><li>Baseline survey in the 3 countries (Ghana, Nigeria and Niger) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify 3 fa...
Activity 1 Socio-Economic characterization of household and CR uses
Farmers’ Typologies <ul><li>Typology 1: Crop farmers those with < 1 TLU </li></ul><ul><li>Typology 2: Crop-livestock farme...
Sample size <ul><li>Niger and Ghana: 15 farmers/village in 12 villages – 180 farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Niger: Maradi r...
Socioeconomic characterization of Ghana study area 10 (3.3) 10 (3.6) 10 (3.1) 9 (3.0) Household size 1.58 (1.3) 2.06 (1.8)...
Socioeconomic characterization of Nigeria study area 9.2 (3.2) 10.5 (3.4) 9.1 (3.0) 8 (2.7) Household size 47.8 (12.9) 49....
Socioeconomic characterization of Niger study area 9 (3.8) 10 (3.6) 9 (4.0) 8 (4) Household size 4.1 (2.7) 4.7 (2.8) 4.1 (...
Utilization of CR -Typo 1 (% of farmers)
Utilization of CR -Typo 2 (% of farmers)
Utilization of CR -Typo 3 (% of farmers)
Activity 2 Quantification of trade-offs in agricultural uses of crop residues
0%C, 0%M 100%C, 100%M 100%C, 100%M 25%C, 75%M 25%C, 75%M 0%C, 0%M 50%C, 50%M 50%C, 50%M 75%C, 25%M 75%C, 25%M 1 2 3 4 5 Sc...
Study A: Effect of crop residue incorporation on crop yield   <ul><li>General objective:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quantify t...
Materials and methods <ul><li>Treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T1 – 0% SA (0% L, 0% C),  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T2 – 5...
Study B: Effect crop residues intake on livestock live weight <ul><li>General objective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quantify th...
<ul><li>Treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T1 – 0% SA (0% C, 0% M),  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T2 – 50% SA (25% C, 75% M), ...
Effect of crop residue use on grain yields and weight gain, Farm 2 at Cheyohi, Ghana
Effect of crop residue use on grain yields and weight gain,   Farm 2 at  Garin Labo, Niger
Effect of crop residue use on grain yields and weight gain,   Farm 3 at  Sarauniya, Nigeria
102 kg 25 kg 80 kg 89  kg 93 kg 53 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 1 2 3 4 5 ¢ 11.5 ¢ 11.8 ¢ 11.5 ¢ 11.6 ¢ 9.7 Results: Tradeof...
Activity 3 Identification of entry points for improving the productivity of cereal–legume–livestock systems: The NUTMON ap...
Nutrient balance study   <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To audit the flow of nutrient resources in C-L-L system...
Materials  and methods <ul><li>Farmer managed nutrient flows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured questionnaire for data on nu...
Nitrogen flows in farms of the various farm groups at Garin Labo
Nitrogen flows   in cereal-legume-livestock systems at Cheyohi (Gh), Sarauniya (Nig) and Garin Labo (NE)
Hot spots for research intervention   <ul><li>Identification of alternative sources of energy and construction material fo...
Concluding Remarks <ul><ul><li>Incorporation of crop residues was not a cost-effective application method. </li></ul></ul>...
Appreciation <ul><li>Dr. R. Abaidoo -  team leader </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Opoku and Adesiyan Titus </li></ul>
Results: Tradeoffs of farm 3 at Sarauniya 55.7 kg 61.7 kg 23 kg 32.9 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 1 2 3 4 5 0  kg N 13...
Result: Tradeoffs of farm 2 at Garin Labo 6.2  g 12.8 kg 11.2 kg 14.5 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 1 2 3 4 5 CFA 3928 ...
Nitrogen balance in cereal-legume-livestock system at Garin Labo  Nitrogen balance in cereal-legume-livestock system at Ch...
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Balancing Livestock Needs and Soil Conservation: Assessment of Opportunities in Intensifying Cereal-Legume-Livestock Systems in West Africa

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Presentation by T. Abdoulaye (IITA) to the CGIAR Systemwide Livestock Programme Livestock Policy Group Meeting, 1 December 2009

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Balancing Livestock Needs and Soil Conservation: Assessment of Opportunities in Intensifying Cereal-Legume-Livestock Systems in West Africa

  1. 1. Balancing Livestock Needs and Soil Conservation: Assessment of Opportunities in Intensifying Cereal-Legume-Livestock Systems in West Africa T. Abdoulaye Presentation: CGIAR Systemwide Livestock Programme Livestock Policy Group, 1 December 2009
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives 1 and 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Household characterization and evaluation of TO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying entry point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitification of trade-offs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preliminary results </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Agricultural production growth slower than population growth in West Africa, </li></ul><ul><li>Cereal imports surged from 17,208 t in 1983 to 60,893 t in 2003 (FAOSTAT). </li></ul><ul><li>Mutton (meat from sheep and goats) imports increased from 1,321 t in 1983 to 3,358 t in 2003 (FAOSTAT). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background Fertilizer consumption and crop yield Source: FAOSTAT Source: FAOSTAT South East Asia West Africa
  5. 5. Background Crop residue is fed to livestock or grazed by free-roaming animals.
  6. 6. Off-farm uses of crop residue Granary for storing cereals and pulses. Fencing and roofing materials Fodder market at Kano Background To balance livestock and soil demands for crop residues: <ul><li>Evaluate gains or losses in the alternative uses of crop residues </li></ul>
  7. 7. Project Objectives <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>To identify key areas where research can stimulate agricultural productivity by balancing trade-offs among livestock, soils and crop in cereal-legume-livestock systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To identify the entry points through which appropriate research technologies can facilitate the intensification of crop-livestock systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To quantify the trade-offs in using crop residues as fodder or soil amendments . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To create better institutional linkages between actors in research, extension and policy on issues related to mixed farming systems. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Project Approach <ul><li>Baseline survey in the 3 countries (Ghana, Nigeria and Niger) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify 3 farmers’ typologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recruited to 2 Ph.D students (soils and economist) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economist worked on socio-economic characterization of Households, profitability of trade-off classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying entry points and quantification of trade-off </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Activity 1 Socio-Economic characterization of household and CR uses
  10. 10. Farmers’ Typologies <ul><li>Typology 1: Crop farmers those with < 1 TLU </li></ul><ul><li>Typology 2: Crop-livestock farmers those with 1<TLU<2 </li></ul><ul><li>Typology 3: Crop-Livestock farmers those with > 2 TLU </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sample size <ul><li>Niger and Ghana: 15 farmers/village in 12 villages – 180 farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Niger: Maradi region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghana: Northern Region (Tamale) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nigeria: 15 farmers/village in 24 villages – 360 farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kano state </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Socioeconomic characterization of Ghana study area 10 (3.3) 10 (3.6) 10 (3.1) 9 (3.0) Household size 1.58 (1.3) 2.06 (1.8) 1.37 (0.89) 1.33 (0.81) Total Farm size (ha) 504.1 (623.5) 625.03 (881.2) 483.0 (521.1) 406.3 (336.7) Income ($) Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Pooled Age (Years) 45.3 (14.4) 47.3 (13.4) 50.8 (16.8) 47.8 (15.0)
  13. 13. Socioeconomic characterization of Nigeria study area 9.2 (3.2) 10.5 (3.4) 9.1 (3.0) 8 (2.7) Household size 47.8 (12.9) 49.0 (13.4) 47.9 (12.4) 46.5 (13.0) Age (Years) 4.1 (5.4) 5.5 (5.7) 4.1 (6.5) 2.8 (3.1) Total Farm size (ha) 2574.3 (2605.7) 3719.5 (3831.1) 2090.2 (1178.2) 1913.1 (1555.0) Income ($) Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Pooled
  14. 14. Socioeconomic characterization of Niger study area 9 (3.8) 10 (3.6) 9 (4.0) 8 (4) Household size 4.1 (2.7) 4.7 (2.8) 4.1 (2.8) 3.4 (2.4) Total Farm size (ha) 533.6 (410.1) 642.5 (471.0) 555.2 (389.7) 403.1 (326.7) Income ($) Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Pooled Age (Years) 40.2 (13.6) 40.6 (14.0) 46.4 (14.3) 42.4 (14.2)
  15. 15. Utilization of CR -Typo 1 (% of farmers)
  16. 16. Utilization of CR -Typo 2 (% of farmers)
  17. 17. Utilization of CR -Typo 3 (% of farmers)
  18. 18. Activity 2 Quantification of trade-offs in agricultural uses of crop residues
  19. 19. 0%C, 0%M 100%C, 100%M 100%C, 100%M 25%C, 75%M 25%C, 75%M 0%C, 0%M 50%C, 50%M 50%C, 50%M 75%C, 25%M 75%C, 25%M 1 2 3 4 5 Scenario % applied to soil % feed to livestock 0% 0% 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% 100% 100% Assessment of trade-offs in uses of crop residue Trade-off: the quantity of crop produce sacrificed by a farmer for a unit benefit from livestock production by the allocation of crop residues into livestock production.
  20. 20. Study A: Effect of crop residue incorporation on crop yield <ul><li>General objective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quantify the tradeoffs in using crop residues as fodder for livestock or amendments for soil improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assess the effect of crop residue incorporation on yield of cereals and legumes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate the effect of crop residue incorporation on soil physical, chemical and biological properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appraise the socio-economic benefits of incorporating crop residues into the soil </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Materials and methods <ul><li>Treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T1 – 0% SA (0% L, 0% C), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T2 – 50% SA (25% L, 75% C), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T3 – 50% SA (50% L, 50% C), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T4 – 50% SA (75% L, 25% C), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T5 – 100% SA (100% L, 100% C) </li></ul></ul>Experimental Design: 3 X 5, RCBD Incorporation of crop residues
  22. 22. Study B: Effect crop residues intake on livestock live weight <ul><li>General objective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quantify the tradeoffs in using crop residues as fodder for livestock or amendments for soil improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assess the effect of crop residue intake on livestock productivity (live weight) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate the effect of crop residue intake on the quantity and quality of manure produced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appraise the economic benefits of feeding crop residues to livestock. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T1 – 0% SA (0% C, 0% M), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T2 – 50% SA (25% C, 75% M), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T3 – 50% SA (50% C, 50% M), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T4 – 50% SA (75% C, 25% M), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T5 – 100% SA (100% C, 100% M) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Housing unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pen partition into 15 compartment each with 1m x 2 m floor spacing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection and procurement of test animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 healthy male sheep or goats of about 12 -18 months old. </li></ul></ul>Materials and methods
  24. 24. Effect of crop residue use on grain yields and weight gain, Farm 2 at Cheyohi, Ghana
  25. 25. Effect of crop residue use on grain yields and weight gain, Farm 2 at Garin Labo, Niger
  26. 26. Effect of crop residue use on grain yields and weight gain, Farm 3 at Sarauniya, Nigeria
  27. 27. 102 kg 25 kg 80 kg 89 kg 93 kg 53 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 1 2 3 4 5 ¢ 11.5 ¢ 11.8 ¢ 11.5 ¢ 11.6 ¢ 9.7 Results: Tradeoffs of farm 2 at Cheyohi
  28. 28. Activity 3 Identification of entry points for improving the productivity of cereal–legume–livestock systems: The NUTMON approach
  29. 29. Nutrient balance study <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To audit the flow of nutrient resources in C-L-L systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To quantify the nutrient balances in C-L-L systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To identify alternative management scenarios to redress the nutrients imbalances </li></ul></ul>Nutrients flows in crop livestock systems De jager et al. (2001)
  30. 30. Materials and methods <ul><li>Farmer managed nutrient flows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured questionnaire for data on nutrient flows through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral fertilizer (IN 1), Manure (IN 2), Crop products (OUT 1) and Crop residues (OUT 2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental nutrient flows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Field measurement and transfer function for data on nutrient flows through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rainfall and Harmattan dust (IN 3), Nitrogen fixation (IN 4), Leaching (OUT 3) and Gaseous losses (OUT 4) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Nitrogen flows in farms of the various farm groups at Garin Labo
  32. 32. Nitrogen flows in cereal-legume-livestock systems at Cheyohi (Gh), Sarauniya (Nig) and Garin Labo (NE)
  33. 33. Hot spots for research intervention <ul><li>Identification of alternative sources of energy and construction material for domestic purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of technology for improving the quality of manure. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of cost-effective technologies to control leaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantification and understanding the balancing of the short Vs long-term benefits of crop residue retention on the fields. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Concluding Remarks <ul><ul><li>Incorporation of crop residues was not a cost-effective application method. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herd size of small-scale farmers could not support the number livestock required for tradeoffs assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residual effect of crop residues on crop production constraints holistic assessment of tradeoffs in the short term. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Appreciation <ul><li>Dr. R. Abaidoo - team leader </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Opoku and Adesiyan Titus </li></ul>
  36. 36. Results: Tradeoffs of farm 3 at Sarauniya 55.7 kg 61.7 kg 23 kg 32.9 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 1 2 3 4 5 0 kg N 1370 N 1264 N 1387 N 1268 N 1521
  37. 37. Result: Tradeoffs of farm 2 at Garin Labo 6.2 g 12.8 kg 11.2 kg 14.5 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 25 kg 1 2 3 4 5 CFA 3928 CFA 3431 CFA 3536 CFA 3332 CFA 4487 12.2 kg
  38. 38. Nitrogen balance in cereal-legume-livestock system at Garin Labo Nitrogen balance in cereal-legume-livestock system at Cheyohi, Sarauniya and Garin Labo Results

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