Artificial Insemination and Veterinary Services in Ethiopia: Ada’a Case


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Presentation by Alemayehu Lemma (Addis Ababa University) to the Ethiopian Fodder Roundtable on Effective Delivery of Input Services to Livestock Development, Addis Ababa, 22 June 2010

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Artificial Insemination and Veterinary Services in Ethiopia: Ada’a Case

  1. 1. Factors Affecting the Effective Delivery of Artificial Insemination and Veterinary Services in Ethiopia: Ada’a Case Presentation by Alemayehu Lemma (Addis Ababa University) to the Ethiopian Fodder Roundtable on Effective Delivery of Input Services to Livestock Development Addis Ababa, 22 June 2010
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The bull is half of the herd, it is extremely essential to have a careful selection of bull for breeding purpose </li></ul><ul><li>The success of AI depends on the collection of a large number of potentially fertile spermatozoa from a genetically superior sire </li></ul><ul><li>Most bulls produce sufficient semen to provide enough sperm for 40,000 breeding units in one year </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bull Selection The facets of successful AI program Inseminator Reproductive Performance <ul><li>VET SERVICE </li></ul><ul><li>General health </li></ul><ul><li>PD </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal care </li></ul><ul><li>Postnatal care </li></ul>VIALBLE CALF [ Record keeping ] Semen evaluation, processing and Storage Good Quality Semen
  4. 4. Factors affecting success of AI service <ul><li>Artificial insemination is affected by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The breeding bull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance of the bull; a prelude to the acquisition of quality semen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection, storage, processing and transport of semen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The breeding female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive performance; estrus manifestation/detection, conception/fertility rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insemination technique; the site of semen deposition, the time of insemnation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>3. Other factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of appropriate breeding policy along with proper control of indiscriminate crossbreeding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency of AI technicians along with capacity and commitment of AI centers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financial conditions and administrative matters </li></ul></ul></ul>Factors affecting success of AI service
  6. 6. AI status in Ethiopia <ul><li>Around 99.4% of cattle are indigenous breeds with very few hybrids (0.5%), and exotic (0.1% ) </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the total female cattle population (55.4%), only 151,344 (0.35%) and 19,263 (0.04%) heads are hybrid and exotic breeds, respectively </li></ul><ul><li>AI coverage is from <2% in Africa to just over 12% in Asia and near east. In Ethiopia, NA, but would be <1% even if all exotic and crosses are inseminated </li></ul><ul><li>This suggests that the total number of both exotic and hybrid female cattle produced through the cross breeding program during the past several decades is quite insignificant </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>A total of 791 artificial technicians were trained until 2005/06 (1:215 exotic and cross cows) (Gebremedhin, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Although AI has been in operation in Ethiopia for over 30 years, the efficiency and impact of the operation has not been well-documented </li></ul><ul><li>It is widely believed that the AI service in Ethiopia has not been successful (Sinishaw, 2004), it is weak and even declining due to inconsistent service in the smallholder livestock production systems (Dekeba et al ., 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle breeding is mostly uncontrolled in Ethiopia making genetic improvement difficult and an appropriate bull selection criteria have not yet been established, applied and controlled (Tegegne et al . 1995) </li></ul>AI status in Ethiopia cont…
  8. 8. <ul><li>93% dissatisfaction by users, (Gebremedhin, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>The most important constraints associated with AI in Ethiopia lie: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the level of selection of a breeding animal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of breeding policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>selection is principally made from only one farm (Holeta BDF) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of regular monitoring of bulls for reproductive diseases and performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of herd registration and recoding system </li></ul></ul></ul>AI status in Ethiopia cont…
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>At the level of semen production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical, financial and managerial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the level of monitoring and networking of the service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of structural linkage between AI Center and service giving units </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of collaboration and regular communication between NAIC and stakeholders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate resource in terms of inputs and facilities </li></ul></ul></ul>AI status in Ethiopia cont…
  10. 10. <ul><li>The efficiency of the service is very low due to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of proper breeding policy or structured guideline for recruiting semen-producing bulls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of functionally effective responsible bodies to coordinate and regulate the AI services and no proper mechanisms of controlling indiscriminate  insemination /breeding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong selection leading to poor genetic improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of policy that guides the distribution of semen in the country leading to the circulation of unknown gene </li></ul></ul></ul>AI status in Ethiopia ….. Ada’a case
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Poor heat detection/insemination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus detection is difficult owing to poorly expressed estrus for different reasons including breed, nutrition, disease, climate etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improper timing of insemination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of service on weekends and holidays, shortage of AI technicians, shortage of inputs. Therefore, estrus pass without breeding (few would resort to natural service) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>AI status in Ethiopia ….. Ada’a case
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Managerial problems such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of legal framework for regulation of AI service – importation and distribution of semen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor infrastructure – for storage, handling, and transportation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financial constraints – low cost of semen and AI service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In some places, it was observed that farmers trek their cows for long distance in search of AI service. This is happening in many areas and the reason is AI technicians are unable to get transport facilities like motor bicycles, fuel, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of appropriate collaboration and communication between the NAIC, regional agriculture bureaus and other stakeholders </li></ul></ul></ul>AI status in Ethiopia ….. Ada’a case
  13. 13. <ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of recording system, inefficient management at national level and lack of clearly defined share of responsibilities among stakeholders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of integration of AI service with livestock health and feed packages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of wide spread indiscriminate insemination </li></ul></ul></ul>AI status in Ethiopia ….. ADEA’S CASE
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Poor motivations and skills of inseminators (GebreMedhin, 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical know-how of AI technicians because of lack of on job training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of motivation and commitment hence inconsistent AI service delivery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of support and readily available inputs such as liquid nitrogen </li></ul></ul></ul>AI status in Ethiopia ….. Ada’a case