CIAT and IITA were conceived of as undertaking research on farming systems of the lowland, humid tropics.FSR moved downstream as a linkage mechanism to extension, creating adaptive research.Questions about the role of the researcher led to farmer participatory research.
Sustainability split research into two very different modalities rather than integrating.
Green Revolution was the first and maybe the last example of the impacts of widely scalable technologies.FSR was a response to the lack of adoption of GR technologies in rainfed agriculture, still with a commodity focus.The sustainability agenda added NRM and expansion of the CGIAR.Climate change (system resilience) and ecosystem services has added AEI.
How to assemble these outputs into a dissemination framework.
Applying a systems framework to research on African farming systems
Applying a systemsframework to research on African farming systems John Lynam CGIAR Research Program on Dryland Systems Regional Inception Workshop East and Southern Africa Nairobi, 5-7 June 2012
Expanding Global Agendas and Increasing Demands on Agricultural Research Global food security under increasing land and water constraints Provision of ecosystem services and eco-efficiency of farming systems Adaptation and mitigation to climate change Agroecological intensification of smallholder agriculture and poverty
Changing Research Methods and Technology Design Production systems research Integrating ecological science Place-based research methods Research consortia Scaling up integrated into research design Flexible institutional arrangements
Design Issues in Production System CGIAR Research Programs Target Area Selection Research Site Selection -Target area characterization -Research hypotheses -Methodology for research site selection -Baseline and monitoring of system change Methods for Research on Farming Systems
Developing the Science of System IntensificationData and Analytics for: Characterization and targeting Extrapolation Baseline and monitoring Causal relationships -System change -Comparative frameworks
Design Characteristics for Analyzing African Farming Systems Heterogeneity: system boundaries and classification strata -Spatial Characterization -Within site household stratification System Change and Dynamics: drivers and intensification pathways Embeddedness: landscape, market/sub-sector, agricultural sector
Structure of Farm/Household System Asset base: five capitals Production activities Household objectives: -Subsistence/food security -Risk management -IncomeWithin site variability: typologies
System Boundaries and Classification FrameworksHierarchical Classification Land use: Cultivated land within managed natural ecosystems First order spatial classification -Agroecology: eg semi-arid, highlands -Crop-livestock interaction: eg pastoral Staple food crop: spatially contiguous? Sub-system speciation
System Variation and System PerformanceSystem Performance -Productivity, profitability, income -Vulnerability, food security -Resource efficiency, resilienceSystem Variation -Spatial/causal comparative frameworks -Within-site socio-economic variation
Drivers of System Change Rural population growth -Declining farm size -Increasing inequity in farm distribution -Pressure on common resources and natural capital Improvements in Market Access -Transaction costs and input/output -Staple terms of trade Changes in agroecology from climate change or biotic pandemics
Pathways of System Change Intensification of existing production patterns: sustainable and unsustainable Diversification of production Expanded farm size or herd size: high vs low population densities Increased off-farm income: expanding non-farm rural economy vs transfers Exit from agriculture
East Africa: Average Farm Income, 2004-06 Kenya Uganda EthiopiaPer Capita Income 367 154 94% Crop Income 36 64 53% Livestock Income 24 13 34% Non Farm Income 42 29 12
Markets as a Driver of Farming System Evolution Stage in Farming Farmer Objective Principal Driver System EvolutionStatic Equilibrium Subsistence Dominates Rural Population GrowthDiversification Both Income and <Shifting Farm Gate Subsistence Terms of Trade <Staple Food ProductivitySpecialization Income Dominates <Price Signals in Efficient Markets <Regional Competition and Comparative Advantage