AI performance and plan in Tigray

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Presented by Tigabu Araya at the IPMS Workshop on Alternatives for Improving Field AI Delivery System to Enhance Beef and Dairy Production in Ethiopia, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 24-25 August 2011

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AI performance and plan in Tigray

  1. 1. AI PERFORMANCE & PLAN - TIGRAY Tigabu Araya IPMS Workshop on Alternatives for Improving Field AI Delivery System to Enhance Beef and Dairy Production in Ethiopia, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 24-25 August 2011
  2. 2. <ul><li>SOME REALITIES OF THE REGION </li></ul><ul><li>Land area :- about 54,572.6 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Location :- found between the geographical coordinates of 36 0 27’ to 39 0 59’ East and 12 0 15’ to 14 0 57’ North </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated human population of over 4.3 million, growing at a rate of 3% per annum. </li></ul><ul><li>About 80.5% of the population lives in rural areas </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Average arable land holding per household => 0.92 hectare </li></ul><ul><li>Rugged terrain - difficult to cultivate </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rainfall amount =>300 - 800 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock production is an integral part of the region's agricultural production system </li></ul><ul><li>Major farm animal genetic resources include cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, horses, mules, camels, chickens and honey bees. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Total Livestock population is estimated at around 4.2 million tropical livestock units (TLU), which includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3,242,931 heads of cattle, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,149,717 heads of sheep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,621,227 heads of goats, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 467,483 equines, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32,288 camels, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 4,266,077 chickens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>195,662 bee colonies(CSA,2010) out of which114,981 are in Langstroth bee hive, the rest in traditional beehive </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>( CSA, 2010, TBoFED, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>There are three dominant breeds of cattle in the region:- Arado, Begait and Raya and three or more breeds of sheep & goats. </li></ul><ul><li>Begait (wrongly named as Barca)is the best dual purpose breed of the region ( the country). </li></ul><ul><li>Feed source : mainly grass and crop residues => deficient in protein </li></ul><ul><li>No private or governmental feed processing plant in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of the farmers are illiterate & therefore exercise traditional animal husbandry practices. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Agro-climatically Tigray can be classified
  7. 8. AI IN THE REGION <ul><li>Objective :- To bring forth an animal that can produce more than the existing breeds of the region and can live in harmony with the available environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy :- Limited Cross Breeding; the level of inheritance for exotic blood is limited to 50%, not more or less( i.e. in case of dairy) . </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>AI service provision was started 19 years back in the capital - Mekelle & Adigrat. </li></ul><ul><li>Now the service is given by 70 AI Ts in 33 Werdas & the capital town, at 52 breeding units and one farm (TDA farm). </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid nitrogen and other consumables are distributed to these breeding units every month from a sub centre established in 2001G.C.It is only for semen supply that the staffs of the sub centre come to Addis Ababa . </li></ul>History
  9. 10. <ul><li>The sub centre has two liquid nitrogen producing plants each with a production capacity of 10 litres per hour. </li></ul><ul><li>AI was intended to cross the indigenous animals thereby increase the milk productivity of these animals. </li></ul><ul><li>The breeds used for cross breeding in the region at present are pure HF, Jersey, Begait HF cross (50%) and pure Begait. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>The service is given on call & stationed basis. </li></ul><ul><li>As indicated the semen is obtained from NAIC. </li></ul><ul><li>This year, With the help of ILRI / IPMS synchronization and subsequent insemination of cows is started in & around three major towns – Alamata , Adigrat & Wukro . </li></ul><ul><li>In the coming year (2004) and the years ahead it is envisaged by the Regional Bureau to use this technology in wider scale in identified potential areas both for dairy & beef production. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004 alone it is planned to synchronize & inseminate 2000 animals. </li></ul>
  11. 12. REGIONAL AI PERFORMANCE FROM 1985 to 2003 EC Year 1st AI PD positive for PD positive by owners report Calf Crop Total M F 1985 348 38 46 84 1986 509 148 167 315 1987 944 565 455 - 195 215 410 1988 986 674 549 - 279 291 570 1989 938 681 547 - 277 264 541 1990 962 813 671 - 336 286 622 1991 1026 648 533 - 311 290 601
  12. 13. Year 1st AI PD positive for PD positive by owners report Calf Crop Total M F 1992 1389 728 551 - 285 266 551 1993 1990 1124 845 316 288 604 1994 1980 1165 831 311 290 601 1995 2388 1401 955 220 335 390 725 1996 4053 2442 1684 463 620 640 1260 1997 5683 3968 2707 443 948 959 1907 1998 4185 3078 2243 823 845 1668
  13. 14. Year 1st AI PD positive for PD positive by owners report Calf Crop Total M F 1999 4766 3998 2453 537 945 950 1895 2000 3282 2381 1746 523 529 1052 2001 6941 5376 3988 1008 1710 1709 3419 2002 12176 11668 8677 2083 3070 3184 6254 2003 13190 11024 8238 2166 3101 3239 6340 Total 67736 51734 37673 6920 14571 14848 29419
  14. 15. Duties & Responsibilities of the Regional Semen Bank (RSB) <ul><li>Planning regionally </li></ul><ul><li>Semen requirements by breed & blood level, </li></ul><ul><li>Number of female population to get AI service </li></ul><ul><li>AI Consumables required, </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building </li></ul><ul><li>M & E </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Etc </li></ul>
  15. 16. 5 year AI Regional plan :- s.n Activities unit year total 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 1 Liquid Nitrogen production & Distribution liter 32400 41040 54000 66960 79920 274320 2 Semen Supply dose 37875 42875 47500 52500 57500 237750 3 No. of insemination pcs 30300 35500 40000 47500 52000 205300 4 No. of pregnancy ‘’ 13125 21210 24850 28800 34200 122185 5 Calves born ‘’ 11812 19089 22365 25920 30780 109966 6 training ‘’ 6.1 New AI technicians ‘’ 20 30 30 30 0 110 6.2 In service training ‘’ 70 90 120 150 180 610 7 Breeding unit ‘’ 20 30 30 30 0 110 8 Ranch ‘’ 0 1 0 0 0 1 9 semen processing laboratory ‘’ 0 1 0 0 0 1 10 liquid nitrogen plant ‘’ 0 0 1 0 0 1
  16. 17. <ul><li>Besides AI, indigenous cattle of good performance such as Begait are introduced to some Weredas every year. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Challenges <ul><li>Lack of Right Breeding Facilities( to handle cattle) </li></ul><ul><li>Critical shortage of transport </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate professional supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning AI technicians to other activities </li></ul><ul><li>Allocating AI motorcycles for various non-AI services </li></ul><ul><li>Less attention by the Bureau/District offices to this activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of skilled manpower to maintain the LN 2 plants </li></ul>
  18. 19. Challenges cont… <ul><li>Lack of proper Knowledge in Heat detection </li></ul><ul><li>Few AI technicians do not have enough skill. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no strong extension service concerning AI. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Incentive for efficiency, for extra activities (holly days, weekends,…..) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of integration at all levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Less suitable infrastructure to transport cryo-cans. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Opportunities <ul><li>Presence of regional semen bank </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to purchase transport facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing RANCH establishment to conserve, improve, multiply and utilize Begait cattle, goat & sheep breeds. </li></ul><ul><li>ILRI/IPMS involvement & assistance on Genetic improvement program. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Essentials we should think of & carry out <ul><li>Livestock development depends as much on how we effectively work together . </li></ul><ul><li>And the essentials which we should look ahead are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of infrastructures that are helpful to keep & improve the quality standards of animals & animal products. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional love & ethics. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Essentials Cont… <ul><li>Provision of market information service to producers & traders. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist livestock owners to build confidence in the marketing system. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of livestock producers & professionals. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of best practices thru Livestock show programs, incentives, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul>
  22. 23. THANK YOU

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