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Adapting the Livestock and Fish (L&F) program Impact Pathway(s) to the Ethiopia Small Ruminant Value chains
Adapting the Livestock and Fish (L&F) program ImpactPathway(s) to the Ethiopia Small Ruminant Value chainsMichael KidoidoImpact pathways for Ethiopian small ruminant value chainsworkshopAddis Ababa, 23rd April 2013
Background to the Consortium performancemanagement systemCGIAR’s ambition is to achieve the SLOs of:• -Poverty reduction• -Food security• -Nutrition and health• -Environmental sustainability• Delivering through CRPS such as the L&F CRP• CO is working with CRPS to develop a Results Basedsystem that will be used to assess CRPs’ progresstowards achieving the SLOs• The management system will be based upon theIntermediate Development Outcomes (IDOs)
IDOs• According to the Independent Science and PartnershipCouncil (ISPC) IDOs represent changes that occur in the medium term that areintended to affect positively the welfare of the target population or theenvironment, and which result in part from the research carried out bythe CRP IDOs are attributable to the CRP level and are necessary precursorsand are logically linked to the SLOs• The definition therefore highlights the need to develop the CRPs ImpactPathway(s) and Theory of Change to clearly explain how the CRPsbelieve that their research with partners will lead to the IDOs and theSLOs
Objectives of the workshop• Communicate and validate the program’sintervention logic in the Ethiopia smallruminants value chains• Question and clarify the program’s potentialfor achieving impact in the value chains• Begin building a framework for subsequentevaluation of the program
Impact pathways• Are result chains that represent the various steps that lead from productdevelopment to having impact at scale through successive stages of outcomes asa result of adoption and use of the products by different types of users atdifferent scales• Can be represented by a narrative or a flow diagram• Commonly presented graphically.DevelopmentOutcomes ImpactResearchOutputsResearchOutcomes
Theory of change (TOC)• Explicit identification of the ways by which change is expected to occur fromoutput to outcome and impact.• The TOC questions the assumptions about causality underlying the relationshipsbetween outputs, outcomes and impact.DevelopmentOutcomes ImpactResearchOutputsResearchOutcomesDescription of causalmechanism, withevidenceDescription of causalmechanism, withevidenceDescription of causalmechanism, withevidence
Results Strategy Framework and IDOsBreedingProgramactivitiesinthevaluechainsPro-poor technologies and institutional innovations, methodsand tools for identifying and prioritizing appropriate value chainsites and interventions, strategies and mechanisms for scalingup and out, partnerships and capacityResearchoutputsHealthFeedsandFeedingValueChainDevelopmentTargetingMonitoring, Evaluation and learningFigure 1: A Livestock and Fish (L&F) CGIAR program Results Strategy FrameworkMore milk, meat, and fish by thepoorMore milk, meat, andfish for the poorStrategicgoals1. Improved food security; 2.Reduced poverty; 3. Improvednutrition and health; 4. sustainablemanagement of natural resourcesCGIARSLOs1. Increased productivity; 2.Increased quantity supplied; 3.High and equitable income; 4.Reduced nutrient gap; 5. Lowerenvironmental impacts and higherbenefits per unit produced; 6.Enabling environmentIntermediateDevelopmentoutcomesInternationaldissemination ofresearch outputs,widespread use ofthe researchoutputs,Impact Pathway 1 Impact Pathway 2ResearchoutcomesImproved uptake of technologies by beneficiaries, NARES,NGOs, and Government extension systems; change in capacity inthe value chains; improved coordination along the value chainsGender
L&F IDOs1. Increased livestock and fish productivity in small-scale production systems for thetarget commodities (SLO2)2. Increased quantity and improved quality of the target commodity supplied fromthe target small-scale production and marketing systems (SLO2)3. Increased employment and income for low-income actors in the target value chains,with an increased share of employment for and income controlled by low-incomewomen (SLO1)4. The target commodity responsible for filling a larger share of the nutrient gap forthe poor, particularly for nutritionally vulnerable populations (women ofreproductive age and young children) (SLO3)5. Lower environment impacts and higher benefits per unit of commodity produced inthe target value chains (SLO4)6. Policies (including investments) and development actors recognize and support thedevelopment of the small-scale production and marketing systems, and seek toincrease the participation of women within these value chains, will contribute to alloutcomes at the system level (SLO2)
Set of Assumptions for the value chain IP• Addressing whole value chain will improve relevance, uptake and effectivenessof innovations.• Focus and targeting will increase efficiency and the probability of achieving proofat scale.• Implementation of demand driven innovations in the right value chains withpartners will accelerate the program’s progress towards achieving outcomes andimpact.• A significant numbers of pre-commercial smallholders can become marketoriented and intensify production sustainably.• Pro-poor value chains can compete and generate sufficient incentives topromote investment in intensification.• The poor rely on animal-source food produced locally by smallholders and fromless formal marketing channels.• The poor will consume more ASF if availability and access of products improvesfrom those systems.• Increased and equitable consumption of ASF will improve nutrition and health.
Set of risks for the value chain IP• Focusing on a few value chains might limit geographical spread of researchbenefits.• Social inequalities bar women and other marginalized groups from taking upinnovations, limiting achievement of outcomes at scale.• High transaction costs of managing a complex network of partnerships.• Income and gender inequalities are exacerbated due to programimplementation.Set of assumptions for the IPG IP• Work on localized solutions can generate regional and global public goods.• Focus and targeting will increase the probability of achieving proof at scale.• Implementation of appropriate innovations in the right value chains withpartners will accelerate the program’s progress towards achieving outcomesand impact.Set of risks for the IPG IP• Focusing on a few value chains might limit geographical spread of researchbenefits.• High transaction costs of managing a complex network of partnerships.
M&E/IA next steps• Finalize ToC/IP at program and value chain/country level– Will include IP workshops in value chains• Support ongoing evaluations• Support reviews and meta-analyses– Review of recent VC project evaluations (approaches andfindings)– ASF in diets of the poor– Compile recent impact assessments relevant to L&F ToC/IPs
Examples of evaluations to validate the ToC• Ex ante analysis for priority assessment• User evaluations of potential or prototype innovations• Evaluations of technologies or interventions (e.g. treatment effectsassessments)• Outcome assessments document the uptake and use of researchoutputs by users• Ex post impact studies• Other - reviews, synthesis, meta-analyses
CGIAR is a global partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for a food secure future. The CGIAR ResearchProgram on Livestock and Fish aims to increase the productivity of small-scale livestock and fish systems in sustainableways, making meat, milk and fish more available and affordable across the developing world.CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fishlivestockfish.cgiar.org