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Knowledge of livestock grading and market 
participation among small ruminant producers in 
northern Somalia 
Wanyoike F.,...
Introduction 
 Livestock is the leading economic sector in Somaliland 
 Employs around 65% of the population 
 Contribu...
Introduction 
 ILRI and Terra Nuova have been engaged in efforts to enhance 
livestock production and marketing in Somali...
Introduction 
 While the grading system presents an opportunity for animal 
producers to make higher profits not much is ...
Methodology 
 Data for this study was collected from a random sample of 144 
pastoral and agro-pastoral households who re...
Methodology (Cont’d) 
 Lists of households that kept sheep and goats in each selected 
settlement were prepared with the ...
Methodology: Study area 
West Golis Pastoral: 
Goats, camel, sheep 
[light blue] 
Togdheer Agro-Pastoral: 
Sheep, goats & ...
Study area 
Figure 2. Settlements’ localisation
Results 
Descriptive statistics for the surveyed households 
Variable Level Number (%) 
Gender of respondents Male 44% 
Fe...
Results (Cont’d) 
Contribution by Household members in shoats activities 
53 
45 
12 
10 
13 
39 
23 
9 
60 
50 
40 
30 
2...
Results (Cont’d) 
Awareness about the grading system
Results (Cont’d) 
Knowledge of the grading system by farmers
Results (Cont’d) 
Percentage of men and women producers citing attributes 
considered during grading 
96 
100 
94 
94 
99 ...
Number of sheep and goats sold 
9 
8.2 
4.4 
14.2 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
All HH Sales dec. made 
Jointly 
Sales d...
Determinants of market participation 
Results 
Variables Intensity of 
participation 
Probability of 
participation 
Coef....
Conclusions 
 Results confirm the importance of these animals as a source of 
income to producer households. 
 Participa...
Knowledge of livestock grading and market participation among small ruminant producers in northern Somalia
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Knowledge of livestock grading and market participation among small ruminant producers in northern Somalia

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Presented by F. Wanyoike, N. Mtimet, N. Ndiwa, L. Godiah, A. Warsame and K. Marshall at the 6th All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya, 27–30 October 2014


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Knowledge of livestock grading and market participation among small ruminant producers in northern Somalia

  1. 1. Knowledge of livestock grading and market participation among small ruminant producers in northern Somalia Wanyoike F., N. Mtimet, N. Ndiwa, L. Godiah, A. Warsame and Karen Marshall 6th All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture Nairobi, Kenya, 27–30 October 2014
  2. 2. Introduction  Livestock is the leading economic sector in Somaliland  Employs around 65% of the population  Contributes to approximately 40% of GDP  Contributes to 80% of foreign export earnings  Sheep and goats (shoats) are among the most important livestock reared and exported in Somaliland  In 2012 >3m small ruminants worth >200m USD were exported at the port of Barbera  A significant number of small ruminants are also marketed domestically generating employment to the local population especially women
  3. 3. Introduction  ILRI and Terra Nuova have been engaged in efforts to enhance livestock production and marketing in Somalia  Value chain studies by the two partners (2008 – 2012) documented usage of an indigenous animal grading system in livestock marketing At t r ibut es an d t heir l evel s Gr ades Gr ade 1 Gr ade 2 Gr ade3 Lo c al q ual it y age  Adul t s  yo un g Conf or mat ion  exc el l en t  g o o d  f air body condit ion  f at  n o r mal  t hin Sex  mal e  f emal e Dec r easing Qual it y Dec r easing Pr ic e The grading system
  4. 4. Introduction  While the grading system presents an opportunity for animal producers to make higher profits not much is known about their knowledge and utilisation of the system as they were not included in these studies.  This study sought to fill this dearth of information by focusing on market participation and awareness about the grading & pricing system among the sheep and goats producers  The study was motivated by the realization that producers cannot make deliberate efforts to exploit the grading system to realize higher incomes if they are not aware about it.
  5. 5. Methodology  Data for this study was collected from a random sample of 144 pastoral and agro-pastoral households who rear sheep and goats in Somaliland.  The study area covered 3 Livelihood zones:  Togdheer (agropastoral): vegetables; sheep and goats  West Golis (pastoral): sheep, goats & camels  Hawd (pastoral): sheep, goats & camels  Settlements in each zone were grouped into those located close to the market (within 20km radius) and those located far from the market  From each settlement category, 2 settlements were randomly picked.
  6. 6. Methodology (Cont’d)  Lists of households that kept sheep and goats in each selected settlement were prepared with the help of local leaders.  12 households were randomly selected and a semi structured questionnaire administered on the most senior male and/or female in the sample households.  Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate awareness about the grading system and also to investigate whether the producers made any deliberate efforts to exploit the grading system for higher returns  A Heckman two stage selection model was used to evaluate the effect of knowledge about the grading system and also other factors on market participation.
  7. 7. Methodology: Study area West Golis Pastoral: Goats, camel, sheep [light blue] Togdheer Agro-Pastoral: Sheep, goats & vegetables [light purple] Hawd pastoral: camel, shoats [yellow tan] Figure 1. Livelihood Zones, FSNAU (Data source: FSAU, 2009)
  8. 8. Study area Figure 2. Settlements’ localisation
  9. 9. Results Descriptive statistics for the surveyed households Variable Level Number (%) Gender of respondents Male 44% Female 56% Gender of HH head Male 85% Female 15% Level of education of HH head None 77% Elementary 12% Intermediate 8% Sec. Graduate 3% Age of HH head Mean 45.5 Std. Dev. 12.5 Number of shoats kept Mean 53.1 Owners of shoats in HH Male HH head only 48% Male HH head & wife/wives 48% others 4%
  10. 10. Results (Cont’d) Contribution by Household members in shoats activities 53 45 12 10 13 39 23 9 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Labour Decision on sales & purchases Both spouces A woman in the HH Man in the HH Others
  11. 11. Results (Cont’d) Awareness about the grading system
  12. 12. Results (Cont’d) Knowledge of the grading system by farmers
  13. 13. Results (Cont’d) Percentage of men and women producers citing attributes considered during grading 96 100 94 94 99 92 99 8 96 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 Breed Nutritional stratus Conformation Sex Age % of respondents Atribute women men
  14. 14. Number of sheep and goats sold 9 8.2 4.4 14.2 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 All HH Sales dec. made Jointly Sales dec. made female spouce Sales dec. made by male HHH Results (Cont’d)  >80% of households had sold some sheep and/or goats during the previous 12 months.
  15. 15. Determinants of market participation Results Variables Intensity of participation Probability of participation Coef. Std. err Coef. Std. err Constant 1.15*** 0.38 0.87 1.18 Gender of HH head (1=man; 0=woman) -0.33 0.22 0.15 0.84 Knowledge of the grading system 0.06 0.10 0.14 0.30 Age of HH head 0.00 0.01 -0.04** 0.02 Level of education of household head -0.04 0.08 0.42 0.48 Sales decision maker (control=Female) Male HH head 0.73*** 0.21 0.04 0.69 Jointly by spouses 0.37* 0.20 0.15 0.65 Study site (control=Togdheer ag. pastoral) Hawd Pastoral 0.35** 0.18 0.42 0.67 West Golis pastoral 0.54*** 0.19 0.24 0.63 Number of sheep and goats Kept 0.04** 0.02
  16. 16. Conclusions  Results confirm the importance of these animals as a source of income to producer households.  Participation by women in rearing of small ruminants was found to be strong and thus these activities provide a good entry point in promoting gender parity in economic welfare in the study area  Somali producers are well versed with the livestock grading system safe for minute details but this has no significant effect on market participation and participation intensity.  Number of animals kept significantly influenced market participation justifying interventions designed to safeguard stocks of small ruminants held by producers. .

Presented by F. Wanyoike, N. Mtimet, N. Ndiwa, L. Godiah, A. Warsame and K. Marshall at the 6th All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya, 27–30 October 2014

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