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Lessons from action research to promote uptake of harmonised institutional approaches and appropriate technology to transform informal milk markets in the Eastern and Central Africa Region
Lessons from action research to promote
uptake of harmonised institutional
approaches and appropriate technology
to transform informal milk markets in the
Eastern & Central Africa Region
Tezira Lore, Lusato Kurwijila and Amos Omore
Presented at the 4th All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture
21 September 2005
Key issues regarding informal milk
trade in the region
Informal markets handle over 85 per cent of all milk sold
yet are discouraged by policy due to perceived safety
Poor consumers are unwilling to pay for high costs of
formally processed, packaged milk.
If encouraged, the income and employment generation
potential in informal markets can form a solid bedrock for
regional growth in dairy industry.
Informal milk markets cannot be ignored; effective
policies are needed to bridge the gap between formal
and informal markets.
Approach to transforming the
informal milk markets
Define mechanisms for dairy regulatory authorities to
engage private sector business service providers in
training and certification of informal traders
Develop generic training materials and curricula
Facilitate agreement on cross-border recognition of
licences issued to trained traders
Enforce use of hygienic milk handling equipment
appropriate to needs of small milk traders
Evidence that training leads to
improved milk hygiene
Not trained Trained
Percent unacceptable milk samples (coliform counts over 50,000 cfu/ml) sold by
trained and untrained informal milk traders.
Greatest improvement among traders handling milk in plastic containers.
Source: MoLFD/KARI/ILRI Smallholder Dairy Project, 2004
Eastern and Central Africa Program for
Agricultural Policy Analysis (ECAPAPA)
policy change cycle
Data collection and analysis:
Review policies affecting the dairy sector
Identify factors that limit domestic and cross-border dairy
Dialogue and action:
Define minimum competencies that traders need in order
to handle milk hygienically
Draw up curriculum for training in milk hygiene
Develop and pre-test national dairy training guidelines
Harmonize into generic guideline and curriculum which
can be adapted by other countries in the region
What the strategy will do
Train informal dairy traders on milk
hygiene and quality control.
Introduce and enforce use of hygienic milk
containers by informal traders.
Issue regionally recognized licences to
those who have been trained.
Incorporate Business Development
Services to facilitate provision of training
and milk testing equipment.
What is needed to implement the
Hygienic milk containers
appropriate to the needs of
Generic training guidelines
that can be adapted by
countries in the region.
Cross-border recognition of
licenses issued by
regulatory authority to
trained milk traders who use
hygienic milk containers.
Already… mindsets are changing!
Top-level regulatory stakeholders now
more willing to streamline informal milk
Kenya Dairy Board (KDB) has incorporated
project outputs in its Strategic Plan to
KDB partnering with local NGO to
implement BDS quality assurance scheme.
But attitude change needs to trickle down.
Lessons from Uganda’s Dairy
From this… …to this!
Plastic jerry cans
No quality controls
Metal milk churns
“Clean” milk processing
Testing of milk quality
Photos courtesy of Uganda’s Dairy Development Authority (DDA)
Training and licensing of informal traders can:
improve quality of raw milk
allow bridging the gap with formal traders
help transform informal markets towards ‘formality’.
BDS strategy makes the approach feasible.
Some regulatory authorities need strengthening
before they can adopt the strategy.
Evidence-based knowledge can influence
positive changes in mindset thus need to
continue linking research with development
Unless otherwise stated, all photos used in this presentation are from ILRI
This regional study is based on initial work carried out in Kenya by the DFID-
funded Smallholder Dairy Project, jointly implemented by the Ministry of
Livestock and Fisheries Development, the Kenya Agricultural Research
Institute (KARI) and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).