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Eight years (2004-2012) of teaching participatory epidemiology at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria


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Presented by Olajide, O. at the PENAPH First Technical Workshop, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 11–13 December 2012.

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Eight years (2004-2012) of teaching participatory epidemiology at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

  1. 1. December 11 – 13, 2012 at the Imperial Maeping Chiang Mai Hotel, Chiang Mai, Thailand
  2. 2. EIGHT YEARS (2004-2012) OF TEACHING PARTICIPATORYEPIDEMIOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN,NIGERIA.Author:Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide (DVM, MPVM, PhD; FCVSN),Senior Lecturer/Consultant Epizootiologist (VeterinaryEpidemiologist),Department of Veterinary Public Health and PreventiveMedicine,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,University of Ibadan,Ibadan, Nigeria 2
  3. 3. HISTORY OF PE IN NIGERIA PE is known to be introduced and established in Nigeria via two routes-i. Through postgraduate academic /research training bythe author, a Senior Lecturer/Consultant Epizootiologist(Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics) at theDepartment of Veterinary Public Health and PreventiveMedicine DVPHPM, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineFVM, University of Ibadan UI, Ibadan, Nigeria from2004, 3
  4. 4. HISTORY OF PE IN NIGERIAandii. Through the Early Detection ReportingSurveillance: Avian Influenza in Africa (EDRSAIA)capacity building exercise on ParticipatoryEpidemiology (PE) and Participatory DiseaseSurveillance (PDS) for Highly Pathogenic AvianInfluenza (HPAI) for veterinary personnel in Nigeriaby the International Livestock Research Institute(ILRI) in 2008-2009. 4
  5. 5. HISTORY OF PE IN NIGERIA The author’s interest and commitment to PE and its various components c0uld be traced as follows:i. personal e-mail interactions with Dr Andy Catley, then ofthe Community Animal and Participatory EpidemiologyCAPE Unit, PACE Programme, OAU/IBAR, Nairobi, Kenyaaround 2004ii. Christian Veterinary Mission (CVM) Seattle, Washingtonorganized International workshop on the training (oftrainers) of Community Animal Health Workers held in Jinja,Uganda, from Sept. 22nd through October 6th, 2005 ; andiii. Various PE training publications from AU/IBAR, FAO,IIED,OIE etc. by Catley, Mariner, et al. 5
  6. 6. HISTORY OF PE IN NIGERIAPE training commenced at the Department of VeterinaryPublic Health and Preventive Medicine, University ofIbadan, Nigeria since 2004 when PE was officially addedand adopted as part of a PVM 711: ADVANCEDEPIZOOTIOLOGY, a compulsory course of the Masterscurricula of the department.The target beneficiaries have been the students offeringany of the three Masters programs in the Department-MPVM, MVPH, MSc Epizootiology; as well as any student(especially government veterinarians), who wish to applyPE for an MPhil/PhD or PhD programme. 6
  7. 7. HISTORY OF PE IN NIGERIA Taught by the author since 2004, he has also-supervised eight (8) Masters PE projects- currently supervising two (2) PE-related PhD,- delivered five (5) PE workshop lectures extra-mural- given five (5) PE presentations at local andinternational conferences and- have (6) PE journal publications. 7
  8. 8. HISTORY OF PE IN NIGERIA Also personally embarked on the following specific research topics:i. Participatory Epizootiology Research of the Igangan Grazing Reserve inIbarapa Agro-Pastoral zone Of Southwest Nigeria. Senate Research Grant2007 SRG/FVM/2006/9A. Category A- Individual Research Projects.ii. Participatory Base-line Research Survey and Training at the EruwaVeterinary Field Station, Ibarapa Agro-Pastoral Zone, Oyo State,Southwest Nigeria. University of Ibadan Senate Research Grant 2007SRC/FVM/4B/2006. Category B- Inter-Department, MultidisciplinaryResearch Projectiii. Training and supervision of Postgraduate Students Project,Dissertations and Thesis in the application of Participatory Epizootiologyto Pastoralism in selected Grazing Reserves in Nigeria. 8
  9. 9. Lecture Contentsa. Review of the evolution and concept ofparticipatory epizootiologyb. Participatory/clinical/laboratory diagnosisc. Principles and paradigm shifts of AnimalHealth and Production development (FarmingSystems-technical, social, cultural, economic andecological)d. Community Assessment and Participatoryappraisal 9
  10. 10. Lecture Contents e. Participatory Research terms and tools RRA (Rapid Rural Appraisal), PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal), PLA (Participatory Learning and Action). Institutional Mapping/Venn diagramming, matrixes, mapping, seasonal calendars and timelines, Community Inventory or Semi- structured interviewing, Focus Group Discussions, transect walks, wealth ranking 10
  11. 11. Lecture Contentsf. Participatory Epizootiology Methods Animal Health Surveys, Needs Assessments and Action Plans Monitoring, Impact Assessments and Evaluations Ethno-veterinary studies Participatory Disease Searching Disease Modelling 11
  12. 12. Table 1: Workplace distribution of PG students who choose PE-based project atthe Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty ofVeterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan , Ibadan, Nigeria (2004-2012)Work place Academics Research institute Government Service Private PracticeNumber/ Nil Three(3) 37.50%: Three (3) 37.50%: Two (2) 25.00%:Name/ Ogunwale Ibironke Kareem, A. A. (2009/2010): A Idowu O.S. (2003/2004): Participatory Baseline Survey ofProject Title (2005/2006): Participatory Participatory Rural Livestock Health Appraisal of Livestock Management Practices in Epizootiology Research of Diseases with Livestock- Igangan Agro -Pastoral Zone, Animal Health in Olunde Keeping Women of Oyo State Nigeria: The place of Village, Lanlate, Oyo State Community Based Animal Health Awotan, Ido LGA, Oyo Nigeria. MPVM/ Workers. MPVM. State, Nigeria. MPVH 2005/2006. Soleye Mariat. (2010/2011): Idowu O.S. (2010-date). Participatory Appraisal of Developing a Community- Transboundary Animal Diseases Bolajoko M.B. Based Animal Health in rural villages in Ogun State, (2005/2006): Evaluation of Nigeria. MPVM Model for Private Rural Animal Disease Reporting Veterinary Practice in System in Oyo State Alhaji N.B. (2010/2011): Fashola, Oyo North, Oyo Participatory Epizootiology of Nigeria 1995- 2005). State, Nigeria: A case Contagious Bovine Pleuro- MPVM. pneumonia: its Prevalence and study. PhD proposal. Economic Impact in Niger State, Morakinyo O. Nigeria. MPVM/ Fashina A. (2011/2012) : (2008/2009): Participatory Participatory Alhaji N.B. Matric (2012 to date). Appraisal of Peste Des Participatory Epizootiology of Epizootiology of Petite Ruminates (PPR) in Contagious Bovine Pastoralism at the Paikon- Iseyin Local Government Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Kore Grazing Reserve in Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Gwagwalada Area Council, Cattle Herds in Niger State, MPVM Nigeria PhD proposal 2012 Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria MPVM 12
  13. 13. POSTGRADUATE PE PROJECTSUPERVISED (2004- DATE) The nil academic workplace distribution can be explained by the fact that while most academics are more into conventional clinical and laboratory-based qualitative veterinary inquiry methodologies, PE is a field and ethnoveterinary/indigenous knowledge based qualitative method not given much value by biased academics. 13
  14. 14. POSTGRADUATE PE PROJECTSUPERVISED (2004- DATE) It is instructive to note that three (3) working at Research Institutes at present were unemployed at the time of PG training Interestingly, all the three government veterinarians- two from the Federal government and one from the UI hosting Oyo State-came in for PE training, after the 2008-2009 EDRSAIA training Obviously the implementation of the EDRSAIA PE training must have “opened the eyes” of the government veterinarians to the efficacy of PE methods application (see Anzaku S. A. (2009); 14
  15. 15. PE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGSThe author has delivered six (6) PE papers at local conferences,four of which were with supervised Masters students: i. Idowu O. and BABALOBI O. O (2007): The Place of Community Based Animal Health Workers (CBAHW) In Rural Livestock Health and Production Management in South-West Nigeria: A Case Study. Proceedings, Scientific Session of the 44th Annual Congress of the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association, Warri Delta State, Nigeria. Pp 265 -270. ii. BABALOBI O.O and Idowu O. (2007) Community Animal Health Workers as Agents of Positive Change in African Rural Livestock Communities: A Review. Proceedings, Scientific Session of the 44th Annual Congress of the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association, Warri Delta State, Nigeria. Pp 270-272. 15
  16. 16. PE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGSiii. Ogunwale Ibironke and BABALOBI O. O. (2007):Community Based Participatory Epizootiology of Livestockkept by Awotan Women, Ido LGA, Oyo State, Nigeria.Proceedings, Scientific Session of the 44th Annual Congress ofthe Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association, Warri DeltaState, Nigeria. Pp 293-296iv. Kareem A. A. and BABALOBI O. O. (2010):Participatory Baseline Survey of Rural Livestock HealthManagement Practices In Igangan Agro -Pastoral Zone, OyoState Nigeria: The Place Of Community Based Animal HealthWorkers. Presented at the 2010 47th Annual Congress of theNigerian Veterinary Medical Association, Makurdi, BenueState. October 2010. 16
  17. 17. PE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS The other two delivered at an international conference are from the presenter’s research:i. Babalobi O. O (2009): Application of Participatory Epizootiologyapproach to the monitoring and surveillance of Contagious BovinePleuro-pneumonia, an enzootic disease identified by settlers in a Fulaniagro-pastoralist settlement scheme, the Igangan Grazing Reserve, Oyostate, Southwest Nigeria. Pre-ISVEE XII workshop- Discussing theDevelopment of Methods for effective surveillance in LivestockPopulations. August 6-8, Durban, Republic of South Africa.ii. Babalobi O. O. (2009): Participatory Epizootiology Research ofSettled Pastoralists of the Igangan Grazing Reserve, Oyo state, SouthwestNigeria. ‘Epidemiology Unplugged-Providing power for better health’: TheTwelfth Conference of the International Society for VeterinaryEpidemiology and Economics (ISVEE XII). 10 - 14 August 2009, Durban,South Africa 17
  18. 18. PE PUBLICATIONS Five PE Publications Three (3) are co-publications from supervised PE students projects One is from the author’s research project The fifth is a problem-solving collaborative report from three PE practitioners- a veterinary academic,- a veterinary researcher and- a government veterinary officer. 18
  19. 19. PE CO-PUBLICATIONS i. Babalobi, O.O. and Idowu, O. (2005): ‘The Paradigm of Community-Based Participatory Epizootiology: A Review’. Tropical Veterinarian. Vol. 23 (3&4) 69-77. ii. Idowu O.S. and Babalobi O.O. (2010). Animal Health Management Perspectives of Rural Livestock Farmers in Southwest Nigeria: The Place of Community Based Animal Health Workers. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 31 (1), 26- 36. 2010 iii. Ogunwale I. and Babalobi O. O. (2010): Ethno- Veterinary Medicine Perspectives of Common Diseases and Health Problems of Livestock kept by Rural Women in South-West Nigeria: A Case Study. Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol. 31(4) 255 – 262. 19
  20. 20. PE RESEARCH PUBLICATIONBabalobi O. O. (2011). A Participatory EpizootiologyResearch of Settled Pastoralists in Igangan GrazingReserve, Southern Guinea Agro-Pastoral Zone, OyoState, Nigeria: First Report. Nigerian Veterinary Journal,Vol. 32 (1). 2011; andBabalobi O. O., M.B. Bolajoko and S.A. Anzaku (2011):Participatory animal disease surveillance, panacea to thebane of animal disease under-reporting in Nigeria: Acollaborative report. Tropical Veterinarian 29 (3) 36-40 20
  21. 21. WORKSHOP/ TRAINING LECTURES Beyond the walls of the University The author delivered the various PE Lecture presentations during i. the CDC/USAID/AFENET - NIGERIAN FIELD EPIDEMIOLOGY LABORATORY TRAINING PROGRAMME (N-FELTP) Zoonoses Outbreaks Surveillance and Management (ZOSM) Workshop Vom, Nigeria October 2009, and ii. NFELTP 2008 Cluster Set lectures in 2010: 21
  22. 22. Discussion At least one other departmental lecturer has shown interest in PE teaching. PE is gradually been adopted in veterinary circles in Nigeria especially by government veterinarians who have been exposed to PE training and PE is now included as part of the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program’s One Health Curriculum. 22
  23. 23. Discussion PE has been identified as a cheap, effective low capital input research projects by students and practitioners in Nigeria. Traditional settler research beneficiaries have been effectively involved in identification of local animal disease, production problems and need for improved animal disease outbreak notification, PE research led to Community Based Animal Health training of nominated pastoral settlers. 23
  24. 24. PE CONSTRAINSTS IN NIGERIA Misunderstanding and opposition of PE as a non- conventional and qualitative research approach from academic colleagues, Need to get more departmental lecturers to be PE compliant to prevent sole lecturing by the author and PE research funding poor in Nigeria. Out of the eight (8) Postgraduate students supervised between 2004 – date, only two (2) could be accommodated under the University Senate Grant. 24
  25. 25. PE CONSTRAINSTS IN NIGERIA Apart from University of Ibadan (and maybe one or two others), PE is not known to be taught in most veterinary faculties in Nigeria PE supportive institutional and policy frameworks are currently lacking in Nigeria the migratory pattern of pastoralists also affects effective year-round monitoring and surveillance of enzootic disease using PE 25
  26. 26. Conclusion and Recommendations There is support for PE as practical, effective low-cost and sustainable strategy for the identification, prevention, control, monitoring and surveillance of livestock diseases and production problems among pastoral communities in Nigeria. However, PE supportive institutional and policy frameworks, which are currently lacking in Nigeria, should first be developed and adopted. 26
  27. 27. Conclusion and Recommendations DVPHPM, UI should upgrade PE as a compulsory course on its own not part of another course It is necessary to encourage other veterinary faculties in Nigeria to include PE in their curriculum, and also adopt a standard PE curriculum for use in Nigeria. The regulatory Veterinary Council of Nigeria should adopt and make PE a core competent course at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels 27
  28. 28. Conclusion and Recommendations Need for ILRI/PENAPH to collaborate with the Universities in PE training in Nigeria (The 2008-2009 EDRAISA training held in same Ibadan without involving University of Ibadan/DVPHPM/the author) AFENET should support and promote PE in NFELTP Africa as much as in East, Central and South Africa PENAPH should support and promote PE in West Africa as much as in it is doing in Asia 28
  29. 29. REFERENCESAnzaku S. A. (2009): Participatory Approaches in Disease Surveillance: The Nigeria Experience.Presented at the Nigeria Short Course on Control of Zoonotic Infections, Surveillance, Investigation,Detection and Response, National Veterinary Research Institute NVRI, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. 13thOctober, 2009.Babalobi O.O, O. O. (2005): ’Professional Issues for the Nigerian Veterinarian in the twenty-first century.Nigeria Veterinary Journal. Vol. 26 (2). 1-7.Babalobi O.O (2011): Early Detection Reporting Surveillance: Avian Influenza in Africa (EDRSAIA)EvaluationCatley, A. (2005). Participatory Epidemiology: A Guide for Trainers. AfricanUnion/Interafrican Bureaufor Animal Resources, Nairobi.Catley Andy and Jeffrey Mariner (Eds.) (2001). Participatory epidemiology: lesson learned and futuredirections. Proceedings of a workshop held inAddis Ababa, Ethiopia, Nov.15th-17th 2001Mariner, J.C., 2000. Manual on Participatory Epidemiology. FAO Animal Health Manual No. 10. Food andAgriculture Organisation, Rome. 29
  30. 30. APPRECIATIONS God’s Spirit for directing my path into PE Andy Catley for initiation into PE CVM US for the PE training Andy Catley, Jeff Mariner et al for their publications Dept. of VPHPM, University of Ibadan for the platform My postgraduate PE students UI for the Senate Research Grants CDC/AFENET/NFELTP for extra- university lecture platforms ILRI/PENAPH for the invitation to PENAPH Thailand 2012 Dr S.A. Anzaku for presenting on my behalf This distinguished audience for the attention 30