ILOA Galaxy Forum USA 2013 - Marco Pavone

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ILOA Galaxy Forum USA 2013 - Marco Pavone

  1. 1. Surface exploration of small solar system bodies: challenges and prospects Marco Pavone Autonomous Systems Laboratory Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Stanford University Email: pavone@stanford.edu Website: http://www.stanford.edu/~pavone/index.html July 4, 2013 Galaxy Forum USA 2013 M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 1
  2. 2. Space rovers M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 2
  3. 3. Space rovers How would you change the design for low gravity environments? M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 2
  4. 4. Small bodies M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 3
  5. 5. Small bodies exploration so far M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 4
  6. 6. Future: it’s all about close proximity observations... M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 5
  7. 7. ...and sampling... M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 6
  8. 8. ...in risky areas... M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 7
  9. 9. ...and very specific regions... M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 8
  10. 10. ...at multiple sites M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 9
  11. 11. Concepts for in-situ exploration: static platforms Philae lander • Payload of ESA’s Rosetta spacecraft (2014) • Designed to land on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Comet hopper • Mission to comet 46P/Wirtanen • Preselected for a NASA Discovery-class mission in 2011 M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 10
  12. 12. Concepts for in situ exploration: mobile platforms Wheeled rovers: Nanorover • Designed by NASA-JPL for Hayabusa mission (2000) • Project cancelled Spring-actuated hoppers: PROP-F • Payload for Phobos 2 Soviet mission (1988) • Mission failed • JPL also developed three generations of spring-actuated hoppers M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 11
  13. 13. Concepts for in situ exploration: mobile platforms Internally-actuated hoppers: MINERVA • Payload of JAXA’s Hayabusa mission (2003) • Deployment failed Internally-actuated hoppers: MASCOT • Payload of JAXA’s Hayabusa 2 • Developed by DLR • To be launched in 2014 M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 12
  14. 14. Spacecraft/rover hybrids for small bodies exploration Develop a mission architecture that allows the systematic and affordable in-situ exploration of small Solar System bodies Key idea: minimalistic, internally-actuated mobile robotic platforms M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 13 Joint work with R. Allen (Stanford), J. Castillo (JPL), J. Lang (JPL), I. Nesnas (JPL), N. Strange (JPL), and J. Hoffman (MIT). Funded by 2011 NASA NIAC program.
  15. 15. Robotic platform Key philosophy: Exploit low gravity, rather than facing it as a constraint • Minimalistic platform specifically designed for microgravity: Systematic exploration (all access mobility, versatility and scalability) 3 mobility options: 1) tumbling, 2) hopping, 3) pseudo-orbital flight M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 14
  16. 16. Basic concept Basic concept: Swapping angular momentum H = Iplatform ωplatform + 3 i=1 Iflywheel,i ωflywheel,i Reaction torque Rotating flywheel Robot enclosure Attitude-controlled hop Torque generated by flywheel M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 15
  17. 17. Prototypes and test beds Prototypes: Motor Controller Motor & Encoder Brake Flywheel Processor Can Adapter Batteries DC/DC Converter Test beds: β Spinning mass Air-bearing platform Tilted table Emulated gravity β M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 16
  18. 18. Reference mission to Phobos Main questions: 1 What is the origin of Phobos materials? Phobos comes from Mars? Phobos is a captured asteroid? 2 Water and organics at Phobos? “Blue” spectral unit water-rich? Putative phyllosilicates associated with organics? 3 What is the structure of Phobos soil? Degree of maturation of the regolith? 4 What is the nature of the surface dynamics? Degree of mobility of the soil? Dark dust Phobos’ bulk material? Image small crater structure Ejecta from impactor? Search for block ejecta ? Fine-Scale Sampling of Phobos’ Surface Diversity 5Km M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 17
  19. 19. Mission operations 1 Initial reconnaissance of object 2 Deployment of hybrid 3 Initial “free roaming” by hybrid 4 Command and execute guided rolling/hopping trajectories via synergistic mission operations hybrid relies on the mothership for localization/trajectory planning M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 18
  20. 20. Conclusion • Robotic exploration of small bodies will be one of the main NASA objectives in the years to come requires disruptively new mobility concepts ad hoc for low gravity environments • Spacecraft/rover hybrids: new paradigm for in-situ exploration of small bodies technology to obtain new science at an affordable cost proof of concept successfully demonstrated Contact: pavone@stanford.edu Website: http://www.stanford.edu/~pavone/index.html M. Pavone, Stanford Aero/Astro In-situ small bodies exploration 19

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