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ILOA Galaxy Forum Canada 2013 - John Chapman

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ILOA Galaxy Forum Canada 2013 - John Chapman

  1. 1. MINING THE MOON:CANADIAN EXPERTISE FORTHE NEW FRONTIER OF SPACERESOURCE UTILIZATIONCANADIAN GALAXY FORUM 2013SPONSORED BY ILOABCIT AEROSPACE CAMPUS, RICHMOND, B.C., CANADAMAY 25, 2013JOHN A. CHAPMAN, BSC, FCIM, PENG (MINING ENGINEER)J.A. CHAPMAN MINING SERVICES, WHITE ROCK, B.C., CANADAAFTER: CHAPMAN & SCHULTE, 8THILEWG CONFERENCE, PAPER NO. 102BEIJING, CHINA, JULY 26, 2006“Without the products of mining, humans would beback in the Stone Age”
  2. 2. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006INTRODUCTIONHUMANS CANNOT SURVIVE AS A SINGLEPLANET SPECIES AS EVIDENCED IN THEEARTH’S FOSSIL RECORD OF MASSEXTINCTIONS OF LIFE CAUSED MAINLY BYCOMET/ASTEROID IMPACTS ANDSUPER-VOLCANIC ERUPTIONSTHE DINOSAURS HAD NOSPACE PROGRAM – THEY DIDNOT SURVIVE“If you do it when you need it, it’s too late,you missed the boat.” Wernher von Braun
  3. 3. CANADA IS WORLD LEADER IN MINERALEXPLORATION• CANADA HAS 7% OF LAND AREA ON EARTH AND 0.5%OF POPULATION• 20% OF WORLD MINERAL EXPLORATION CONDUCTEDIN CANADA• CANADIAN COMPANIES CONDUCT 43% OF THEWORLD’S MINERAL EXPLORATION• 45% OF THE WORLD’S $12.7 BILLION RAISED FORMINERAL EXPLORATION IS VIA COMPANIES LISTED ONCANADIAN STOCK EXCHANGES• VANCOUVER AND TORONTO HAVE MOREGEOSCIENTISTS PER CAPITA THAN ANY OTHER CITIESIN THE WORLDINTRODUCTIONAfter Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006
  4. 4. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006• Challenge• Objective• Strategy• Space Investment• Moon/Mars Program• Lunar Environment South Polar Region• Lunar Surface Mine Development• Equipment Selection• Remote Control & Monitoring• Recommendations
  5. 5. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006The Challenge• Humans cannot survive as a single planetspecies as evidenced in the Earth’s fossilrecord of mass extinctions of life causedmainly by comet/asteroid impacts and super-volcanic eruptions• Humans have a genetic “wiring” that drivesexploration (risk) for discovery of new placesand things (reward) – the earth no longerholds the exploration potential nor therewards needed by society – it is time tomove onto the rest of the Solar SystemDUNCAN STEEL – TARGET EARTH
  6. 6. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006ObjectiveTO CONTRIBUTE TO ACTIVITIESRELATED TO SAVING AND EXPANDINGTHE HUMAN SPECIES AND CREATINGGREAT WEALTH FOR SOCIETY
  7. 7. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Strategy• Create an investment environment thatrewards space development by privateenterprise• Support the lunar/mars program• Develop lunar base systems and proceduresthat as much as possible use technologiesand equipment applications from Earth (low-cost, versatile, redundant and reliable)• Support enabling “foundation” technologiesfor space transportation, power/heat,communications and life support
  8. 8. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Space FinancingThe Space industry should lobby national and stategovernments to offer a tax incentive to its citizens forinvestment in space science and technology related tothe exploration and human settlement of space. Thatis, allow individuals and/or corporations an immediate100% tax write-off for investment in space relatedactivities similar to the Canadian flow-through and tax-credit incentive to investorsin Canadian mineral explorationactivities. This will bring largenumbers of private investors intothe space program.
  9. 9. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Moon/MarsProgram• Develop a permanent lunar base for NEOdeflection, deeper space exploration anddevelopment (mars), as well as exploitingresources on the lunar surface that could be usedfor those missions and in high earth orbit (satelliterepairs).• High resolution robotic and/or remote sensingmissions to the moon beginning 2008• Lunar manned missions beginning 2020 (Chinamay be first)
  10. 10. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Launch Complex 39 with the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) andSaturn V being transported to the launch pad.Saturn V Launch(7.5M lb thrust)Kennedy Space CenterUSA
  11. 11. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006CONSTELLATION PROGRAMAres V: Heavy-Lift Launch VehicleAres I: Crew Launch VehicleSATURN V: 111 m long, 2.9M kg launch mass,33.6M N launch thrust,129K kg to LEO, 49K kg to MoonARES: 109 m long (V), 3.7M kg launch mass (V+I)53.3M N launch thrust (V+I)148k kg to LEO, 64.8k kg to MoonSpecific Impulse: solid boosters ~265 s (vac)liquid hydrogen/oxygen ~450 s (vac)
  12. 12. HEAVY LIFT TO THE MOON OF EQUIPMENTSUPPLIES AND HUMANS (>2,000 TONNES)ONCE LUNAR BASE SITE LOCATIONDETERMINED BY ROBOTIC MISSIONSMASS ASSEMBLY-LINE PRODUCTION OFSPACEX HEAVY-LIFT ROCKETS TOFACILITATE RELIABLE AND LOW COSTLAUNCHES TO THE MOON AND MARSSPACE EXPLORATION TECHNOLOGIESCORP (SPACEX) BECOMES WORLD’SLARGEST MARKET CAP PUBLIC LISTEDCOMPANYAfter Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006
  13. 13. NASAASSEMBLY OF SPACECRAFT IN LOW EARTH ORBITAfter Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006"Far better it is to dare mightythings, to win glorioustriumphs, even thoughcheckered by failure, than totake rank with those poorspirits who neither enjoy norsuffer much, because theylive in that gray twilight thatknows no victory nor defeat."Theodore Roosevelt
  14. 14. NERVA SOLID-CORE DESIGNAD ASTRA PLASMA ROCKETAfter Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006
  15. 15. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Lunar Surface “Orebody”Location & Mine Development• Remote sensing is now determining the bestbroad location to robotically sample the Lunarsurface for hydrogen, oxygen and hydrocarbons• Robotic sampling will determine the best specificlocation for humans to directly test (drill) forconcentrations of these elements and molecules• Humans will need to use the same methods asused on earth in determining the feasible/optimumcombination of mining location(s) as well asexcavation and extraction methods (on Earth –maximize DCF-NPV of deposit)
  16. 16. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Aster Multi-Spectral Remote Sensing Image of Taseko Lakes Area of British Columbia - KaoliniteTerra Spacecraft: NASA & Japan Ministry of Economy Trade & IndustryAster Images (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission & Reflection Radiometer)
  17. 17. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission emphasizes the overall objective of obtainingdata that will facilitate returning humans safely to the Moon and enable extended stays.+ Characterization of deep space radiation in Lunar orbit+ Geodetic global topography+ High spatial resolution hydrogen mapping+ Temperature mapping in polar shadowed regions+ Imaging of surface in permanently shadowed regions+ Identification of near-surface water ice in polar cold traps+ Assessment of features for landing sites+ Characterization of polar region lighting environmentNASA’S LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER (LRO) - 2008The 500 kg spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in October 2008. It will be a 3-axis stabilizedplatform with both stored data and real-time downlink capabilities at 100Mbps with delivery ofup to 900Gb/day of observation to Earth. It will achieve a ~40 km “circular”, polar orbit in orderto measure:
  18. 18. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Exploration & Development Strategy(Highland Regolith to Crater Water Ice)• Commence mining at the highland lunar baseutilizing regolith (non-water) for processing tohydrogen and oxygen (low risk low reward)• Once systems and procedures are establishedbring in larger equipment & use the originalsmall equipment for crater bottom exploration(water ice) – close to or at lunar base• Enter old crater (water ice and other “volatiles”from comet debris) with partly shaded bottomwith gentle sloping walls for ease of ingress andegress to the shaded “cold sink”• Develop and operate a hydrogen, oxygen, andhydrocarbon mining and processing facility in ornear the crater bottom (high risk high reward)
  19. 19. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006090180850S LATMALAPERT MTN.~8,000 m above mtn. baseSHOEMAKER CRATER51 km diameter2.5 km deep2700LONGNEAR SIDEFAR SIDESOUTH POLARREGION OF THEMOON
  20. 20. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Lunar EnvironmentSouth Polar Region• Temperature: Highlands -53oC +/-10, Craters -233oC +/-0(equatorial: -18oC +/-140)• Atmosphere: thin, essentially non-existent (“hard”vacuum)• Radiation: high ionizing radiation as very thin to no lunaratmosphere (significant danger to humans)• Meteoroids: direct high velocity impact as no atmosphereto “burn” them up• Gravity: 1.62m/s2(~1/6g on Earth)• Length of Day: 29.53 Earth days• Dust: very dusty and a photoelectric change inconductivity at sunrise/sunset causes particles to levitateand adhere to surfaces (hard on equipment)• Seismic Activity: few and of low magnitude (<4 on Richterscale)
  21. 21. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Lunar Base Infrastructure• Nuclear power/heat – probably gas turbinemodular helium reactor (~1MW electric and~1.5MW heat) with associated agriculture andaquaculture modules• Human habitat facilities and repair andmaintenance facility mainly for mining andprocessing equipment• Wireless WiMAX mesh network forpositioning, monitoring, guidance andcommunicating with optical link with EarthInternet• Spaceport near lunar mining base
  22. 22. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Arctic ExperienceMining Equipment Selection• Many years of experience in open-pit miningin Northern Canada has shown that mobilemining equipment can operate with highavailability and high productivity in a verycold (-50oC) and dusty environment• Equipment design has continued to improveto prevent “brittle” fracture and lubricantsand fluids have been developed that functionvery well in the harsh Arctic environment• Heat tracing of structural components andfluid reservoir heating has all served toimprove equipment operations
  23. 23. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Remote Mining LocationSystems & Procedures• Carefully select crew members to be experienced andmentally stable (capable)• Maintain good crew quarters and medical facilities to ensurehigh moral• Reliable source of electric power, heat and life supportsystems is essential• Cross train crew members to enhance multi-taskingcapabilities• Standardize equipment as much as possible includingmechanical, electrical and hydraulic - functions and fittings• Maintain sufficient inventory of spare parts and materials tooperate efficiently• Maintain a modern machine shop with maintenance andrepair facilities to optimize equipment availability andproductivity• Maintain an efficient communications network on, to/fromthe operations site, with Internet access to the crew
  24. 24. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Standardize Systemsto Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon• Rocket propulsion: chemical (H2 & O2),nuclear thermal (H2 or H2O), nuclear thermalwith O2 augmentation (H2 & O2)• Humans: O2 & H2O• Agriculture and Aquaculture: H2O & CO2• Internal combustion engines: H2 & O2 andhydrocarbons (CH4 & O2)• Mobile equipment fuel cells: H2 & O2
  25. 25. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Mining - Drilling the “Orebody”• The target area located by robotic sampling will need tobe auger drilled to ~2 meters depth on a grid pattern todefine a large enough hydrogen and oxygen resource tosatisfy the human (air and water) and equipment (rocketfuel, and fuel cell fuel) needs for at least ten years• Neutron activation probe would analyze for hydrogen atthe borehole and report results in real time• The use of hammer seismic may assist in defining thelunar bedrock profile and any regolith subsurfacevariations within the development area prior to drilling• If water ice and hydrocarbons happen to be present in thehighland regolith that will create excitement (high-gradeore) but it could create significant mining challenges if itis massive and cements the regolith particles – hard andabrasive material difficult to drill and to excavate (likeAlberta Oil Sands)
  26. 26. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Mining - Equipment Selection• Equipment must be versatile so that it can performboth development and operations tasks• First equipment should be small, and then asdevelopment progresses and operations mature,larger (but similar) equipment should be deployed• The first small equipment could then be adapted(nuclear power, extra heat tracing, insulating, etc.)for exploration of deep cold craters in the vicinity ofthe lunar mining base exploring for water icedeposits (high risk, high reward venture)• The swing function on equipment will need to bemodified to slow acceleration and deceleration sothat F=ma does not over-balance the normal force onthe machine in the low lunar gravity (~1/6 Earth’s)
  27. 27. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Komatsu PC18M-2(Earth 1g Environment)Power 11.2 kWOperating Weight 1933 kgGround Pressure 0.33 kg/cm2Travel Speed 2.3 km/hr (low)4.3 km/hr (high)Gradeability 30 degreesDrawbar Pull 1700 kgDigging Height 3615 mmBucket Reach 3935 mmDigging Depth 1785 mmKomatsu PC35MR-2(Earth 1g Environment)Power 21.7 kWOperating Weight 3840 kgGround Pressure 0.35 kg/cm2Travel Speed 2.8 km/hr (low)4.6 km/hr (high)Gradeability 30 degreesDrawbar Pull 3600 kgDigging Height 5010 mmBucket Reach 4550 mmDigging Depth 2650 mmTHE HYDRAULICEXCAVATOR IS THEMOST VERSATILEPIECE OFCONSTRUCTIONEQUIPMENTAVAILABLE TODAY
  28. 28. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006QUICK COUPLINGATTACHMENTS WILLFACILITATE SIGNIFICANTVERSATILITY, INCLUDING:(A) ROCK BUCKET(B) ROCK BREAKING(C) AUGER DRILLING(D) VIBRATING COMPACTOR& SEISMIC HAMMER(E) MATERIAL HANDLING ARM A BC D E
  29. 29. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Lunar mining would be done during the daytime and processing would be doneat night. Operation crews would include, at least: mine engineer, extractivemetallurgical engineer, electronics technician, electrician, mechanic/welder, millwrightand equipment specialist – they would be cross trained to both mine and processand they would need to have Industrial first aid training
  30. 30. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Lunar Excavator & PoweredSide Dump TrailerEARTH EXAMPLE TRACTOR TRAILER EARTH EXAMPLE SIDE DUMP TRAILERSTRAILER CARBODY SAME AS EXCAVATOR & HYDRAULIC POWERED
  31. 31. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006USE PARALLEL CUT MINING METHOD (90 DEGREE SWING)
  32. 32. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006TRANSPORTING HYDROGEN & OXYGEN TO SPACEPORT
  33. 33. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006MOBILE HUMAN HABITAT (REFUGE) FOR EXPLORATION VENTURES& FOR REMOTE CONTROL CENTER
  34. 34. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006REMOTE CONTROL &MONITORING OF EQUIPMENT• Establish local metric grid coordinate system (if there is still nolunar UTM high resolution datum available)• Deploy antenna array (at least 6) around perimeter of lunarbase for communication (~10m baud) and positioning (+/-10cm)• Use WiMAX/IEEE 802.16 broadband wireless mesh network onand around the lunar base for positioning, equipment andoperations health/safety monitoring, remote control,autonomous functions as well as performance monitoring andreporting• There are several companies on Earth now successfullyproviding the positioning, control and monitoring systems,mentioned above, to surface and underground mines• Communicate with Earth using optical transmission via relaysatellite parked at Earth-Lunar L1 point and the UniversalSpace Network• The end-to-end system connectivity would be TCP/IP compliantand be routered into the Earth’s Internet for mission controland public access
  35. 35. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006Vinton G. Cerf, PhDVP & Chief Internet EvangelistGoogleKey developer of the Internetnow developing the InterPlanetaryInternet (IPN)Kirari-Artemis-Ground Bi-Directional OpticalCommunications, December 2005One MeterDiameterOpticalGround
  36. 36. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006RECOMMENDATIONSEducation-Financing-Transportation-Power/Heat-Communication• The most important factors that will provide thefoundation for commercial space development are:– Education of students and the public about space– Private sector funding (tax-incentive driven)– Commissioning of reusable Nuclear ThermalRockets with LOX augmentation– Commissioning of small Gas Turbine ModularHelium Reactors– Deployment of optical (laser) communicationssystems compatible with the Internet• Nuclear technology is an essential component tolunar and general space development and must beembraced by governments and developers
  37. 37. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006APPLYING EARTH MINERAL EXPLORATION & MINING EXPERTISE ON OUR MOON –LUNAR SPACE PORT WITH ADJACENT CANADIAN MINING OPERATIONS:DEFLECTING DANGEROUS NEAR EARTH OBJECTS, SERVICING GSO AND GEOEARTH SATELLITES AND PREPARING TO START COLONIZING MARSTHE MOON HAS ~1/6 THE SURFACEGRAVITY AND ~1/4 THE RADIUSOF EARTH – SO THE WORK REQUIREDTO ESCAPE THE MOON’S GRAVITY FIELD
  38. 38. After Chapman/Schulte Beijing 2006

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