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Galaxy Forum Southeast Asia 2013 - Dr. KK Cheong

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Galaxy Forum Southeast Asia 2013 - Dr. KK Cheong

  1. 1. Astronomy, Calendar & Society Galaxy Forum 2013 Southeast Asia 21st Century Galaxy Education
  2. 2. Astronomy, Calendar & Society Singapore is a multicultural society. This is reflected in the official annual public holidays in Singapore.
  3. 3. Culture defined Culture is a term used by social scientists for a peoples whole way of life. It includes arts, beliefs, customs, inventions, language, technology and traditions.Anthropologist James Spradley gave an elegantly succinctdefinition of culture, in which every word was carefullychosen: “Culture is the acquired knowledge people use to interpret experience and generate behaviour.”
  4. 4. The English word calendar is derived from the Latinword kalendae, which was the Latin name of the firstday of every month.A calendar is a bunch of papers stapled togetherfor people to keep track of the days or holidays. – Kristen MathieuA calendar is a system of organizing days for social,religious, commercial, or administrative purposes.This is done by giving names to periods of time,typically days, weeks, months, and years. A date is thedesignation of a single, specific day within such asystem.
  5. 5. * * The Holidays Act was passed by theSingapore Parliament in December 1966.
  6. 6. The Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura (MUIS), also known asthe Islamic Religious Council of Singapore, is to advise thePresident of Singapore on all matters relating to Islam inSingapore. “The Islamic Calendar for Singapore” ispublished annually.
  7. 7. In Singapore, the Hindu Endowments Board makes anestimate of the date of Deepavali for the year, and waits forcalendars from India to appear before the date of the publicholiday is confirmed by the Ministry of Manpower.
  8. 8. The Purple Mountain Observatory in Nanjing is the statutoryorganization to compile the traditional calendar of Chinabased on astronomical calculations and historical rules onintercalation. “The Chinese Calendar of 200 Hundred Years(1901 – 2100)” was published in 1994.
  9. 9. Dates of Movable FestivalsFestival 2013 2012 2011 Chinese 10 Feb 23 Jan 3 Feb 21 Jan ↔ 21 FebNew Year Good 29 Mar 6 Apr 22 Apr 20 Mar ↔ 23 Apr Friday Vesak 24 May 5 May 17 May 6 May ↔ 5 Jun DayHari Raya About 11 days 8 Aug 19 Aug 30 Aug Puasa earlier each yearHari Raya About 11 days 15 Oct 26 Oct 6 Nov Haji earlier each yearDeepavali 3 Nov 13 Nov 26 Oct 13 Oct ↔ 14 Nov
  10. 10. Equinox
  11. 11. People watched the sun rise during a winter solstice celebration at Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England.
  12. 12. This 2300-year-old solar observatory was discovered at Chankillo in coastal Peru. In comparison, the earliest portion of Stonehenge is said to have been completed around 3000 BCE.
  13. 13. Tide Chart: high tides and low tides in Singapore March 9, 2013
  14. 14. In astronomy, several kinds of year are distinguished, having slightly different lengths. The solar year, also called tropical year, or year of the seasons, is theinterval between two successive passages of the Sun through the vernal equinox. Note that any start andend point could be used as long as the Sun reappears in the same position one year later. One mean solar year is approximately 365.24218967 days long(365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.1875 seconds)
  15. 15. A solar calendar is based on perceived seasonal changessynchronized to the apparent motion of the Sun; anexample is the Gregorian calendar.A lunar calendar is synchronized to the motion of theMoon (lunar phases); an example is the Islamic calendar.A lunisolar calendar is based on a combination of bothsolar and lunar reckonings; examples are the traditionalcalendar of China, the Hindu Calendar in India orthe Hebrew calendar.
  16. 16. The fundamental problem of the calendar is the imperfect divisibility of whole numbers into an irrational number(fitting whole days into a month; fitting whole days or whole months into a year).
  17. 17. A typical solution for forcing synchronizationis called intercalation.This is an artificial harmonization that, afterthe fractional remainders have sufficientlyaccumulated, adds a whole day (or month)into the cycle.An alternative solution is to ignore themismatch and simply let the cycles continueto drift apart.
  18. 18. The general strategies include:The solar calendar solution, which fits artificialmonths into the year, adding an extra day into onemonth when needed, while ignoring the lunar cycleof new/full moons.The lunar calendar solution, which fits days into thelunar cycle month, adding an extra day whenneeded, while ignoring the annual solar cycle of theseasons.The lunisolar calendar solution, which keeps boththe lunar and solar cycles, adding an extra monthinto the year when needed.
  19. 19. Dates of Movable FestivalsFestival 2013 2012 2011 Chinese 10 Feb 23 Jan 3 Feb 21 Jan ↔ 21 FebNew Year Good 29 Mar 6 Apr 22 Apr 20 Mar ↔ 23 Apr Friday Vesak 24 May 5 May 17 May 6 May ↔ 5 Jun DayHari Raya About 11 days 8 Aug 19 Aug 30 Aug Puasa earlier each yearHari Raya About 11 days 15 Oct 26 Oct 6 Nov Haji earlier each yearDeepavali 3 Nov 13 Nov 26 Oct 13 Oct ↔ 14 Nov
  20. 20. Vesak Day 5th Full Moon Good Friday Chinese New Year After 3rd Deepavali 2nd New Moon Full Moon 11th New Moon Winter Spring Summer Autumn Winter Solstice Equinox Solstice Equinox Solstice(around 21 (around 20 (around 21 (around 22 (around 21December) March) June) September) December)
  21. 21. Thanks for listening

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