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Galaxy Forum Kansas 2011_element connections v1.1

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Galaxy Forum Kansas 2011_element connections v1.1

  1. 1. Chemistry Connections to the Universe Kay Neill, Presenter
  2. 2. Kansas Science Standards Grades 8-12 <ul><li>STANDARD 4: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE – The student will develop an understanding of energy in the earth system, geochemical cycles, the formation and organization of the earth system, the dynamics of the earth/moon/sun system, and the organization and development of the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark 4: The student will develop an understanding of the organization of the universe, and its development. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>STANDARD 2B: PHYSICS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICS – The student will develop an understanding of the structure of atoms, compounds, chemical reactions, and the interactions of energy and matter. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark 2: The student will understand the conservation of mass and energy, and the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>STANDARD 2A: CHEMISTRY </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>CHEMISTRY – The student will develop an understanding of the structure of atoms, compounds, chemical reactions, and the interactions of energy and matter. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark 1: The student will understand the structure of the atom. </li></ul>
  3. 3. STANDARD 4: EARTH and SPACE SCIENCE Grades 5-7 <ul><li>EARTH and SPACE SCIENCE – The student will apply process skills to explore and develop an understanding of the structure of the earth system, earth’s history, and earth in the solar system. </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark 3: The student will identify and classify stars, planets, and other solar system components. </li></ul>
  4. 4. NASA’s Imagine the Universe <ul><li>Website: http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov </li></ul><ul><li>Ages 14 and up. </li></ul><ul><li>Click on Teacher’s Corner to find “What is Your Cosmic </li></ul><ul><li>Connection to the Elements”. </li></ul><ul><li>The Power Point presentation today came from this website, but was modified by the presenter. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Elementary Connections
  6. 6. Top 10 Elements in the Human Body <ul><li>Element by # atoms </li></ul><ul><li>10. Magnesium (Mg) 0.03% </li></ul><ul><li>9. Chlorine (Cl) 0.04% </li></ul><ul><li>8. Sodium (Na) 0.06% </li></ul><ul><li>7. Sulfur (S) 0.06% </li></ul><ul><li>6. Phosphorous (P) 0.20% </li></ul><ul><li>5. Calcium (Ca) 0.24% </li></ul><ul><li>4. Nitrogen (N) 1.48% </li></ul><ul><li>3. Carbon (C) 9.99% </li></ul><ul><li>2. Oxygen (O) 26.33% </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hydrogen (H) 61.56% </li></ul>
  7. 7. Your Cosmic Connection to the Elements?
  8. 8. The Big Bang
  9. 9. The Big Bang Cosmology <ul><li>The expansion of the universe began at a finite time in the past, in a state of enormous density, pressure and temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Big Bang” is a highly successful family of theories with no obvious competitor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains what we see, and has made several successful predictions. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis <ul><li>Within first three minutes, Hydrogen & Helium formed. </li></ul><ul><li>At t =1 s, T=10,000,000,000 K: soup of particles: photons, electrons, positrons, protons, neutrons. Particles created & destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>At t =3 min, T=1,000,000,000 K: p+n => D </li></ul><ul><li>D + D => He </li></ul>
  11. 11. Small Stars
  12. 12. Small Stars: Fusion of light elements Fusion: (at 15 million degrees !) 4 ( 1 H) => 4 He + 2 e + + 2 neutrinos + energy Where does the energy come from ? Mass of four 1 H > Mass of one 4 He E = mc 2
  13. 13. Small Stars to Red Giants <ul><li>After Hydrogen is exhausted in core, </li></ul><ul><li>Energy released from nuclear fusion no longer counter-acts inward force of gravity. </li></ul><ul><li>Core collapses, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic energy of collapse converted into heat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This heat expands the outer layers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile, as core collapses, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing Temperature and Pressure ... </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Beginning of Heavier Elements <ul><li>At 100 million degrees Celsius, Helium fuses: </li></ul><ul><li>3 ( 4 He) => 12 C + energy </li></ul><ul><li>After Helium exhausted, small star not large enough to attain temperatures necessary to fuse Carbon. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Large Stars
  16. 16. Heavy Elements from Large Stars <ul><li>Large stars also fuse Hydrogen into Helium, and Helium into Carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>But their larger masses lead to higher temperatures, which allow fusion of Carbon into Magnesium, etc. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Element Formation through Fusion 16 O + 16 O 32 S + energy 4 He + 16 O 20 Ne + energy Light Elements Heavy Elements 4 ( 1 H) 4 He + energy 3( 4 He) 12 C + energy 12 C + 12 C 24 Mg + energy 4 He + 12 C 16 O + energy 28 Si + 7( 4 He) 56 Ni + energy 56 Fe
  18. 18. Supernova
  19. 19. Supernova <ul><li>Fusion of Iron takes energy, rather than releases energy. </li></ul><ul><li>So fusion stops at Iron. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy released from nuclear fusion no longer counter-acts inward force of gravity. </li></ul><ul><li>But now there is nothing to stop gravity. </li></ul><ul><li>Massive star ends its life in supernova explosion. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Supernova <ul><li>Explosive power of a supernova: </li></ul><ul><li>Disperses elements created in large stars. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates new elements, especially those heavier than Iron. </li></ul>All X-ray Energies Silicon Calcium Iron
  21. 21. Cosmic Rays
  22. 22. Cosmic Rays <ul><li>Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron are difficult to produce in stars. </li></ul><ul><li>(Li, Be, and B are formed in the fusion chains, but they are unstable at high temperatures, and tend to break up into residues of He, which are very stable). </li></ul><ul><li>So what is the origin of these rare elements? </li></ul><ul><li>=> Collisions of Cosmic Rays with Hydrogen & Helium in interstellar space. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Cosmic Rays Collisions with ISM Lithium, beryllium, and boron and sub-iron enhancements attributed to nuclear fragmentation of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and iron with interstellar matter (primarily hydrogen and helium). (CNO or Fe) + (H & He) ISM  (LiBeB or sub-Fe) Light nucleus Light nucleus Interstellar matter (~1 hydrogen atom per cm 3 ) Cosmic ray
  24. 24. Cosmic Elements White - Big Bang Pink - Cosmic Rays Yellow - Small Stars Green - Large Stars Blue - Supernovae
  25. 25. Your Cosmic Connection to the Elements?
  26. 26. Cosmic Connections To make an apple pie from scratch, you must first invent the universe. Carl Sagan

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