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SWAN
(Social Wellbeing in Ageing Nations)
Understanding social relationships in
Japan and the UK
Join the conversation: @i...
What is ILC?
ILC is the UK’s specialist think tank on the impact of longevity on
society and what happens next. We:
• Are ...
Partners Programme
Be part of what happens next
Join the conversation: @ilcuk
#SWAN #SocialRelationships
Welcome and
introduction from Chair
Dr Brian Beach, Senior Research Fellow, ILC
Join the conversation: @ilcuk
#SWAN #Socia...
Dr Noriko Cable
Senior Research Fellow
University College London
Join the conversation: @ilcuk
#SWAN #SocialRelationships
How the UK-Japan SWAN(Social
connections and Well-being across
Ageing Nations) help our work in
healthy ageing?
Noriko Cab...
What is UK-Japan SWAN project all about?
• An ESRC funded partnership project, started January
2019
• To strengthen UK-Jap...
What is UK-Japan SWAN project all about?
• Social relationships- a fundamental desire to form a relationship
• Integration...
Who are the project member?
• Tarani Chandola (University of Manchester)
• Urszula Tymoszuk (Centre for Performance
Scienc...
What UK-Japan SWAN project will deliver?
• Website established
– www.soccah-net.org
• Linking up with MailChimp and Q&A fo...
1. Available data resources : What SWAN can offer to you?
To explore healthy ageing, you can use:
• English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)
– Launched 2002, targeting aged 50+ ...
Extendable to other counties via Gateway to Global
Aging Data
Source: g2aging.org
Gateway to Global Aging Data: What is it?
• A platform for population-based ageing data across the world (NIA)
• Studies h...
Existing harmonised data
References available
Comparability: Survey year
Variables: ELSA vs JSTAR
• Social network related
ELSA w3 (2006) JSTAR w1 (2007)
-Household members: Relationships to the
...
ELSA (w3) JSTAR(w1)
Positive vs negative aspects of social support from
partner, children, or family members and friends.
...
What else could we use?
• Health
– ADL
– IADL
– CES-D, i.e. depression
– Health conditions, hypertension, diabetes,
cancer...
Research examples of cross-national comparative work:
ELSA vs. Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES)
• Baseline st...
ELSA and JAGES: Social isolation & loneliness
• Tsuji et al. (2020). Change in the prevalence of social isolation
among th...
Cross-national comparison of social isolation and all-cause
mortality among older adults: A 10-year follow-up study in
Eng...
Summary:
• We are in a fortunate position to conduct cross-national work in
examining social relationships and health
– Da...
Acknowledgement:
• ESRC
• ILC-UK
• Chris Garrington
• Advisory board: Mel Bartley, Amanda Sacker, Aaron Williamon,
Morten ...
Any questions?
@SOCCAH_network @nkcable
or at www.soccah-net.org
Email: n.cable@ucl.ac.uk
Q&A for Dr Cable
Please submit your questions via
the Q&A tab
Join the conversation: @ilcuk
#SWAN #SocialRelationships
Prof Tarani Chandola
Professor of Medical Sociology
University of Manchester
Join the conversation: @ilcuk
#SWAN #SocialRe...
Measurement in cross-national comparative
research
Tarani Chandola
University of Manchester
tarani.chandola@manchester.ac....
Outline
- Systematic and Random measurement error
- Examples of measurement issues in comparative research
How to compare measurements in different
countries?
Increasing availability of large cross-cultural and cross-country
surv...
Some SF-36 questions
True Score Theory
Observed
score =
True
score
+
Random
error
T e+X
The Error Component
T e+X
Two components:
The Error Component
T e+X
Two components:
• Random error
• Systematic error
er
es
What Is Random Error?
• Any factors that randomly affect measurement of the variable across
the sample.
• For instance, ea...
Random Error
X
Frequency
The distribution of X with no
random error
Random Error
X
Frequency
The distribution of X with no
random error
The distribution of X with
random error
Random Error
X
Frequency
The distribution of X with no
random error
The distribution of X with
random error
Notice that ra...
Any factors that systematically affect
measurement of the variable across the
sample.
• Systematic error = bias.
• For ins...
Systematic Error
X
Frequency
The distribution of X with no
systematic error
Systematic Error
X
Frequency
The distribution of X with no
systematic error
The distribution of X with
systematic error
Systematic Error
X
Frequency
The distribution of X with no
systematic error
The distribution of X with
systematic error
No...
Outline
- Systematic and Random measurement error
- Examples of measurement issues in comparative research
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
britain japan finland
SFphysicalhealthscore
men
women
Mean SF physical health score: Brit...
Mean SF mental health score: Britain, Japan and Finland civil servants
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
britain japan finl...
Interpretation problems
- Can the study infer which country has better mental health functioning?
- How to distinguish bet...
Measurement problems SF-36
- Cultural norms
- Extreme and non-extreme response styles
QXX. Please choose the answer that b...
Measurement problems SF-36
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Britain Finland Japan
Definitely true Mostly true Don't know
Mostly f...
How to compare measurements in different
countries?
When just one measurement item (question), you cannot distinguish betw...
Self-rated health
QXX. In general would you say your health is: (Please tick one)
Excellent
1
Very good
2
Good
3
Fair
4
Po...
Does self rated health measure the same concept
across countries? Insights from a comparison of
older adults in England an...
Does self rated health measure the same concept
across countries? Insights from a comparison of
older adults in England an...
Key Estimates of the Odds of Poor Self Rated Health from fully
adjusted Growth Curve Model for each gender
Women 95% CI Me...
Predicted probability of poor SRH for key covariates by country and
gender
MenWomen
Predicted probability of poor SRH for key covariates
by country and gender
MenWomen
Japanese smoking paradox?
Epidemiol Health. 2016; 38: e2016060. doi: 10.4178/epih.e2016060
The effect of smoking on lung c...
How to compare measurements in different
countries?
Meaning of self-rated health differs between English and Japanese olde...
Thank you and any questions?
ありがとうございました
質問は?
Collaborators: Benjamin Williams, Noriko Cable
tarani.chandola@manchester.ac...
Q&A for Prof Chandola
Please submit your questions via
the Q&A tab
Join the conversation: @ilcuk
#SWAN #SocialRelationships
Dr Ula Tymoszuk
Research Associate
Royal College of Music
Join the conversation: @ilcuk
#SWAN #SocialRelationships
Arts engagement and its wellbeing
benefits for older adults: findings from the
HEartS project
Ula Tymoszuk, PhD
Centre for...
HEartS
Health, Economic, Social impacts of the ARTS
Public health study (2018-2021) funded by the Arts &
Humanities Resear...
Aaron Williamon
Rosie Perkins
Neta Spiro Robert PerneczkyUla Tymoszuk
Daisy FancourtMarisa Miraldo Adele Mason-Bertrand
Research questions
Health and
wellbeing
Relationships
and resilience
Health economic
impact
Different
populations
Arts & Health
HEartS: Secondary data analyses
English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) – nationally
representative dataset of individ...
ELSA: arts engagement
Arts engagement measurement in ELSA
Health impact (I)
In England approx. 1 in 4 people
aged ≥65 years are depressed
Is frequent arts engagement
associated wit...
Health impact (I)
Depression scale in ELSA - Center for
Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) 8-item
Please tell me i...
Health impact (I)
0.77
0.74
0.66
0.50
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Never
≤Once a year
Once or twice a year
Every few months
≥On...
Health impact (II)
What is the longevity of the wellbeing
impacts of arts engagement?
Health impact (II)
Wellbeing dimensions:
hedonic (positive affect and life satisfaction)
eudaimonic (self-realisation and ...
Health impact (II)
Arts engagement measurement in ELSA
Health impact (II)
56.8%
11.4%
13.4%
18.4%
61.3%
11.5%
11.8%
15.5%
50.9%
14.0%
13.1%
22.0%
0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0%
No...
Health impact (II)
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Postive affect Life satisfaction Control-autonomy Self-realisation
Gallerie...
Social impact
In 2016, there were 1.2 million
chronically lonely older people in
the UK
Half a million older people went a...
Social impact
Fig. Reported frequency of loneliness by age group, 2016-2017, England
Social impact
Can the arts contribute to prevention or alleviation of
loneliness in the society (I)?
Can the arts be used ...
Social impact (I)
Loneliness measurement in ELSA: UCLA 3-item scale
Social impact (I)
Is arts engagement associated with lower
odds of loneliness contemporaneously
(cross-sectional analyses)...
Social impacts (I)
Analyses were adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, romantic relationship status, educational attainment...
Social impacts (I)
Analyses were adjusted for baseline loneliness, gender, age, ethnicity, romantic relationship status, e...
Social impact (I, II)
Experimental work
The Great Exhibition Road Festival 29th-30th June 2019 – large
public engagement e...
Social impact (I, II)
KIMA: Voice by Analema Group: an
interactive artwork which invites
audiences to find harmonies betwe...
Social impact (I, II)
Pre-post engagement scores in social connectedness, ‘feeling in
tune with others’, loneliness, and h...
Suggestions
Are we accurately capturing and representing arts engagement in
the population? How can we make sure we don’t ...
II. Cultural engagement measures
2006 UNESCO Guidelines for Measuring Cultural Participation
http://uis.unesco.org/sites/d...
II. Cultural engagement measures
2009 UNESCO framework for cultural statistics definition
http://uis.unesco.org/sites/defa...
II. Cultural engagement measures
Source: Brown et al. 2008. “Cultural Engagement in California’s Inland Regions” https://w...
II. Cultural engagement measures
II. Cultural engagement measures
Davies et al. 2012. Defining arts engagement for population-based health research: Art fo...
II. Cultural engagement measures
Availability in the UK’s cohort studies
The Taking Part Survey: an ongoing face to face h...
II. Cultural engagement measures
Participatory engagement
In the last 12 months, have you done any of these activities?
1....
II. Cultural engagement measures
Receptive engagement
In the last 12 months, have you been to any of these events?
1. Film...
II. Cultural engagement measures
Other (receptive?) cultural/heritage engagement
Here is a list of types of historical sit...
II. Cultural engagement measures - critique
Inconsistencies identified as part of the HEartS project:
1. Studies often inc...
II. Cultural engagement measures - critique
3. Inconsistencies in engagement definitions due to explicit mentions of: the ...
II. Cultural engagement measures
Participatory arts engagement
1. Read as a past-time activity
2. Written as a past-time a...
II. Cultural engagement measures
Any
Engagement*
Daily/
Weekly
Monthly/
Every few
months
One off/
Once/
twice a
year
Mainl...
II. Cultural engagement measures
Any
Engagement*
Daily/
Weekly
Monthly/
Every few
months
One off/
Once/
twice a
year
Mainl...
II. Cultural engagement measures
You can find out more about the HEartS survey
publications on the Centre for Performance ...
Q&A for Dr Tymoszuk
Please submit your questions via
the Q&A tab
Join the conversation: @ilcuk
#SWAN #SocialRelationships
Panel discussion
Please submit your questions via
the Q&A tab
Join the conversation: @ilcuk
#SWAN #SocialRelationships
Closing remarks
Dr Brian Beach, Senior Research Fellow, ILC
Join the conversation: @ilcuk
#SWAN #SocialRelationships
Reminder for the
afternoon workshop
brianbeach@ilcuk.org.uk
Join the conversation: @ilcuk
#SWAN #SocialRelationships
Work with us
Business intelligence: we’ll give you advance notice of our latest research,
ad hoc briefings on areas of spe...
Thank you
ilcuk.org.uk @ilcuk
futureofageing.org.uk
Join the conversation: @ilcuk
#SWAN #SocialRelationships
Virtual policy event – SWAN: Understanding social relationships in Japan and the UK
Virtual policy event – SWAN: Understanding social relationships in Japan and the UK
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Virtual policy event – SWAN: Understanding social relationships in Japan and the UK

ILC held a virtual policy event to discuss the findings from the SWAN project (Social relationships and Well-being across Ageing Nations), a research collaboration of UK and Japanese researchers led by UCL, designed to strengthen cross-national partnerships, collaboration, and research related to the broad field of social relationships.

During this virtual policy event, we learned about the project’s findings in more detail from key team members, which provided insight for those considering the intersection of social factors with health and its impact on developing policy.

Speakers included:

Dr Noriko Cable, Senior Research Fellow, UCL
Prof Tarani Chandola, Professor of Medical Sociology, University of Manchester
Dr Urszula Tymoszuk, Research Associate, Royal College of Music

Chair: Dr Brian Beach, Senior Research Fellow, ILC

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Virtual policy event – SWAN: Understanding social relationships in Japan and the UK

  1. 1. SWAN (Social Wellbeing in Ageing Nations) Understanding social relationships in Japan and the UK Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  2. 2. What is ILC? ILC is the UK’s specialist think tank on the impact of longevity on society and what happens next. We: • Are independent and politically neutral • Use evidence-based research for policy • Work collaboratively to pioneer solutions for the future Our work focuses on three strategic priorities: • Maximising the benefits of longevity • Ensuring longer lives are good for everyone • Future-proofing policy and practice Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  3. 3. Partners Programme Be part of what happens next Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  4. 4. Welcome and introduction from Chair Dr Brian Beach, Senior Research Fellow, ILC Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  5. 5. Dr Noriko Cable Senior Research Fellow University College London Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  6. 6. How the UK-Japan SWAN(Social connections and Well-being across Ageing Nations) help our work in healthy ageing? Noriko Cable, PhD Senior Research Fellow ICLS, UCL
  7. 7. What is UK-Japan SWAN project all about? • An ESRC funded partnership project, started January 2019 • To strengthen UK-Japan partnerships by enhancing existing, and identifying new partnerships, between these countries • To facilitate a series of knowledge exchange opportunities.
  8. 8. What is UK-Japan SWAN project all about? • Social relationships- a fundamental desire to form a relationship • Integration vs Isolation – For the case of loneliness, well linked to health and well-being • Cultural contextual meanings of social relationships i.e. kinship vs friendship – need to explore in detail using existing data from each country • Today’s social demography- ageing, never married, solo living need to be explored.
  9. 9. Who are the project member? • Tarani Chandola (University of Manchester) • Urszula Tymoszuk (Centre for Performance Science, Royal College of Music and Imperial College London) • Brian Beach (ILC UK) • Kaori Honjo (Osaka Medical University) • Hideki Hashimoto (University of Tokyo) UK Japan
  10. 10. What UK-Japan SWAN project will deliver? • Website established – www.soccah-net.org • Linking up with MailChimp and Q&A forum to collate a list of interested members. • Twitter account @SOCCAH_network – Documentation • Collated variables • Method symposium – Slides & videos available • Cross-national research 1. Data resource 2. Research ideas
  11. 11. 1. Available data resources : What SWAN can offer to you?
  12. 12. To explore healthy ageing, you can use: • English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) – Launched 2002, targeting aged 50+ independently living individuals in England. Data collected every 2-year, odd waves contain nurse visit (i.e. biomarker) data. – Rich information on social networks, social support as well as household composition – 9 waves of data available. – Sub-study of COVID datasets available via: https://beta.ukdataservice.ac.uk/datacatalogue/studies/study?id=8688 • Japanese Study of Aging and Retirement (JSTAR) – Designed to be comparable with ELSA and SHARE. – Launched in 2007, targeting aged 50+ independently living individuals in Japan, data collected every 2 year, up to 4 waves available
  13. 13. Extendable to other counties via Gateway to Global Aging Data Source: g2aging.org
  14. 14. Gateway to Global Aging Data: What is it? • A platform for population-based ageing data across the world (NIA) • Studies harmonised – HRS – MHAS – ELSA – SHARE – CRELES – KLoSA – JSTAR – TILDA – CHARLS – LASI
  15. 15. Existing harmonised data
  16. 16. References available
  17. 17. Comparability: Survey year
  18. 18. Variables: ELSA vs JSTAR • Social network related ELSA w3 (2006) JSTAR w1 (2007) -Household members: Relationships to the core member -> Able to identify cohabiting family members -Presence of parents, siblings, grandchildren -Frequency of contacts by type (phone, mail, face to face) with non-cohabiting children, relatives, friends - Family: Spouse, children up to 8. Parents (own and spouse’s) - living together or not Frequencies of communicating with each family member *Harmonisable by: Focusing on family members in the household only. Looking into the overlap and difference between ‘communication’ in UK and ‘contact’ in Japanese
  19. 19. ELSA (w3) JSTAR(w1) Positive vs negative aspects of social support from partner, children, or family members and friends. -Understanding you -Able to rely on with a serious problem -Criticising you -Letting down -Getting on nerves -Closeness to partner -Size of close children, family members, friends. -Provision of informal care to family members (able to specify the member) -Likelihood of receiving emotional support from: spouse, cohabiting family members, non-cohabiting children or other relatives, neighbours/friends/acquaintance -Likelihood of receiving practical support from those above -Likelihood of providing emotional support to those listed above -Likelihood of providing practical support to those listed above -Partner satisfaction -Provision of informal care to parents and parents in laws (= who is providing care to those) • Social support related Harmonisable: Focusing on receiving positive emotional support from each source. Provision of informal care Partner satisfaction: (Closeness vs satisfaction needs to be explained from the cultural perspectives
  20. 20. What else could we use? • Health – ADL – IADL – CES-D, i.e. depression – Health conditions, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, lung disease, heart problems, stroke, mental illness, arthritis, dementia ulcers, – BMI. – Exercise – Drinking alcohol – Smoking • Cognition • Family – Parents alive – Current or Age of death – parents – Numbers of living children – Numbers of people in the household
  21. 21. Research examples of cross-national comparative work: ELSA vs. Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) • Baseline started 2010, 30+ municipals, N=100,000 – Targeted aged 65+ and older, independently living – Data have been collected via a postal survey, every three years – Semi-closed data, application is needed. Able to handle application in English – For more info: https://www.jages.net/
  22. 22. ELSA and JAGES: Social isolation & loneliness • Tsuji et al. (2020). Change in the prevalence of social isolation among the older population from 2010 to 2016. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2020.104237 – Social isolation index: not married, not living with children, not receiving social support, limited face to face contact with friends, no social participation – Also by Ikeda et al. https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20200138 • Saito T et al. (2019). Validating study on a Japanese version of the three-item UCLA loneliness Scale among community-dwelling older adults. Geriatric & Gerontology International. doi: 10.1111/ggi.13758 – Respectable reliability and convergent validity
  23. 23. Cross-national comparison of social isolation and all-cause mortality among older adults: A 10-year follow-up study in England and Japan (Saito et al., in press) • ELSA (N=5124) & JAGES (N=15,313) – Age 65+, independent living • Social isolation -> Mortality (10 year follow up) – Severe social isolation = not married, infrequent social contacts (< 2-3 times /year), no social participation • % of socially isolated: Japan > England, ageing men, poor health • Impact of mortality being severely isolated : England (HR=1.98) > Japan (HR=1.30) • Relevant to health ageing in the current COVID pandemic, i.e. lockdown
  24. 24. Summary: • We are in a fortunate position to conduct cross-national work in examining social relationships and health – Data – Harmonised datasets, i.e. Global gateway to Ageing – Research application of social isolation and loneliness – Relevant to health ageing in relation to the COVID pandemic • Increasing poor mental health • Increasing loneliness
  25. 25. Acknowledgement: • ESRC • ILC-UK • Chris Garrington • Advisory board: Mel Bartley, Amanda Sacker, Aaron Williamon, Morten Wahrendorf
  26. 26. Any questions? @SOCCAH_network @nkcable or at www.soccah-net.org Email: n.cable@ucl.ac.uk
  27. 27. Q&A for Dr Cable Please submit your questions via the Q&A tab Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  28. 28. Prof Tarani Chandola Professor of Medical Sociology University of Manchester Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  29. 29. Measurement in cross-national comparative research Tarani Chandola University of Manchester tarani.chandola@manchester.ac.uk
  30. 30. Outline - Systematic and Random measurement error - Examples of measurement issues in comparative research
  31. 31. How to compare measurements in different countries? Increasing availability of large cross-cultural and cross-country surveys Increased possibilities to conduct comparative studies. However, increased the risk of drawing wrong conclusions because of systematic measurement error
  32. 32. Some SF-36 questions
  33. 33. True Score Theory Observed score = True score + Random error T e+X
  34. 34. The Error Component T e+X Two components:
  35. 35. The Error Component T e+X Two components: • Random error • Systematic error er es
  36. 36. What Is Random Error? • Any factors that randomly affect measurement of the variable across the sample. • For instance, each person’s mood can inflate or deflate performance on any occasion. • Random error adds variability to the data but does not affect average performance for the group.
  37. 37. Random Error X Frequency The distribution of X with no random error
  38. 38. Random Error X Frequency The distribution of X with no random error The distribution of X with random error
  39. 39. Random Error X Frequency The distribution of X with no random error The distribution of X with random error Notice that random error doesn’t affect the average, only the variability around the average.
  40. 40. Any factors that systematically affect measurement of the variable across the sample. • Systematic error = bias. • For instance, asking questions that have a cultural or normative bias • Systematic error does affect average performance for the group.
  41. 41. Systematic Error X Frequency The distribution of X with no systematic error
  42. 42. Systematic Error X Frequency The distribution of X with no systematic error The distribution of X with systematic error
  43. 43. Systematic Error X Frequency The distribution of X with no systematic error The distribution of X with systematic error Notice that systematic error does affect the average; we call this a bias.
  44. 44. Outline - Systematic and Random measurement error - Examples of measurement issues in comparative research
  45. 45. 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 britain japan finland SFphysicalhealthscore men women Mean SF physical health score: Britain, Japan and Finland civil servants
  46. 46. Mean SF mental health score: Britain, Japan and Finland civil servants 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 britain japan finland SFmentalhealthscore men women
  47. 47. Interpretation problems - Can the study infer which country has better mental health functioning? - How to distinguish between systematic and random measurement error?
  48. 48. Measurement problems SF-36 - Cultural norms - Extreme and non-extreme response styles QXX. Please choose the answer that best describes how TRUE or FALSE each of the following statements is for you: (Please tick one answer for each question) Definitely true Mostly true Don't know Mostly false Definitely false a. I seem to get sick a little easier than other people 1 2 3 4 5 146 b. I'm as healthy as anyone I know 1 2 3 4 5 147 c. I expect my health to get worse 1 2 3 4 5 148 d. My health is excellent 1 2 3 4 5 149
  49. 49. Measurement problems SF-36 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Britain Finland Japan Definitely true Mostly true Don't know Mostly false Definitely false Percentage distribution of responses to ‘I seem to get sick a little easier than other people’
  50. 50. How to compare measurements in different countries? When just one measurement item (question), you cannot distinguish between systematic and random error You can compare how the item differs between countries in terms of predicted differences
  51. 51. Self-rated health QXX. In general would you say your health is: (Please tick one) Excellent 1 Very good 2 Good 3 Fair 4 Poor 5 yoi maa yoi futsu amari yokunai yokunai - All reasonable translations of fair were indistinguishable from the translations of good. Term used- amari yokunai (somewhat not good) - Poor is not the same as qarui (bad or terrible)- not appropriate. Yokunai (not good) - used instead
  52. 52. Does self rated health measure the same concept across countries? Insights from a comparison of older adults in England and Japan. Self-Rated Health (SRH) is predictive of morbidity and mortality, correlates well with objective measurements of physical function and is simple to use in multidisciplinary surveys. However, it may not be comparable between countries which may wish to contrast health policies due to linguistic, cultural or health differences
  53. 53. Does self rated health measure the same concept across countries? Insights from a comparison of older adults in England and Japan. Methods: - English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA; 2004, 2008 and 2012) and the Japanese Study of Aging and Retirement (JSTAR; 2007, 2009 and 2011), - n=10, 174 ELSA participants and n=4279 JSTAR participants - SRH was measured on a 5 point Likert scale which was dichotomised into 1-3 being good health and 4-5 bad health. - Grip strength (in kilograms) was mean centred by gender and country for analysis. - Centre for Epidemiology Scale of Depression was used for depression and dichotomised into depressed and non-depressed. - BMI and smoking - Multilevel binary logistic regression was used to test whether participants’ country of residence was associated with odds of fair or poor SRH and whether the country of residence would moderate associations between SRH and grip strength, depression, smoking or BMI.
  54. 54. Key Estimates of the Odds of Poor Self Rated Health from fully adjusted Growth Curve Model for each gender Women 95% CI Men 95% CI Odds Ratio Lower Upper Odds Ratio Lower Upper Grip Strength (kg)† 0.88 0.86 0.90 0.92 0.91 0.94 Depression (vs non-depressed) 5.49 4.45 6.70 7.11 5.33 9.34 BMI (kg/m2)† 1.13 1.11 1.15 1.12 1.09 1.15 Smoking Status 1-9 per day 2.74 1.69 4.21 1.16 0.60 2.01 10 to 19 per day 2.61 1.79 3.68 2.43 1.44 3.85 >= 20 per day 3.76 2.37 5.70 1.97 1.17 3.13 JSTAR (vs ELSA) 0.83 0.60 1.10 0.53 0.36 0.75 JSTAR*Grip Strength 0.98 0.94 1.02 1.02 0.99 1.05 JSTAR*Depression 1.02 0.68 1.48 0.79 0.49 1.22 JSTAR*BMI 0.94 0.90 0.99 0.93 0.87 0.98 JSTAR*Smoking 1-9 per day 0.53 0.16 1.30 1.24 0.34 3.16 JSTAR*Smoking 10-19 per day 0.69 0.31 1.32 0.36 0.16 0.69 JSTAR*Smoking >=20 per day 0.37 0.15 0.78 0.59 0.31 1.05 † Values centred at sample mean, Odds ratio for unit change presented
  55. 55. Predicted probability of poor SRH for key covariates by country and gender MenWomen
  56. 56. Predicted probability of poor SRH for key covariates by country and gender MenWomen
  57. 57. Japanese smoking paradox? Epidemiol Health. 2016; 38: e2016060. doi: 10.4178/epih.e2016060 The effect of smoking on lung cancer: ethnic differences and the smoking paradox Keum Ji Jung,1 Christina Jeon,1,2 and Sun Ha Jee1
  58. 58. How to compare measurements in different countries? Meaning of self-rated health differs between English and Japanese older adults Cannot directly compare levels of (single item) self-rated health between countries because of systematic bias With multi-item (question) scales, possible (in theory) to correct for systematic bias However, a new problem: Many scales do not display high levels of measurement equivalence
  59. 59. Thank you and any questions? ありがとうございました 質問は? Collaborators: Benjamin Williams, Noriko Cable tarani.chandola@manchester.ac.uk
  60. 60. Q&A for Prof Chandola Please submit your questions via the Q&A tab Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  61. 61. Dr Ula Tymoszuk Research Associate Royal College of Music Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  62. 62. Arts engagement and its wellbeing benefits for older adults: findings from the HEartS project Ula Tymoszuk, PhD Centre for Performance Science (Royal College of Music | Imperial College)
  63. 63. HEartS Health, Economic, Social impacts of the ARTS Public health study (2018-2021) funded by the Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Centre for Performance Science – Royal College of Music and Imperial College London
  64. 64. Aaron Williamon Rosie Perkins Neta Spiro Robert PerneczkyUla Tymoszuk Daisy FancourtMarisa Miraldo Adele Mason-Bertrand
  65. 65. Research questions Health and wellbeing Relationships and resilience Health economic impact Different populations
  66. 66. Arts & Health
  67. 67. HEartS: Secondary data analyses English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) – nationally representative dataset of individuals aged 50 and over living in private households. It started in 2002 with over 12,000 participants who were since then interviewed and medically examined every two years – 8 ELSA study waves to date. Health, psychological, social, demographic and arts engagement questions asked at every study wave.
  68. 68. ELSA: arts engagement Arts engagement measurement in ELSA
  69. 69. Health impact (I) In England approx. 1 in 4 people aged ≥65 years are depressed Is frequent arts engagement associated with reduced risk of developing depressive symptoms? Health Survey for England, 2013
  70. 70. Health impact (I) Depression scale in ELSA - Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) 8-item Please tell me if each of the following was true for you much of the time during the past week (Yes/No) - Have you felt depressed? - Have you felt that everything you did was an effort? - Was your sleep was restless? - Have you felt happy? - Have you felt lonely? - Have you enjoyed life? - Have you felt sad? - Felt you could not get going?
  71. 71. Health impact (I) 0.77 0.74 0.66 0.50 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Never ≤Once a year Once or twice a year Every few months ≥Once a month Frequency of overall arts engagement score and the odds of depression over 10 yrs Analyses were adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, romantic relationship status, educational attainment, employment status, and wealth, eyesight and hearing problems, experiences of pain and chronic illness status, social contact index and civic activities Fancourt D, Tymoszuk U (2018). Br J Psychiatry 214: 225-229. Longitudinal analysis: ELSA wave 2 (2004/2005) to wave 7 (2014/2015), n=2,148 Depression cases over 10 years, n=616 (28.7%)
  72. 72. Health impact (II) What is the longevity of the wellbeing impacts of arts engagement?
  73. 73. Health impact (II) Wellbeing dimensions: hedonic (positive affect and life satisfaction) eudaimonic (self-realisation and control-autonomy) Arts engagement across 6 ELSA waves = 10 years: short-term (frequent engagement at one wave) repeated (frequent engagement at 2-3 waves) sustained (frequent engagement at 4-6 waves)
  74. 74. Health impact (II) Arts engagement measurement in ELSA
  75. 75. Health impact (II) 56.8% 11.4% 13.4% 18.4% 61.3% 11.5% 11.8% 15.5% 50.9% 14.0% 13.1% 22.0% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% No or infrequent engagement Short-term Repeated Sustained Frequency of arts engagement across the 10 years Theatre/concerts/opera Galleries/museums Cinema
  76. 76. Health impact (II) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Postive affect Life satisfaction Control-autonomy Self-realisation Galleries/Museums ref: no or infrequent engagement at all waves Short-term Repeated Sustained * * * * 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 Postive affect Life satisfaction Control-autonomy Self-realisation Theatre/Concert/Opera ref: no or infrequent engagement at all waves Short-term Repeated Sustained * * * * Analyses were adjusted for each baseline well-being score, gender, age, ethnicity, romantic relationship status, educational attainment, employment status, and wealth, eyesight and hearing problems, experiences of pain and chronic illness status, social contact index and civic activities Tymoszuk U, Perkins R, Spiro N, Williamon A, Fancourt D (2019). Journals Gerontol Ser B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 75: 1609–1619 Longitudinal analysis: ELSA wave 2 (2004/2005) to wave 7 (2014/2015), n=3,188 Is arts engagement in older adulthood associated with wellbeing levels a decade later?
  77. 77. Social impact In 2016, there were 1.2 million chronically lonely older people in the UK Half a million older people went at least six days a week without seeing or speaking to anyone Age UK. No one should have no one. 2016 1 in 3 young people suffer from chronic loneliness 2 in 3 young adults report occasional loneliness Red Cross, Co-Op, Kantar, 2016; Majoribanks & Bradley, 2017
  78. 78. Social impact Fig. Reported frequency of loneliness by age group, 2016-2017, England
  79. 79. Social impact Can the arts contribute to prevention or alleviation of loneliness in the society (I)? Can the arts be used to boost social connectedness and if so, how (II)?
  80. 80. Social impact (I) Loneliness measurement in ELSA: UCLA 3-item scale
  81. 81. Social impact (I) Is arts engagement associated with lower odds of loneliness contemporaneously (cross-sectional analyses) and over time (longitudinal analyses)?
  82. 82. Social impacts (I) Analyses were adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, romantic relationship status, educational attainment, employment status, and wealth, eyesight and hearing problems, experiences of pain and chronic illness status, social contact index and civic activities Cross-sectional analyses: ELSA wave 2 (2004/2005), n=6,222 Is contemporaneous arts engagement in older adulthood associated with odds of loneliness? Tymoszuk U, Perkins R, Fancourt D, Williamon A (2019). SPPE, 55: 891–900 1 0.98 0.91 0.74 0 0.5 1 1.5 Never ≤Once a year Once or twice a year ≥Every few months Cinema * 1 0.83 0.78 0.74 0 0.5 1 1.5 Never ≤Once a year Once or twice a year ≥Every few months Concerts/theatre/opera * * 1 0.88 0.77 0.67 0 0.5 1 1.5 Never ≤Once a year Once or twice a year ≥Every few months Galleries/Museums * *
  83. 83. Social impacts (I) Analyses were adjusted for baseline loneliness, gender, age, ethnicity, romantic relationship status, educational attainment, employment status, and wealth, eyesight and hearing problems, experiences of pain and chronic illness status, social contact index and civic activities Longitudinal analysis: ELSA wave 2 (2004/2005) to wave 7 (2014/2015), n=3,127 Is arts engagement in older adulthood associated with reduced odds of loneliness a decade later? 1 0.86 0.74 0.68 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Never ≤Once a year Once or twice a year ≥Every few months Galleries/museums * Tymoszuk U, Perkins R, Fancourt D, Williamon A (2019). SPPE, 55, 891–900 * 1 0.75 0.69 0.84 0 0.5 1 1.5 Never ≤Once a year Once or twice a year ≥Every few months Concerts/theatre/opera *
  84. 84. Social impact (I, II) Experimental work The Great Exhibition Road Festival 29th-30th June 2019 – large public engagement event organized by Imperial College London Participatory engagement and perceptions of social connectedness Software for linking artwork-captured data with visitor-reported data
  85. 85. Social impact (I, II) KIMA: Voice by Analema Group: an interactive artwork which invites audiences to find harmonies between their voices. Two participants can interact with KIMA: Voice at one time by making sounds into a microphone. KIMA: Voice interprets mathematical relationships between participants’ voices (harmonies, intervals) as visual forms. The art piece turns into a visual tuner, evoking harmonies between audience members, and discovering connections between them.
  86. 86. Social impact (I, II) Pre-post engagement scores in social connectedness, ‘feeling in tune with others’, loneliness, and happiness, n=144 3.74 4.35 2.92 5.25 4.45 4.85 2.81 5.52 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Connection Feeling in tune Loneliness Happiness Pre-post engagement scores Before After *** *** ** *** p<0.001; **p<0.01
  87. 87. Suggestions Are we accurately capturing and representing arts engagement in the population? How can we make sure we don’t overlook informal, everyday arts and culture participation and find ways to support it? Policies which facilitate access to arts venues and support older adult’s engagement with them, for example through free admission schemes, improved public transport and investments in local cultural initiatives, may help to promote happy, fulfilling lives of an increasing segment of the population. Art venues such as galleries and museums can facilitate shared experiences and positive social interactions between older people. Those who manage those spaces should be supported in efforts to direct resources and programming toward facilitating such opportunities.
  88. 88. II. Cultural engagement measures 2006 UNESCO Guidelines for Measuring Cultural Participation http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/guidelines-for-measuring-cultural-participation-2006-en.pdf p.6-7
  89. 89. II. Cultural engagement measures 2009 UNESCO framework for cultural statistics definition http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/unesco-framework-for-cultural-statistics-2009-en_0.pdf
  90. 90. II. Cultural engagement measures Source: Brown et al. 2008. “Cultural Engagement in California’s Inland Regions” https://www.issuelab.org/resources/2003/2003.pdf Well-established practise of separating participatory vs receptive engagement
  91. 91. II. Cultural engagement measures
  92. 92. II. Cultural engagement measures Davies et al. 2012. Defining arts engagement for population-based health research: Art forms, activities and level of engagement.
  93. 93. II. Cultural engagement measures Availability in the UK’s cohort studies The Taking Part Survey: an ongoing face to face household survey of adults aged 16+ and children aged 5 to 15 years old in England. Run since 2005. Understanding Society: questions on adult’s engagement with arts and culture adapted from Taking Part were included in wave 2 (2010- 2012) and wave 5 (2013-2015). ELSA: a limited number of questions on cultural engagement asked at every study wave.
  94. 94. II. Cultural engagement measures Participatory engagement In the last 12 months, have you done any of these activities? 1. Dance, including ballet 2. Sang to an audience or rehearsed for a performance (not karaoke) 3. Played a musical instrument 4. Written music 5. Rehearsed or performed in a play/drama, opera/operetta or musical theatre 6. Taken part in a carnival or street arts event (e.g. as a musician, dancer or costume maker) 7. Learned or practised circus skills 8. Painting, drawing, printmaking or sculpture 9. Photography, film or video making as an artistic activity (not family or holidays) 10. Used a computer to create original artworks or animation 11. Textile crafts, wood crafts or any other crafts, such as embroidery, knitting, wood turning, furniture making, pottery or jewellery 12. Read for pleasure (not newspapers, magazines or comics) 13. Written any stories, plays or poetry 14. Been a member of a book club, where people meet up to discuss and share books Rating: 1) At least once a week; 2) Less often than once a week but at least once a month; 3) Less often than once a month but at least 3 or 4 times a year; 4) Twice in the last 12 months; 5) Once in the last 12 months Understanding Society based on Taking Part
  95. 95. II. Cultural engagement measures Receptive engagement In the last 12 months, have you been to any of these events? 1. Film at a cinema or other venue 2. Exhibition or collection of art, photography or sculpture or a craft exhibition (not crafts market) 3. Event which included video or electronic art 4. Event connected with books or writing 5. Street arts or a public art display or installation (art in everyday surroundings, or an art work such as sculpture that is outdoors or in a 6. public place) 7. Carnival or culturally specific festival (for example, Mela, Baisakhi, Navrati, Feis) 8. Circus (not animals) 9. Play/drama, pantomime or a musical 10. Opera/operetta 11. Classical music performance 12. Rock, pop or jazz performance 13. Ballet 14. Contemporary dance 15. African people's dance or South Asian and Chinese dance 16. Used a public library service 17. Been to an archive centre or records office 18. Visited a museum or gallery Understanding Society based on Taking Part Rating: 1) At least once a week; 2) Less often than once a week but at least once a month; 3) Less often than once a month but at least 3 or 4 times a year; 4) Twice in the last 12 months; 5) Once in the last 12 months
  96. 96. II. Cultural engagement measures Other (receptive?) cultural/heritage engagement Here is a list of types of historical sites. Please tell me which ones you have visited in the last 12 months? Please only include activities done in your own time or for the purpose of voluntary work or for academic study. 1. A city or town with historic character 2. A historic building open to the public (non-religious) 3. A historic park or garden open to the public 4. A place connected with industrial history (e.g. an old factory, dockyard or mine) or historic transport system (e.g. and old ship or railway) Understanding Society based on Taking Part Rating: 1) At least once a week; 2) Less often than once a week but at least once a month; 3) Less often than once a month but at least 3 or 4 times a year; 4) Twice in the last 12 months; 5) Once in the last 12 months 5. A historic place of worship attended as a visitor (not to worship) 6. A monument such as a castle, fort or ruin 7. A site of archaeological interest (e.g. Roman villa, ancient burial site) 8. A site connected with sports heritage (e.g. Wimbledon) (not visited for the purposes of watching sport)
  97. 97. II. Cultural engagement measures - critique Inconsistencies identified as part of the HEartS project: 1. Studies often include more receptive engagement vs. participatory engagement items  a bias toward “highbrow” and “formal” interpretation of arts made or performed by highly skilled creators and state-sponsored art forms (e.g. ELSA) which leads to underestimation of amateur, every day arts engagement in the population e.g:  Inclusion of a “reading for pleasure” item = 76% of adults in England participated in at least one arts activity (Understanding Society 2013/2014) vs. 37.7% (Taking Part)  Broader definition of cultural engagement = 11% are disengaged from most mainstream leisure and culture Taking Part (2005/2006-2010/2011) vs. 89.7% “disengaged” with participatory performing, visual and literary arts (Understanding Society 2010-2012) 2. Assessment in ongoing national surveys is out of sync with trends in digital, on-demand video and audio content engagement such as music streaming services, podcasts and audiobooks, e.g:  none of the cohort studies measure listening to recorded music!
  98. 98. II. Cultural engagement measures - critique 3. Inconsistencies in engagement definitions due to explicit mentions of: the scope or modes of art production and specific art genres, e.g.:  Reading for pleasure excludes reading “newspapers, magazines or comics”  Visits to arts and crafts exhibitions excludes “crafts markets”  Dance engagement uses a single example of dance genre: “Dance, including ballet”  Attending musical performances specifies “classical music” and “rock, pop or jazz”;  “Used a computer to create original artworks or animation” or “Written any stories, plays or poetry”)  most mentions/exclusions reinforce “highbrow”/“formal”, “state-sponsored arts” bias 4. Inconsistencies in engagement definitions due to explicit mentions of: social context or setting in which engagement occurs, e.g.:  “Been a member of a book club, where people meet up to discuss and share books”  “Taken part in a carnival or street arts event (e.g. as a musician, dancer or costume maker)”
  99. 99. II. Cultural engagement measures Participatory arts engagement 1. Read as a past-time activity 2. Written as a past-time activity 3. Attended a book club 4. Played a musical instrument or sang 5. Written or created music 6. Practised or performed dance 7. Practised or performed a play, drama 8. Done photography, film, video etc. 9. Done painting, drawing etc. 10. Done any crafts or decorative arts Receptive arts engagement 1. Been to a literary event 2. Listened to audio books or podcasts 3. Been to live music 4. Listened to recorded music 5. Been to live dance 6. Been to live theatre or circus 7. Watched a film or drama at a cinema 8. Been to exhibition, museum etc. 9. Been to crafts or decorative arts fair 10. Been to street art, public art displays UK-wide online HEartS Survey n=5,338 Tymoszuk et al. 2020. Arts engagement trends in the UK and their mental and social wellbeing implications: HEartS Survey. PLOS ONE (under review)
  100. 100. II. Cultural engagement measures Any Engagement* Daily/ Weekly Monthly/ Every few months One off/ Once/ twice a year Mainly with others Alone and with others Mainly alone 1 P Read as a past-time activity 85.22% 50.06% 21.86% 13.30% 2.11% 12.0% 85.89% 2 R Listened to recorded music 82.52% 58.30% 16.11% 8.11% 9.08% 40.50% 50.42% 3 R Watched a film or drama at a cinema 75.70% 7.06% 41.12% 27.52% 58.45% 30.44% 11.11% 4 R Been to live music 66.45% 4.42% 24.75% 37.28% 62.25% 26.81% 10.94% 5 R Been to an exhibition, museum etc. 66.04% 3.52% 22.86% 39.66% 53.42% 33.16% 13.42% 6 R Been to live theatre or circus 61.95% 3.30% 17.29% 41.36% 63.26% 27.76% 8.98% 7 R Listened to audio books or podcasts 49.18% 16.82% 16.65% 15.70% 5.07% 19.35% 75.58% 8 R Been to street art, public art displays 48.69% 3.18% 16.37% 29.13% 50.17% 35.63% 14.20% 9 P Done photography, film, video etc. 44.49% 11.05% 18.34% 15.10% 13.52% 39.62% 46.86% 10 P Done any crafts or decorative arts 43.76% 10.47% 15.89% 17.40% 15.11% 32.32% 52.57% P= participatory arts; R= receptive arts; * Any engagement = One-off or more frequently Arts activities listed from most to least popular UK-wide online HEartS Survey n=5,338.
  101. 101. II. Cultural engagement measures Any Engagement* Daily/ Weekly Monthly/ Every few months One off/ Once/ twice a year Mainly with others Alone and with others Mainly alone 11 P Written as a past-time activity 43.82% 10.85% 15.81% 17.16% 3.98% 17.44% 78.58% 12 P Played a musical instrument or sang 41.16% 15.64% 11.45% 14.07% 17.30% 35.23% 47.47% 13 R Been to live dance 38.97% 4.11% 11.46% 23.40% 52.50% 33.03% 14.47% 14 R Been to crafts or decorative arts fair 38.82% 2.87% 11.71% 24.24% 46.48% 37.21% 16.32% 15 P Done painting, drawing etc. 37.84% 7.94% 14.37% 15.53% 12.82% 30.74% 56.44% 16 R Been to a literary event 31.88% 3.13% 9.24% 19.52% 28.08% 38.54% 33.37% 17 P Practised or performed dance 26.26% 5.53% 7.61% 13.13% 32.24% 40.66% 27.10% 18 P Attended a book club 24.20% 3.48% 9.25% 11.46% 45.36% 31.73% 22.91% 19 P Practised or performed a play, drama 22.29% 3.32% 5.62% 13.35% 23.19% 38.99% 23.19% 20 P Written or created music 21.23% 4.93% 7.10% 9.20% 12.36% 33.63% 54.02% P= participatory arts; R= receptive arts; * Any engagement = One-off or more frequently Arts activities listed from most to least popular, UK-wide online HEartS Survey n=5,338.
  102. 102. II. Cultural engagement measures You can find out more about the HEartS survey publications on the Centre for Performance Science website: Dataset available on Dryad under: “HEartS Survey 2019: Charting the Health, Economic, and Social impact of the ARTs”
  103. 103. Q&A for Dr Tymoszuk Please submit your questions via the Q&A tab Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  104. 104. Panel discussion Please submit your questions via the Q&A tab Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  105. 105. Closing remarks Dr Brian Beach, Senior Research Fellow, ILC Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  106. 106. Reminder for the afternoon workshop brianbeach@ilcuk.org.uk Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships
  107. 107. Work with us Business intelligence: we’ll give you advance notice of our latest research, ad hoc briefings on areas of specific interest to your organisation, as well as a discount on any research you commission from us. Networks and connections: our Partners events have included visits to Number 10, briefings with prominent influencers, as well as the opportunity to meet ministers, policy experts and fellow Partners. Brand benefits: as a Partner your brand will be visible through our numerous events, press releases and presentations, and give you the opportunity to be positioned at the heart of the debate on longevity. For more information contact Redvers Lee: redverslee@ilcuk.org.uk
  108. 108. Thank you ilcuk.org.uk @ilcuk futureofageing.org.uk Join the conversation: @ilcuk #SWAN #SocialRelationships

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