SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 5
Download to read offline
International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science (IJRES)
ISSN (Online): 2320-9364, ISSN (Print): 2320-9356
www.ijres.org Volume 1 Issue 1 ǁ May. 2013 ǁ PP.01-04
www.ijres.org 21 | Page
Opportunities of the Silicon Technology in Algeria
M.Rezki1
, M. Ayad 2
, T.Benabdallah1
1
Industrial Product and Systems Innovation Laboratory, E.N.P.O (Ex E.N.S.E.T.),
University of Oran, 31000, Algeria.
2
Department of technical’s sciences, University of Bouira, 10000, Algeria.
ABSTRACT: This study makes it possible to explain to us some major opportunities which have
Algeria to launch out in a silicon industry (key element of the photovoltaic branch of renewable
energies). Already Algerian government has set a goal of raising the share of new energies in its energy
balance at 5% in 2017 and 30% by 2050 based on the photovoltaic and wind [1]. This study shows that
Algeria can venture to the development of its own silicon industry starting with the bottom-of-the-range
i.e. industry amorphous silicon thus make its own photovoltaic modules 100% Algerian.
Keywords- Algeria, energy, photovoltaic module, silicon technology, solar power.
I. INTRODUCTION
The rational use of energy in all its forms appears among the major principles of the durable
development, would be only for these two principles: principle of non degradation of the natural resources and
principle of the production and consumption persons in charge. Because ecology is one of the three fundamental
pillars which constitute the durable development (see figure 1).
Fig.1. The three pillars of the durable development [2].
Electricity is the key element in any energy system, its share does not cease increasing – it contributes
at a rate of 20 % on average to provide for the energy needs on planet, but of 40 % in the industrialized
countries [ 3 ] - and for produce it , we can use fossil energies (coal and hydrocarbons which are in process of
exhaustion) but the most judicious choice in spite of the cost and the mastering is to turn to renewable energies
(hydraulics, the solar one, the wind one, the biomass, geothermic). The exhaustion of the world petrol reserves
in 2040 and gas reserves in 2060 (according to agency IEA) will accentuate the passage obliged towards
renewable energies [4].
II. Potentialities of Algeria as regards nonconventional electric power
Due to its geographical location, Algeria holds one of the highest solar reservoirs in the world. Studies
of renewable energies sources performed in Algeria during recent years show that it has an important potential
for power generation from renewable energies, for the domestic market as well as for export to the European
market [5].
The Algerian state clearly understood the issue of energy, this explains the reason for its launch into
renewable energy (especially wind and solar), taking advantage of its natural potential and position geostrategic
(see Figures 2 and 3, as an example we took solar energy).
Opportunities of the Silicon Technology in Algeria
www.ijres.org 22 | Page
The duration of insulation over the national territory, exceeds 2000 h per year; it could reach 3900 h (in
more regions as in Sahara). The daily obtained energy on one square meter horizontal surface is about 5 kWh,
over the largest part of the national territory (figure 2), about 1700 kWh/m2
/year in the North region and 2263
kWh/m2
/ year for the South one [7].
Table 1: Solar potential in Algeria [5]
Areas
COASTAL
AREA
High plateau
Sahara
Surface (%) 4 10 86
Average duration of
sunshine (h/year)
2650 3000 3500
Received average
energy
(kWh/m2/year)
1700 1900 2650
Fig. 2. Potential sites for solar electricity supply and example of the overall
daily exposure received (in kWh/m2/day) in Algeria [ 5].
Fig. 3. Strategic positioning of Algeria for its solar
radiations by surface [6].
Opportunities of the Silicon Technology in Algeria
www.ijres.org 23 | Page
Fig. 4. Indicative positioning of the wind and solar sites (tallies of the Desertec project) [8].
This advantage of the energy of Algeria has made him one of the leading countries of the project
"Desertec" (figure 4) in order to make Europe safe in energy and environment (export of solar electricity
towards Europe " 15 % of the need ").
We have done an experiment in our laboratory - University of Bouira in the North of Algeria’ costal
area’- in a day of winter (March), the sunning value given by our Pyranometer was 1051 W/m2
, which’s a good
value (see figure n°5).
Fig. 5. Pyranometer
With a Photovoltaic kit (KPV-170) - in the same experiment- , we have for mono silicon the following
basic graphic [I (V)]:
The characteristic I (v) is directly related to the characteristic of the solar cell basic. The voltage that is
present when no current is flowing is called open circuit voltage (Voc). In contrast, the current present when
there is no voltage is called short-circuit current (Isc). The best combination is called the maximum power point
of photovoltaic solar panel. The voltage and current are called voltage corresponding to maximum power
(Vpmax) and current at maximum power (Ipmax).
Fig.6. Influence of the lighting on the current - voltage characteristic of the cell.
Opportunities of the Silicon Technology in Algeria
www.ijres.org 24 | Page
From this practical graph, we can deduce that the I(V) solar cell base characteristic is directly related to
the illumination. That confirms the importance of the geo-position of Algeria.
II.1. Potentialities into Silicon Technology:
Sand containing silica covers the major part of Algeria what opens great prospects in industry for silicon (not to
say the Algerian Silicon Valley). According to the last analyses unfortunately not diffused Algerian sand
contains silica of best quality, which can give us silicon purer and more profitable than imported silicon.
Normally we know universally that the efficiency of the photovoltaic cells with silicon is in clear improvement
for all the categories of silicon (single-crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous).We can consider that one has
strong outputs of conversion.
Application of the Si Crystalline solar cells:
 Single-crystal solar cells: Space field.
 Polycrystalline solar cells: Telecommunication, sites isolated, Buildings and roofs, Field of transport.
 Amorphous Solar cells (a-Si): ideal is the Space field but one can use them in the apparatuses, Production
cost much low. Current research in the field (Si) aim at stabilizing the properties of amorphous Silicon.
Table 2. Various outputs of the silicon categories for sizes modules (10x10 cm 2
).
Category
Highest
Efficiency (٪)
Monocrystalline
silicon Cell
14-15
Polycrystalline
Silicon Cell
12-13
Amorphous
Silicon panel
8
Question of technology of production, we can easily deduce from it that the technology of amorphous
silicon is the least difficult and the cost shows us good.
Table 3. Advantages & drawbacks of the 2 technologies
Characteristics
Crystalline
silicon
Amorphous
silicon
Output Very high nearly high
Behavior in
temperature
high Very high
operation if luminosity
weak
high Very high
Operation if covered
weather
high Very high
Operation if partial
shade
high Very high
Stability Very high high
Price Very high high
Opportunities of the Silicon Technology in Algeria
www.ijres.org 25 | Page
Table 4. Technological Difficulties of production.
Type of silicon Mono silicon Poly Silicon Amorphous Silicon
Technological degree
of difficulty
Very high high low
III. Conclusion
In conclusion, one sees from this primitive study that Algeria lays all the potentialities to be decisive in
launch a silicon industry. And as a beginning one can begin with the mastering from the amorphous silicon
technology. Given the lower performance of amorphous silicon (see Table 1), we must increase the area of
installing solar panels but for a country as vast as that Algeria that is not a problem.
The Algerian project of "Rouiba Eclairage» which aims at producing solar panels for 50 MW/year (it is
in phase of realization –one estimate that he will return in production into 2013- ) can give us many hopes [9].
REFERENCES
[1] Bulletin des énergies renouvelables (Publication du Centre de Développement des Energies
Renouvelables) Semestriel N° 15 - 16, (2009), page 33.
[2] http://www.astm.org/SNEWS/ NOVEMBER _2007/images/3rd_pillar.gif
[3] Bernard Wiesenfeld , L’énergie en 2050, Nouveaux défis et faux espoirs. (Livre : EDP Sciences, 2005),
41-42.
[4] Bulletin des énergies renouvelables (Publication du Centre de Développement des Energies
Renouvelables) Semestriel N° 5, (2004), page 4.
[5] A. Boudghene Stambouli, H. Koinuma, « A primary study on a long-term vision and strategy for the
realization and the development of the Sahara Solar Breeder project in Algeria », elsevier : Renewable
and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, 2012, 591– 598.
[6] http://lenergie-solaire.info/accueil/de-lenergie-solaire-pour-toute-lhumanite.html
[7] Available from Ministry of Energy and Mining Website :< http://www.mem-
algeria.org/english/index.php>.
[8] http://www.desertec.org/en/organization/
[9] http://www.andi.dz/fr/news/convention-rouiba.pdf

More Related Content

What's hot

Optimal photovoltaic capacity planning for windfarm expansion
Optimal photovoltaic capacity planning for windfarm expansionOptimal photovoltaic capacity planning for windfarm expansion
Optimal photovoltaic capacity planning for windfarm expansionsrmohanrajan
 
Eskom's Renewables Strategy
Eskom's Renewables StrategyEskom's Renewables Strategy
Eskom's Renewables Strategysimguybar
 
Analysis and Fabrication of Rollcage for Solar Vehicle
Analysis and Fabrication of Rollcage for Solar VehicleAnalysis and Fabrication of Rollcage for Solar Vehicle
Analysis and Fabrication of Rollcage for Solar Vehiclepaperpublications3
 
Integrating renewable energy technologies to reduce large ship fule consumpti...
Integrating renewable energy technologies to reduce large ship fule consumpti...Integrating renewable energy technologies to reduce large ship fule consumpti...
Integrating renewable energy technologies to reduce large ship fule consumpti...cahouser
 
Solar Energy as an Alternative Energy than the Conventional Means of Electric...
Solar Energy as an Alternative Energy than the Conventional Means of Electric...Solar Energy as an Alternative Energy than the Conventional Means of Electric...
Solar Energy as an Alternative Energy than the Conventional Means of Electric...Ali Alhelal
 
Solar energy market a case study on sustainable energy industry
Solar energy market a case study on sustainable energy industrySolar energy market a case study on sustainable energy industry
Solar energy market a case study on sustainable energy industryNorrazman Zaiha Zainol
 
Design and testing of a vertical axis turbine drivenby automotive drag as an ...
Design and testing of a vertical axis turbine drivenby automotive drag as an ...Design and testing of a vertical axis turbine drivenby automotive drag as an ...
Design and testing of a vertical axis turbine drivenby automotive drag as an ...Jomar Basto
 
Self Electricity Generation and Energy Saving By Solar Using Programmable Sys...
Self Electricity Generation and Energy Saving By Solar Using Programmable Sys...Self Electricity Generation and Energy Saving By Solar Using Programmable Sys...
Self Electricity Generation and Energy Saving By Solar Using Programmable Sys...theijes
 
Daniel Kammen-La ciencia y la política de la energía sostenible
Daniel Kammen-La ciencia y la política de la energía sostenibleDaniel Kammen-La ciencia y la política de la energía sostenible
Daniel Kammen-La ciencia y la política de la energía sostenibleFundación Ramón Areces
 
Mr. Badr IKKEN - Research & Development in Morocco
Mr. Badr IKKEN - Research & Development in MoroccoMr. Badr IKKEN - Research & Development in Morocco
Mr. Badr IKKEN - Research & Development in MoroccoMouhcine Benmeziane
 
Renewable Energy - Recent Initiatives
Renewable Energy - Recent InitiativesRenewable Energy - Recent Initiatives
Renewable Energy - Recent InitiativesSaurabh Mehta
 
Future energy leaders' club lecture 8
Future energy leaders' club lecture 8Future energy leaders' club lecture 8
Future energy leaders' club lecture 8Akinola Oyedele
 

What's hot (19)

Hydro
HydroHydro
Hydro
 
Optimal photovoltaic capacity planning for windfarm expansion
Optimal photovoltaic capacity planning for windfarm expansionOptimal photovoltaic capacity planning for windfarm expansion
Optimal photovoltaic capacity planning for windfarm expansion
 
Eskom's Renewables Strategy
Eskom's Renewables StrategyEskom's Renewables Strategy
Eskom's Renewables Strategy
 
Analysis and Fabrication of Rollcage for Solar Vehicle
Analysis and Fabrication of Rollcage for Solar VehicleAnalysis and Fabrication of Rollcage for Solar Vehicle
Analysis and Fabrication of Rollcage for Solar Vehicle
 
Integrating renewable energy technologies to reduce large ship fule consumpti...
Integrating renewable energy technologies to reduce large ship fule consumpti...Integrating renewable energy technologies to reduce large ship fule consumpti...
Integrating renewable energy technologies to reduce large ship fule consumpti...
 
Solar Energy as an Alternative Energy than the Conventional Means of Electric...
Solar Energy as an Alternative Energy than the Conventional Means of Electric...Solar Energy as an Alternative Energy than the Conventional Means of Electric...
Solar Energy as an Alternative Energy than the Conventional Means of Electric...
 
Solar energy market a case study on sustainable energy industry
Solar energy market a case study on sustainable energy industrySolar energy market a case study on sustainable energy industry
Solar energy market a case study on sustainable energy industry
 
Solar Presentation
Solar PresentationSolar Presentation
Solar Presentation
 
Design and testing of a vertical axis turbine drivenby automotive drag as an ...
Design and testing of a vertical axis turbine drivenby automotive drag as an ...Design and testing of a vertical axis turbine drivenby automotive drag as an ...
Design and testing of a vertical axis turbine drivenby automotive drag as an ...
 
Self Electricity Generation and Energy Saving By Solar Using Programmable Sys...
Self Electricity Generation and Energy Saving By Solar Using Programmable Sys...Self Electricity Generation and Energy Saving By Solar Using Programmable Sys...
Self Electricity Generation and Energy Saving By Solar Using Programmable Sys...
 
Daniel Kammen-La ciencia y la política de la energía sostenible
Daniel Kammen-La ciencia y la política de la energía sostenibleDaniel Kammen-La ciencia y la política de la energía sostenible
Daniel Kammen-La ciencia y la política de la energía sostenible
 
Mr. Badr IKKEN - Research & Development in Morocco
Mr. Badr IKKEN - Research & Development in MoroccoMr. Badr IKKEN - Research & Development in Morocco
Mr. Badr IKKEN - Research & Development in Morocco
 
2 aitor marzo, bifi pv psda, antofagasta (chile) 2015
2 aitor marzo, bifi pv psda, antofagasta (chile) 20152 aitor marzo, bifi pv psda, antofagasta (chile) 2015
2 aitor marzo, bifi pv psda, antofagasta (chile) 2015
 
211 1022-3-pb
211 1022-3-pb211 1022-3-pb
211 1022-3-pb
 
1 diego pulido, bifi pv psda, antofagasta (chile) 2015
1 diego pulido, bifi pv psda, antofagasta (chile) 20151 diego pulido, bifi pv psda, antofagasta (chile) 2015
1 diego pulido, bifi pv psda, antofagasta (chile) 2015
 
Renewable Energy - Recent Initiatives
Renewable Energy - Recent InitiativesRenewable Energy - Recent Initiatives
Renewable Energy - Recent Initiatives
 
Wind Power in Egypt
Wind Power in EgyptWind Power in Egypt
Wind Power in Egypt
 
The Development of Solar Power Plant in Malaysia
The Development of Solar Power Plant in MalaysiaThe Development of Solar Power Plant in Malaysia
The Development of Solar Power Plant in Malaysia
 
Future energy leaders' club lecture 8
Future energy leaders' club lecture 8Future energy leaders' club lecture 8
Future energy leaders' club lecture 8
 

Similar to E0112125

Analysis and comparison of different PV technologies for determining the opti...
Analysis and comparison of different PV technologies for determining the opti...Analysis and comparison of different PV technologies for determining the opti...
Analysis and comparison of different PV technologies for determining the opti...IOSRJEEE
 
Synthesis of amorphous silicon nanoparticles from agricultural wastes for sol...
Synthesis of amorphous silicon nanoparticles from agricultural wastes for sol...Synthesis of amorphous silicon nanoparticles from agricultural wastes for sol...
Synthesis of amorphous silicon nanoparticles from agricultural wastes for sol...Adebisi Adekunle
 
Thin film photovoltaics as a mainstream of solar power engineering
Thin film photovoltaics as a mainstream of solar power engineeringThin film photovoltaics as a mainstream of solar power engineering
Thin film photovoltaics as a mainstream of solar power engineeringArmando Ferreira Alvferreira
 
Chapter 2 solar energy 2021 part 2
Chapter 2 solar energy 2021 part 2Chapter 2 solar energy 2021 part 2
Chapter 2 solar energy 2021 part 2Prof . Ghada Amer
 
Thermal Stability Investigation and Improvement: A Gateway to High Efficiency...
Thermal Stability Investigation and Improvement: A Gateway to High Efficiency...Thermal Stability Investigation and Improvement: A Gateway to High Efficiency...
Thermal Stability Investigation and Improvement: A Gateway to High Efficiency...IRJET Journal
 
10.1016@j.ref.2019.11.002.pdf
10.1016@j.ref.2019.11.002.pdf10.1016@j.ref.2019.11.002.pdf
10.1016@j.ref.2019.11.002.pdfAbdelKaderCheikh1
 
1-s2.0-S0196890420302855-main.pdf
1-s2.0-S0196890420302855-main.pdf1-s2.0-S0196890420302855-main.pdf
1-s2.0-S0196890420302855-main.pdfAsayelSaud1
 
IRJET- Rankine Cycle Coupled with Heliostat Solar Receiver; A Review
IRJET- Rankine Cycle Coupled with Heliostat Solar Receiver; A ReviewIRJET- Rankine Cycle Coupled with Heliostat Solar Receiver; A Review
IRJET- Rankine Cycle Coupled with Heliostat Solar Receiver; A ReviewIRJET Journal
 
Economic and Optimization Study of an Hybrid Solar-Diesel System for A Coaste...
Economic and Optimization Study of an Hybrid Solar-Diesel System for A Coaste...Economic and Optimization Study of an Hybrid Solar-Diesel System for A Coaste...
Economic and Optimization Study of an Hybrid Solar-Diesel System for A Coaste...paperpublications3
 
PV Cottage Industry in Malaysia
PV Cottage Industry in MalaysiaPV Cottage Industry in Malaysia
PV Cottage Industry in MalaysiaNoor Shahiwan
 
Vasilikos_Nikos_Cohort 13_Dissertation_September 2014
Vasilikos_Nikos_Cohort 13_Dissertation_September 2014Vasilikos_Nikos_Cohort 13_Dissertation_September 2014
Vasilikos_Nikos_Cohort 13_Dissertation_September 2014Nikos Vasilikos
 
En002 solar-photovoltaic-installations a-global-market-overview
En002 solar-photovoltaic-installations a-global-market-overviewEn002 solar-photovoltaic-installations a-global-market-overview
En002 solar-photovoltaic-installations a-global-market-overviewIndustry Experts
 
Case Study of Solar Power Plant Generation And Their Factors Affecting
Case Study of Solar Power Plant Generation And Their Factors AffectingCase Study of Solar Power Plant Generation And Their Factors Affecting
Case Study of Solar Power Plant Generation And Their Factors AffectingIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Analysing Efficiency of Solar Collector using ETC Absorber Tube
IRJET-  	  Analysing Efficiency of Solar Collector using ETC Absorber TubeIRJET-  	  Analysing Efficiency of Solar Collector using ETC Absorber Tube
IRJET- Analysing Efficiency of Solar Collector using ETC Absorber TubeIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- A Review on Solar Cell Crystal Silicon
IRJET-  	  A Review on Solar Cell Crystal SiliconIRJET-  	  A Review on Solar Cell Crystal Silicon
IRJET- A Review on Solar Cell Crystal SiliconIRJET Journal
 
Challenges Facing Grid Integration of Renewable Energy in the GCC Region
Challenges Facing Grid Integration of Renewable Energy in the GCC RegionChallenges Facing Grid Integration of Renewable Energy in the GCC Region
Challenges Facing Grid Integration of Renewable Energy in the GCC RegionPower System Operation
 

Similar to E0112125 (20)

Analysis and comparison of different PV technologies for determining the opti...
Analysis and comparison of different PV technologies for determining the opti...Analysis and comparison of different PV technologies for determining the opti...
Analysis and comparison of different PV technologies for determining the opti...
 
R110304112121
R110304112121R110304112121
R110304112121
 
Synthesis of amorphous silicon nanoparticles from agricultural wastes for sol...
Synthesis of amorphous silicon nanoparticles from agricultural wastes for sol...Synthesis of amorphous silicon nanoparticles from agricultural wastes for sol...
Synthesis of amorphous silicon nanoparticles from agricultural wastes for sol...
 
Thin film photovoltaics as a mainstream of solar power engineering
Thin film photovoltaics as a mainstream of solar power engineeringThin film photovoltaics as a mainstream of solar power engineering
Thin film photovoltaics as a mainstream of solar power engineering
 
Solar System Report
Solar System ReportSolar System Report
Solar System Report
 
Chapter 2 solar energy 2021 part 2
Chapter 2 solar energy 2021 part 2Chapter 2 solar energy 2021 part 2
Chapter 2 solar energy 2021 part 2
 
Thermal Stability Investigation and Improvement: A Gateway to High Efficiency...
Thermal Stability Investigation and Improvement: A Gateway to High Efficiency...Thermal Stability Investigation and Improvement: A Gateway to High Efficiency...
Thermal Stability Investigation and Improvement: A Gateway to High Efficiency...
 
Solar Report WSL
Solar Report WSLSolar Report WSL
Solar Report WSL
 
10.1016@j.ref.2019.11.002.pdf
10.1016@j.ref.2019.11.002.pdf10.1016@j.ref.2019.11.002.pdf
10.1016@j.ref.2019.11.002.pdf
 
1-s2.0-S0196890420302855-main.pdf
1-s2.0-S0196890420302855-main.pdf1-s2.0-S0196890420302855-main.pdf
1-s2.0-S0196890420302855-main.pdf
 
IRJET- Rankine Cycle Coupled with Heliostat Solar Receiver; A Review
IRJET- Rankine Cycle Coupled with Heliostat Solar Receiver; A ReviewIRJET- Rankine Cycle Coupled with Heliostat Solar Receiver; A Review
IRJET- Rankine Cycle Coupled with Heliostat Solar Receiver; A Review
 
Economic and Optimization Study of an Hybrid Solar-Diesel System for A Coaste...
Economic and Optimization Study of an Hybrid Solar-Diesel System for A Coaste...Economic and Optimization Study of an Hybrid Solar-Diesel System for A Coaste...
Economic and Optimization Study of an Hybrid Solar-Diesel System for A Coaste...
 
PV Cottage Industry in Malaysia
PV Cottage Industry in MalaysiaPV Cottage Industry in Malaysia
PV Cottage Industry in Malaysia
 
Vasilikos_Nikos_Cohort 13_Dissertation_September 2014
Vasilikos_Nikos_Cohort 13_Dissertation_September 2014Vasilikos_Nikos_Cohort 13_Dissertation_September 2014
Vasilikos_Nikos_Cohort 13_Dissertation_September 2014
 
Solar Thermal Energy an Industry Report
Solar Thermal Energy an Industry ReportSolar Thermal Energy an Industry Report
Solar Thermal Energy an Industry Report
 
En002 solar-photovoltaic-installations a-global-market-overview
En002 solar-photovoltaic-installations a-global-market-overviewEn002 solar-photovoltaic-installations a-global-market-overview
En002 solar-photovoltaic-installations a-global-market-overview
 
Case Study of Solar Power Plant Generation And Their Factors Affecting
Case Study of Solar Power Plant Generation And Their Factors AffectingCase Study of Solar Power Plant Generation And Their Factors Affecting
Case Study of Solar Power Plant Generation And Their Factors Affecting
 
IRJET- Analysing Efficiency of Solar Collector using ETC Absorber Tube
IRJET-  	  Analysing Efficiency of Solar Collector using ETC Absorber TubeIRJET-  	  Analysing Efficiency of Solar Collector using ETC Absorber Tube
IRJET- Analysing Efficiency of Solar Collector using ETC Absorber Tube
 
IRJET- A Review on Solar Cell Crystal Silicon
IRJET-  	  A Review on Solar Cell Crystal SiliconIRJET-  	  A Review on Solar Cell Crystal Silicon
IRJET- A Review on Solar Cell Crystal Silicon
 
Challenges Facing Grid Integration of Renewable Energy in the GCC Region
Challenges Facing Grid Integration of Renewable Energy in the GCC RegionChallenges Facing Grid Integration of Renewable Energy in the GCC Region
Challenges Facing Grid Integration of Renewable Energy in the GCC Region
 

More from IJRES Journal

Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...
Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...
Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...IJRES Journal
 
Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...
Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...
Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...IJRES Journal
 
Review: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
Review: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate VariabilityReview: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
Review: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate VariabilityIJRES Journal
 
Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...
Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...
Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...IJRES Journal
 
Study and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil properties
Study and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil propertiesStudy and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil properties
Study and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil propertiesIJRES Journal
 
A Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their Structures
A Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their StructuresA Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their Structures
A Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their StructuresIJRES Journal
 
A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...
A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...
A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...IJRES Journal
 
Wear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible Rod
Wear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible RodWear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible Rod
Wear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible RodIJRES Journal
 
DDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and Detection
DDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and DetectionDDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and Detection
DDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and DetectionIJRES Journal
 
An improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioning
An improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioningAn improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioning
An improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioningIJRES Journal
 
Positioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision Workbench
Positioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision WorkbenchPositioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision Workbench
Positioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision WorkbenchIJRES Journal
 
Status of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and Now
Status of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and NowStatus of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and Now
Status of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and NowIJRES Journal
 
The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...
The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...
The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...IJRES Journal
 
Experimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirs
Experimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirsExperimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirs
Experimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirsIJRES Journal
 
Correlation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound Signal
Correlation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound SignalCorrelation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound Signal
Correlation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound SignalIJRES Journal
 
Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...
Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...
Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...IJRES Journal
 
Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...
Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...
Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...IJRES Journal
 
A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...
A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...
A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...IJRES Journal
 
Structural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubes
Structural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubesStructural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubes
Structural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubesIJRES Journal
 
Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...
Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...
Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...IJRES Journal
 

More from IJRES Journal (20)

Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...
Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...
Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...
 
Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...
Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...
Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...
 
Review: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
Review: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate VariabilityReview: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
Review: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
 
Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...
Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...
Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...
 
Study and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil properties
Study and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil propertiesStudy and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil properties
Study and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil properties
 
A Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their Structures
A Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their StructuresA Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their Structures
A Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their Structures
 
A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...
A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...
A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...
 
Wear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible Rod
Wear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible RodWear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible Rod
Wear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible Rod
 
DDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and Detection
DDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and DetectionDDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and Detection
DDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and Detection
 
An improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioning
An improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioningAn improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioning
An improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioning
 
Positioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision Workbench
Positioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision WorkbenchPositioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision Workbench
Positioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision Workbench
 
Status of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and Now
Status of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and NowStatus of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and Now
Status of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and Now
 
The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...
The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...
The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...
 
Experimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirs
Experimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirsExperimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirs
Experimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirs
 
Correlation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound Signal
Correlation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound SignalCorrelation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound Signal
Correlation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound Signal
 
Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...
Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...
Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...
 
Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...
Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...
Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...
 
A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...
A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...
A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...
 
Structural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubes
Structural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubesStructural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubes
Structural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubes
 
Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...
Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...
Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...
 

Recently uploaded

JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...amber724300
 
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfGenerative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfIngrid Airi González
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesKari Kakkonen
 
Français Patch Tuesday - Avril
Français Patch Tuesday - AvrilFrançais Patch Tuesday - Avril
Français Patch Tuesday - AvrilIvanti
 
Accelerating Enterprise Software Engineering with Platformless
Accelerating Enterprise Software Engineering with PlatformlessAccelerating Enterprise Software Engineering with Platformless
Accelerating Enterprise Software Engineering with PlatformlessWSO2
 
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality AssuranceInflectra
 
A Framework for Development in the AI Age
A Framework for Development in the AI AgeA Framework for Development in the AI Age
A Framework for Development in the AI AgeCprime
 
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Mark Simos
 
Bridging Between CAD & GIS: 6 Ways to Automate Your Data Integration
Bridging Between CAD & GIS:  6 Ways to Automate Your Data IntegrationBridging Between CAD & GIS:  6 Ways to Automate Your Data Integration
Bridging Between CAD & GIS: 6 Ways to Automate Your Data Integrationmarketing932765
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Nikki Chapple
 
Assure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyes
Assure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyesAssure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyes
Assure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyesThousandEyes
 
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...Alkin Tezuysal
 
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentEmixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentPim van der Noll
 
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfConnecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfNeo4j
 
Generative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptx
Generative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptxGenerative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptx
Generative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptxfnnc6jmgwh
 
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Hiroshi SHIBATA
 
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdfLandscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdfAarwolf Industries LLC
 
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...Jeffrey Haguewood
 
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...Wes McKinney
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Kaya Weers
 

Recently uploaded (20)

JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
JET Technology Labs White Paper for Virtualized Security and Encryption Techn...
 
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfGenerative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
 
Français Patch Tuesday - Avril
Français Patch Tuesday - AvrilFrançais Patch Tuesday - Avril
Français Patch Tuesday - Avril
 
Accelerating Enterprise Software Engineering with Platformless
Accelerating Enterprise Software Engineering with PlatformlessAccelerating Enterprise Software Engineering with Platformless
Accelerating Enterprise Software Engineering with Platformless
 
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
 
A Framework for Development in the AI Age
A Framework for Development in the AI AgeA Framework for Development in the AI Age
A Framework for Development in the AI Age
 
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
 
Bridging Between CAD & GIS: 6 Ways to Automate Your Data Integration
Bridging Between CAD & GIS:  6 Ways to Automate Your Data IntegrationBridging Between CAD & GIS:  6 Ways to Automate Your Data Integration
Bridging Between CAD & GIS: 6 Ways to Automate Your Data Integration
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
 
Assure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyes
Assure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyesAssure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyes
Assure Ecommerce and Retail Operations Uptime with ThousandEyes
 
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
 
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentEmixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
 
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfConnecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
 
Generative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptx
Generative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptxGenerative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptx
Generative AI - Gitex v1Generative AI - Gitex v1.pptx
 
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
 
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdfLandscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
Landscape Catalogue 2024 Australia-1.pdf
 
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
Email Marketing Automation for Bonterra Impact Management (fka Social Solutio...
 
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
 

E0112125

  • 1. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science (IJRES) ISSN (Online): 2320-9364, ISSN (Print): 2320-9356 www.ijres.org Volume 1 Issue 1 ǁ May. 2013 ǁ PP.01-04 www.ijres.org 21 | Page Opportunities of the Silicon Technology in Algeria M.Rezki1 , M. Ayad 2 , T.Benabdallah1 1 Industrial Product and Systems Innovation Laboratory, E.N.P.O (Ex E.N.S.E.T.), University of Oran, 31000, Algeria. 2 Department of technical’s sciences, University of Bouira, 10000, Algeria. ABSTRACT: This study makes it possible to explain to us some major opportunities which have Algeria to launch out in a silicon industry (key element of the photovoltaic branch of renewable energies). Already Algerian government has set a goal of raising the share of new energies in its energy balance at 5% in 2017 and 30% by 2050 based on the photovoltaic and wind [1]. This study shows that Algeria can venture to the development of its own silicon industry starting with the bottom-of-the-range i.e. industry amorphous silicon thus make its own photovoltaic modules 100% Algerian. Keywords- Algeria, energy, photovoltaic module, silicon technology, solar power. I. INTRODUCTION The rational use of energy in all its forms appears among the major principles of the durable development, would be only for these two principles: principle of non degradation of the natural resources and principle of the production and consumption persons in charge. Because ecology is one of the three fundamental pillars which constitute the durable development (see figure 1). Fig.1. The three pillars of the durable development [2]. Electricity is the key element in any energy system, its share does not cease increasing – it contributes at a rate of 20 % on average to provide for the energy needs on planet, but of 40 % in the industrialized countries [ 3 ] - and for produce it , we can use fossil energies (coal and hydrocarbons which are in process of exhaustion) but the most judicious choice in spite of the cost and the mastering is to turn to renewable energies (hydraulics, the solar one, the wind one, the biomass, geothermic). The exhaustion of the world petrol reserves in 2040 and gas reserves in 2060 (according to agency IEA) will accentuate the passage obliged towards renewable energies [4]. II. Potentialities of Algeria as regards nonconventional electric power Due to its geographical location, Algeria holds one of the highest solar reservoirs in the world. Studies of renewable energies sources performed in Algeria during recent years show that it has an important potential for power generation from renewable energies, for the domestic market as well as for export to the European market [5]. The Algerian state clearly understood the issue of energy, this explains the reason for its launch into renewable energy (especially wind and solar), taking advantage of its natural potential and position geostrategic (see Figures 2 and 3, as an example we took solar energy).
  • 2. Opportunities of the Silicon Technology in Algeria www.ijres.org 22 | Page The duration of insulation over the national territory, exceeds 2000 h per year; it could reach 3900 h (in more regions as in Sahara). The daily obtained energy on one square meter horizontal surface is about 5 kWh, over the largest part of the national territory (figure 2), about 1700 kWh/m2 /year in the North region and 2263 kWh/m2 / year for the South one [7]. Table 1: Solar potential in Algeria [5] Areas COASTAL AREA High plateau Sahara Surface (%) 4 10 86 Average duration of sunshine (h/year) 2650 3000 3500 Received average energy (kWh/m2/year) 1700 1900 2650 Fig. 2. Potential sites for solar electricity supply and example of the overall daily exposure received (in kWh/m2/day) in Algeria [ 5]. Fig. 3. Strategic positioning of Algeria for its solar radiations by surface [6].
  • 3. Opportunities of the Silicon Technology in Algeria www.ijres.org 23 | Page Fig. 4. Indicative positioning of the wind and solar sites (tallies of the Desertec project) [8]. This advantage of the energy of Algeria has made him one of the leading countries of the project "Desertec" (figure 4) in order to make Europe safe in energy and environment (export of solar electricity towards Europe " 15 % of the need "). We have done an experiment in our laboratory - University of Bouira in the North of Algeria’ costal area’- in a day of winter (March), the sunning value given by our Pyranometer was 1051 W/m2 , which’s a good value (see figure n°5). Fig. 5. Pyranometer With a Photovoltaic kit (KPV-170) - in the same experiment- , we have for mono silicon the following basic graphic [I (V)]: The characteristic I (v) is directly related to the characteristic of the solar cell basic. The voltage that is present when no current is flowing is called open circuit voltage (Voc). In contrast, the current present when there is no voltage is called short-circuit current (Isc). The best combination is called the maximum power point of photovoltaic solar panel. The voltage and current are called voltage corresponding to maximum power (Vpmax) and current at maximum power (Ipmax). Fig.6. Influence of the lighting on the current - voltage characteristic of the cell.
  • 4. Opportunities of the Silicon Technology in Algeria www.ijres.org 24 | Page From this practical graph, we can deduce that the I(V) solar cell base characteristic is directly related to the illumination. That confirms the importance of the geo-position of Algeria. II.1. Potentialities into Silicon Technology: Sand containing silica covers the major part of Algeria what opens great prospects in industry for silicon (not to say the Algerian Silicon Valley). According to the last analyses unfortunately not diffused Algerian sand contains silica of best quality, which can give us silicon purer and more profitable than imported silicon. Normally we know universally that the efficiency of the photovoltaic cells with silicon is in clear improvement for all the categories of silicon (single-crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous).We can consider that one has strong outputs of conversion. Application of the Si Crystalline solar cells:  Single-crystal solar cells: Space field.  Polycrystalline solar cells: Telecommunication, sites isolated, Buildings and roofs, Field of transport.  Amorphous Solar cells (a-Si): ideal is the Space field but one can use them in the apparatuses, Production cost much low. Current research in the field (Si) aim at stabilizing the properties of amorphous Silicon. Table 2. Various outputs of the silicon categories for sizes modules (10x10 cm 2 ). Category Highest Efficiency (٪) Monocrystalline silicon Cell 14-15 Polycrystalline Silicon Cell 12-13 Amorphous Silicon panel 8 Question of technology of production, we can easily deduce from it that the technology of amorphous silicon is the least difficult and the cost shows us good. Table 3. Advantages & drawbacks of the 2 technologies Characteristics Crystalline silicon Amorphous silicon Output Very high nearly high Behavior in temperature high Very high operation if luminosity weak high Very high Operation if covered weather high Very high Operation if partial shade high Very high Stability Very high high Price Very high high
  • 5. Opportunities of the Silicon Technology in Algeria www.ijres.org 25 | Page Table 4. Technological Difficulties of production. Type of silicon Mono silicon Poly Silicon Amorphous Silicon Technological degree of difficulty Very high high low III. Conclusion In conclusion, one sees from this primitive study that Algeria lays all the potentialities to be decisive in launch a silicon industry. And as a beginning one can begin with the mastering from the amorphous silicon technology. Given the lower performance of amorphous silicon (see Table 1), we must increase the area of installing solar panels but for a country as vast as that Algeria that is not a problem. The Algerian project of "Rouiba Eclairage» which aims at producing solar panels for 50 MW/year (it is in phase of realization –one estimate that he will return in production into 2013- ) can give us many hopes [9]. REFERENCES [1] Bulletin des énergies renouvelables (Publication du Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables) Semestriel N° 15 - 16, (2009), page 33. [2] http://www.astm.org/SNEWS/ NOVEMBER _2007/images/3rd_pillar.gif [3] Bernard Wiesenfeld , L’énergie en 2050, Nouveaux défis et faux espoirs. (Livre : EDP Sciences, 2005), 41-42. [4] Bulletin des énergies renouvelables (Publication du Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables) Semestriel N° 5, (2004), page 4. [5] A. Boudghene Stambouli, H. Koinuma, « A primary study on a long-term vision and strategy for the realization and the development of the Sahara Solar Breeder project in Algeria », elsevier : Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, 2012, 591– 598. [6] http://lenergie-solaire.info/accueil/de-lenergie-solaire-pour-toute-lhumanite.html [7] Available from Ministry of Energy and Mining Website :< http://www.mem- algeria.org/english/index.php>. [8] http://www.desertec.org/en/organization/ [9] http://www.andi.dz/fr/news/convention-rouiba.pdf