SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 10
Download to read offline
International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science (IJRES)
ISSN (Online): 2320-9364, ISSN (Print): 2320-9356
www.ijres.org Volume 1 Issue 4 ǁ August 2013 ǁ PP.01-10
www.ijres.org 1 | Page
Controller Gain Tuning For Road Vehicle Convoy System Using
Model Reference Adaptive Control Method
Aveen Uthman1
, Shahdan Sudin2
1
(Faculty of Electrical Engineering/ UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)
2
(Faculty of Electrical Engineering/ UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)
ABSTRACT: In convoy system, the control system on each vehicle requires information about proceeding
vehicle motion, in order to maintain stability and satisfy operating constraints. A two-vehicle look-ahead
control strategy is proposed and investigated for the operation of a convoy. The mathematical modeling for this
control strategy has been found and simulated. This paper demonstrates the design process of an adaptive
controller gain for a road vehicle convoy system. This process is done by simulation. The appropriate constants
are used as the reference model for the adaptive controller implementation to find the effectiveness of the
control. As a result, a road vehicle convoy system with an adaptive gain controller is produced.
Keywords - two-vehicle look-ahead control strategy, model reference adaptive control, gradient approach.
I. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, problems related to traffic congestion is dressed as issue which has to be considered. Since
this issue continuously causes many accidents, traffic jams and so on. Convoys or platoons has been introduced
and developed rapidly in order to overcome the collision. One of the matter which has to be taken into careful
consideration in road convoy system formulation is the speed and the spacing if the following vehicle with
respect to the preceding vehicle. It is important to maintain some safe distance between the following vehicle
and preceding vehicle at any speed in convoy system in order to avoid any collision between both of them.
Sensors are used to measure the speed and the position of the proceeding vehicle instead of estimating the
information by the driver. The information which has been gotten by the sensor is used and processed by the
following vehicle controller to produce the amount required speed and safe spacing distance.
In autonomous control approach, safe distance can be ensured automatically controller based on the
information obtained from the preceding vehicle. The autonomous controller on the following vehicle has the
ability of activating of the vehicle cruise control mode.in this case it does not need to hold the steering nor press
the fuel pedal by the driver, and automatically apply the brake when necessary in order to ensure the safety of
the vehicle. In fact, research in vehicle convoy has attracted the attention of several researchers in the past
decades, particularly in the USA and Europe where safety, energy consumption and traffic congestions are the
primary motivators. Major contributions are from the Chauffeur Project (Europe), the PATH program (USA),
the Intelligent Transportation System program in Japan and the Cyber Car project in France. [1,2]In developed
nations, the autonomous concept leads to the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS).As a vehicle enters
the highway, his vehicle automatically takes-over the control of the vehicle while following the preceding
vehicle. This feature also gives rise to steering less technology where during the autonomous control in action,
the driver does not need to hold the steering wheel. All the driving tasks are taken care by the vehicle intelligent
system. One of the autonomous features is the adaptive type control based on certain control strategy which
gives rise to adaptive cruise control (ACC). An ACC controlled vehicle will follow the front vehicle at a safe
distance. A Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) can be used in this type of control where the vehicle
controller has the ability to adapt to the variation of speed and position of the preceding vehicle.[1]
Figure1. Diagram of a road vehicle convoy system
Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control
www.ijres.org 2 | Page
II. TWO-VEHICLE LOOK-AHEAD CONTROL STRATEGY
In convoy s system, when one vehicle follows two preceding vehicle, the system is formed as shown in
fig .1.The control the following vehicle consists of one of the two ways: either maintain the speed of the
following vehicle as same as the speed of two immediate preceding vehicles or maintain a safe distance among
them in order to avoid any collisions. This is where the string stability plays an important role by having a string
stable vehicle convoy system[2]. The system is said to stable if the range errors decrease as they propagate along
the vehicle stream.
In this control strategy, the controlled vehicle receives the information from the preceding vehicle and
the one in front of the preceding vehicle. So, the control system on the following vehicle needs information
about the motion of preceding vehicles.
As Yanakiev and Kanellakopoulos used in their work[3] ,they used a simple spring‐mass‐damper system to
demonstrate the idea of string stability and show the string‐stability criterion for constant time headway and
variable time‐headway policies. So from the actual diagram in Fig. 1, the vehicle following system can be
represented a mass-spring-damper analogy[4] as shown in Fig. 2. A mathematical model for this control strategy
is shown in Fig. 2 where irepresents the following vehicle, i-1 represents the immediate preceding vehicle, and
i-1 represents the vehicle which is in front of preceding vehicle. The parameters in the above figure are vehicle
mass (m),vehicle displacement (x), vehicle acceleration ( ), spring constant (kp) and damper constant (kv). The
interest is only on the following vehicle. So, performing the mathematical modeling on only the following
vehicle i and applying the Newton’s Second law results in the following Eq. (1).
m i= Kp1 (xi-1- xi) + Kp2 (xi-2-xi) + kv1( i-1 - i) + Kv2 ( i-2- i)(1)
Assuming unit mass for Eq. (1) and taking Laplacetransform, gives the following transfer
function.Xi= (2)
The transfer function in Eq. (2) depends on the followingspacing policy.
The aim of this strategy is to maintain string stability forlongitudinal motion within the vehicle
following system orthe vehicle convoy, particularly between a vehicle with avehicle or between vehicles with a
following vehicle. Thisstrategy is adopted in order to design a controller byinvestigating the following two
policies
III. SPACING POLICY
A spacing policy is defined as a rule that dictates how the speed of an automatically controlled vehicle
must regulate as a function of the following distance. A control system should be designed such that it regulates
the vehicle speed according to the designed spacing policy.[5]
1. Fixed Distance Spacing Policy
This type of spacing policy keeps a constant inter-vehicular spacing regardless to the convoy’s speed.
A well-known result states that it is impossible to achieve string stability in autonomous operation when this
spacing policy is adopted[3]. The main reason of this impossibility is because the relative spacing error does not
attenuate as it propagates down the convoy at all frequencies. Spacing error attenuation will only occur for
frequencies above certain level as described in[3]. In addition, keeping the same fixed spacing at different
convoy speed would be risky for safety and comfort of passengers, especially when the vehicles are closely
separated. Furthermore, keeping the same constant spacing at different convoy speed would risk the safety and
comfort of passengers, especially when the vehicles are closely separated. Obviously, at higher speed, faster
vehicle reaction time is needed in emergency situation to avoid collision. Despite of this [3] and[6] showed that
the constant spacing policy can give guaranteed string stability if the lead vehicle is transmitting its speed and/or
acceleration to all following vehicles in the convoy and this can be done through radio communication.
Obviously, at higher speed, faster vehicle reaction time is needed in an emergency situation to avoid collision.
Nevertheless, the fixed spacing policy can give guaranteed string stability if the front vehicle provides its
information on its speed and or position to the rear vehicle in the convoy. This can be done through radio
communication or the rear vehicle having sensors to detect the above two parameters. Eq. (2) shown before is
the transfer function for the fixed spacing policy.
Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control
www.ijres.org 3 | Page
Figure 2. A mathematical model of a vehicle convoy system control strategy.
2. Fixed Time Headway Policy
This policy use a constant time interval of inter-vehicular spacing, called time headway between the
following vehicle and preceding vehicle. It is a speed dependent policy where the inter-vehicular spacing will
vary according to the preceding vehicle speed. At higher speed, vehicles will be separated in a greater distance
but always maintains a fixed time interval between vehicles. Most researchers used this spacing policy in
designing controllers to ensure string stability as this policy mimics the behavior of human drivers. As vehicle
speed is increased, a human driver will keep a safe inter-vehicular spacing with the immediate preceding
vehicle.
The performance of the fixed headway spacing policy used in autonomous and cooperative vehicles
following systems has been studied. It is found that there exists minimum possible fixed headway spacing
before the string stability of convoy collapses, which is related to the actual dynamics of the vehicle. The effect
of this fixed headway spacing policy is equivalent to the introduction of additional damping in the transfer
function, which allows the poles of the transfer function to be moved independently from the zeros of the same
transfer function. With the addition of the fixed headway spacing, Eq. (2) then
becomesXi= (3)
and the control law developed as:
ui=Kp1 (xi-1-xi -h i) +Kp2 (xi-2-xi-2h i) +kv1( i-1 - i) +Kv2 ( i-2- i) (4)
Equation (4) can be re-arranged and reduced to a single pole system as follows,
Xi= (5)To simplify the control law and at the same time ensurestability, a
pole-zero cancellation technique is chosen. Thiscan be achieved by introducing the constraint
(6)
This reduces equation (5) to
Xi= (7)
This is a first order system. Since K
v1
and K
v2
are always positive, the pole of equation (7) is always on the
left hand side of the s-plane and the system is always stable under the constraint of equation (6). Hence, the
mathematical model of the proposed vehicle convoy system in equation (4) is string stable under the constraint
of equation (6).
3. Vehicle Dynamic Consideration
After having proved that the fixed time headway policy is suitable to be adopted, a simplified vehicle
dynamics model is introduced in order to mimic the actual vehicle internal dynamics. In this case, the external
dynamics is not considered. In the simplified model, the internal dynamics is represented as a lag function i.e.,
[7]the actual vehicle acceleration is obtained after a certain time delay. This is given by the relation in equation
(8).
Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control
www.ijres.org 4 | Page
Eq. (3) is modified to include the vehicle dynamics part and this gives a transfer function in Eq. (9).
Xi= (9)
With the inclusion of the vehicle dynamics, the control signal derived from the one vehicle look ahead
control strategy is fed to drive the vehicle dynamics in order to produce the vehicle acceleration. Block diagram
consisting of the control strategyand vehicle dynamics is shown in fig.4 .
t is too small i.e. t~0 , then s3 = 0. The transfer function is thus reduced to a second order transfer function
shown in equation (10).
By considering Kp1=kv1 and Kp2=Kv2
Figure 4. Block diagram consisting of the control strategy and vehicle dynamics
Eq. (10) is then simulated by using MATLAB Simulink. The controller block in Figure 4.6 contains
two-vehicle look-ahead control strategy. The circuit is then simulated with the set values of h=1s with the
values of kp1 which is equal to kv1 set as 0.28, 0.34, and 0.42 respectively and Kp2 which is equal to Kv2 set
0.36,0.33 and 0.29 respectively .The results are shown in Figures 4.7 and 4.8,. There are some ripples or
oscillations observed in the speed and acceleration plots. It is found that the values of kp1=0.28 and Kp2=0.36
are still found to give the best result. This is still acceptable as the plots somehow show the real situation when
the vehicle internal dynamics is taken into consideration.
Figure 5. Speed response with fixed time headway for various kp and kvvalues and vehicle dynamics
Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control
www.ijres.org 5 | Page
Figure 6. Acceleration response with fixed time headway for various kp and kvvalues and vehicle dynamics
IV. MODEL REFERENCE ADAPTIVE CONTROL
An adaptive controller can modify its behavior in response to changes in the dynamics of a system and
the character of any disturbance. It is a controller with adjustable parameter and a mechanism for adjusting the
parameter. An adaptive control system consists of two loops, normal feedback loop with plant and controller
and an adaptive parameter mechanism loop. Figure 5.1 illustrates the general structure of the Model Reference
Adaptive Control (MRAC) system. The basic MRAC system consists of four main components: i) Plant to be
controlled
ii) Reference model to generate desired closed loop output response
iii) Controller that is time-varying and whose coefficients are adjusted by adaptive mechanism
iv) Adaptive mechanism that uses ‘error’ (the difference between the plant and the desired model output) to
produce controller coefficient.
Regardless of the actual process parameters, adaptation in MRAC takes in the form of adjustment of some or all
of the controller coefficients so as to force the response of the resulting closed-loop control system to that of the
reference model.
Therefore, the actual parameter values of the controlled system do not really matter.
1. The Gradient Approach
The Gradient Approach of designing an MRAC controller is also known as the MIT Rule as it was first
developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA. This is the original approach developed
for adaptive control design before other approaches were introduced to overcome some of its weaknesses.
However, the Gradient approach is relatively simple and easy to use. In designing the MRAC controller, we
would like the output of the closed-loop system (y) to follow the output of the reference model (ym). Therefore,
we aim to minimize the error (e=y-ym) by designing a controller that has one or more adjustable parameters
such that a certain cost function is minimized.
V. ADAPTIVE CONTROLLER GAIN DESIGN
An adaptive controller gain is to be designed for the two vehicle look-ahead control strategy with fixed
time headway and vehicle dynamics by applying a Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC). This section
presents a direct adaptive controller design which adapts the unknown vehicle parameters kp1 and. Kp2 The
advantage of the adaptive approach is that unpredictable changes in the value of kp1 and kp2 can be easily
accommodated. From the analysis of Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3, kp1=kv1=0.28 and kp2=kv2=0.36 give the best
response. So, it will be used in equation (10) to produce a reference model in equation (11) to be used in
designing the adaptive controller gain. The vehicle dynamic has been included in the control law to form the
plant. the reference model is represented as in eq. (11).
(11)
Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control
www.ijres.org 6 | Page
The control objective is to adjust the controller parameters,kp1 and Kp2, so that e(t) is minimised. To
do this, a cost function, J ( )is chosen and minimized. The cost function chosen is ofthe form
Figure 7 .General structure of an MRAC system
(12)
And the reference model is:
(13)
r(t) = Reference input signal
u(t) = Control signal
y(t) = Plant output
ym(t) = Reference model output
e(t) = Difference between plant and reference model output
= y(t) - ym(t)
e =y – ym
e=
In this case we need to do some approximation: i.e. perfect model following, y m=y .Therefore, we then have,
=
and,
,
As a result:
(14)
Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control
www.ijres.org 7 | Page
And,
(15)
Figure (8) shows the simulation block diagram of gradient approach adaptive control used for tuning of
controller gains (kp1 and kp2).
Figure 8.The gradient approach adaptive gain controller simulation diagram
Figure 9. Simulation diagram of adaptive mechanism
The closed-loop system block diagram obtained is shown in Fig.8, where both in the equations are
represented by gammas in simulation diagram. While fig.9 shows the adaptive mechanism simulation diagram.
Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control
www.ijres.org 8 | Page
VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The simulation of MRAC gradient approach adaptive controller gain design is then done again using MATLAB
Simulink. Both the output of the system responses (y and ym) are shown in Fig. 10 and Fig. 11. Fig. 10 shows
that the model is following the output perfectly with values of 0.1, while Fig. 11 on the other hand shows the
acceleration response of y produces some ripples when there is no acceleration. It can be seen It can be
considered that the system is a perfect model convoy system since that the output response for plant y perfectly
follows the reference model ym. The adaptive controller gain is again simulated but this time with
gamma. values of 0.0001 meaning that decreasing gamma value until the ripple in acceleration is removed and
this shown in fig. 12 and fig. 13.
Figure 10. Comparison of y and ym for speed when is 0.1
Figure 11. Comparison of y and ymfor acceleration when is 0.1
Fig. 12 shows that the model y is following the reference model ym closely with values of 0.0001 while fig. 13
shows that the model acceleration also follows the reference model acceleration but with some amount of delay.
Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control
www.ijres.org 9 | Page
Figure12. Comparison of y and ym for speed when is 0.0001
Figure 13. Comparison of y and ym for acceleration when is 0.0001
It can be said that better range of gamma values should be between 0.1 and 0.0001 in order to get
acceptance simulation result.
As aresult, A two-vehicle look-ahead control strategy with fixed headway policy has been adopted to design a
controller to produce an output, which can respond immediately to the change in input; in this case, the input is
the speeds of two- vehicle look ahead with varying speed conditions. With normal controller, the response does
not quite follow the input. With the introduction of the MRAC adaptive controller gain, the response can be
made to follow the input when suitable reference model is chosen. Moreover, using MRAC adaptive controller
gain produces a smooth output as compared to the other one.
VII. CONCLUSION
The adaptive controller gain tuning for two-vehicle look –ahead convoy system has been investigated
using Model Reference Adaptive Control concepts and the gradient approach. Simple adaptation law for the
controller parameters has been presented assuming that the process under control can be approximated by a
second order transfer function. The developed adaptation rule has been applied and simulated. The obtained
results show the effectiveness of the technique. The resulting performance could be improved by a better choice
Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control
www.ijres.org 10 | Page
Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai Johor.He received his
M.Sc.E.E.in control and optimization from UTM in 1994 and PHD from the University
of Manchester, United Kingdom in 2005. He has more than13 years experiences in
the field of his proposed project (Dynamics and Control of Chapter 1 Vehicle
Convoy Systems). His research interest includes control and optimization especially
dynamic and control of vehicle convoy system and the stability of vehicle/following
system as well.
University, Iraq in 2007.She is currently master student of Mechatronics and Automatic
Control Engineering program at Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. She is a member staff in control lab. at
Sulaimani Technical College, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
of the length of the adaptation period and better choice of adaption gain gamma.Although of gradient approach
is easy to apply but it also known to have some disadvantages; the speed of adaptation depends on the values of
the command signal. This problem is often dealt with by using a normalized adaptation rule. Second, the
gradient approach does not guarantee the stability of the nominal system. The Lyapunov approach can be used
to provide guaranteed nominal stability. A further limitation of the approach is the assumption of a structure for
the nominal system. In this paper, a second order transfer function has been assumed resulting from the
assumption of a very small time delay between the command signal and the vehicle dynamics as in ideal
vehicle. Further investigation on the comparison with other control strategies will be done in future papers.
VIII. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge their gratitude toFaculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia for providing the resources and support in the completion of this paper.
REFERENCES
[1] Ng, T.C., J.I. Guzman, and M.D. Adams. Autonomous vehicle-following systems: A virtual trailer link
model. in Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2005.(IROS 2005). 2005 IEEE/RSJ International Conference
on. 2005: IEEE.
[2] Cerone, V. and D. Regruto, Bounding the parameters of linear systems with input backlash. Automatic
Control, IEEE Transactions on, 2007. 52(3): p. 531-536.
[3] Sudin, M.R.S., Shahdan, and M. Sapiee, Road Vehicle Following System With Adaptive Controller
Gain Using Model Reference Adaptive Control Method. 2009.
[4] Cook, S.S.a.P.A., Dynamics of Convoy Control Systems with Two-Vehicle Look-Ahead Strategy.
International Conference on Robotics, Vision, Information and Signal Processing, 2003. pp. 327-332.
[5] Yanakiev, D. and I. Kanellakopoulos. A simplified framework for string stability analysis in AHS. in
Proceedings of the 13th IFAC World Congress. 1996.
[6] Sudin, S., Dynamics And Control Of Vehicle Convoy System. PhD Thesis.School of Electrical and
Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, The University of Manchester.,
2005.
[7] Darbha, S. and K.R. Rajagopal, Intelligent cruise control systems and traffic flow stability.
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 1999. 7(6): p. 329-352.
[8] Shladover, S.E., Longitudinal control of automated guideway transit vehicles within platoons. Journal
of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, vol. 100 no. 4, 1978.
[9] Sudin, S. and P.A. Cook. Two-vehicle look-ahead convoy control systems. in Vehicular Technology
Conference, 2004. VTC 2004-Spring. 2004 IEEE 59th. 2004: IEEE.
Aveen Uthman she obtained her bachelor’s degrees in Mechatronics engineering from Baghdad
Shahdan Sudin is a senior lecturer in the Department Control and Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of

More Related Content

What's hot

Armour R&D Final Report_CYJong-Du
Armour R&D Final Report_CYJong-DuArmour R&D Final Report_CYJong-Du
Armour R&D Final Report_CYJong-DuChee Yie Jong
 
Ieeepro techno solutions 2013 ieee embedded project model predictive contro...
Ieeepro techno solutions   2013 ieee embedded project model predictive contro...Ieeepro techno solutions   2013 ieee embedded project model predictive contro...
Ieeepro techno solutions 2013 ieee embedded project model predictive contro...srinivasanece7
 
Model Validation and Control of an In-Wheel DC Motor Prototype for Hybrid El...
Model Validation and Control of an In-Wheel DC Motor  Prototype for Hybrid El...Model Validation and Control of an In-Wheel DC Motor  Prototype for Hybrid El...
Model Validation and Control of an In-Wheel DC Motor Prototype for Hybrid El...Scientific Review SR
 
Research of the vehicle with AFS control strategy based on fuzzy logic
Research of the vehicle with AFS control strategy based on fuzzy logicResearch of the vehicle with AFS control strategy based on fuzzy logic
Research of the vehicle with AFS control strategy based on fuzzy logicIJRES Journal
 
1 s2.0-s0957415814001354-main
1 s2.0-s0957415814001354-main1 s2.0-s0957415814001354-main
1 s2.0-s0957415814001354-mainrabeenanchal
 
Backstepping Control for a Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive
Backstepping Control for a Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor DriveBackstepping Control for a Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive
Backstepping Control for a Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor DriveIJPEDS-IAES
 
Simulation of an Active Suspension Using PID Control
Simulation of an Active Suspension Using PID ControlSimulation of an Active Suspension Using PID Control
Simulation of an Active Suspension Using PID ControlSuzana Avila
 
Linear Control Technique for Anti-Lock Braking System
Linear Control Technique for Anti-Lock Braking SystemLinear Control Technique for Anti-Lock Braking System
Linear Control Technique for Anti-Lock Braking SystemIJERA Editor
 
Comparative Analysis for NN-Based Adaptive Back-stepping Controller and Back-...
Comparative Analysis for NN-Based Adaptive Back-stepping Controller and Back-...Comparative Analysis for NN-Based Adaptive Back-stepping Controller and Back-...
Comparative Analysis for NN-Based Adaptive Back-stepping Controller and Back-...IJERA Editor
 
Cruise control devices
Cruise control devicesCruise control devices
Cruise control devicesPrashant Kumar
 
Active steering for better safety comfort
Active steering for better safety comfortActive steering for better safety comfort
Active steering for better safety comfortÑero Lopez
 
Car Dynamics using Quarter Model and Passive Suspension, Part VI: Sprung-mass...
Car Dynamics using Quarter Model and Passive Suspension, Part VI: Sprung-mass...Car Dynamics using Quarter Model and Passive Suspension, Part VI: Sprung-mass...
Car Dynamics using Quarter Model and Passive Suspension, Part VI: Sprung-mass...IOSR Journals
 
Autonomous Parallel Parking Methodology for Ackerman Configured Vehicles
Autonomous Parallel Parking Methodology for Ackerman Configured VehiclesAutonomous Parallel Parking Methodology for Ackerman Configured Vehicles
Autonomous Parallel Parking Methodology for Ackerman Configured VehiclesIDES Editor
 
REU spring 2016
REU spring 2016REU spring 2016
REU spring 2016Jack Yuan
 

What's hot (19)

Armour R&D Final Report_CYJong-Du
Armour R&D Final Report_CYJong-DuArmour R&D Final Report_CYJong-Du
Armour R&D Final Report_CYJong-Du
 
Ieeepro techno solutions 2013 ieee embedded project model predictive contro...
Ieeepro techno solutions   2013 ieee embedded project model predictive contro...Ieeepro techno solutions   2013 ieee embedded project model predictive contro...
Ieeepro techno solutions 2013 ieee embedded project model predictive contro...
 
Model Validation and Control of an In-Wheel DC Motor Prototype for Hybrid El...
Model Validation and Control of an In-Wheel DC Motor  Prototype for Hybrid El...Model Validation and Control of an In-Wheel DC Motor  Prototype for Hybrid El...
Model Validation and Control of an In-Wheel DC Motor Prototype for Hybrid El...
 
Research of the vehicle with AFS control strategy based on fuzzy logic
Research of the vehicle with AFS control strategy based on fuzzy logicResearch of the vehicle with AFS control strategy based on fuzzy logic
Research of the vehicle with AFS control strategy based on fuzzy logic
 
1 s2.0-s0957415814001354-main
1 s2.0-s0957415814001354-main1 s2.0-s0957415814001354-main
1 s2.0-s0957415814001354-main
 
publication (ramesh)
publication (ramesh)publication (ramesh)
publication (ramesh)
 
Backstepping Control for a Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive
Backstepping Control for a Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor DriveBackstepping Control for a Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive
Backstepping Control for a Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive
 
Simulation of an Active Suspension Using PID Control
Simulation of an Active Suspension Using PID ControlSimulation of an Active Suspension Using PID Control
Simulation of an Active Suspension Using PID Control
 
Linear Control Technique for Anti-Lock Braking System
Linear Control Technique for Anti-Lock Braking SystemLinear Control Technique for Anti-Lock Braking System
Linear Control Technique for Anti-Lock Braking System
 
Comparative Analysis for NN-Based Adaptive Back-stepping Controller and Back-...
Comparative Analysis for NN-Based Adaptive Back-stepping Controller and Back-...Comparative Analysis for NN-Based Adaptive Back-stepping Controller and Back-...
Comparative Analysis for NN-Based Adaptive Back-stepping Controller and Back-...
 
Cruise control devices
Cruise control devicesCruise control devices
Cruise control devices
 
MAGNETIC LEVITATION TRAIN
MAGNETIC LEVITATION TRAINMAGNETIC LEVITATION TRAIN
MAGNETIC LEVITATION TRAIN
 
40220140506003
4022014050600340220140506003
40220140506003
 
Active steering for better safety comfort
Active steering for better safety comfortActive steering for better safety comfort
Active steering for better safety comfort
 
Cruise control
Cruise controlCruise control
Cruise control
 
Car Dynamics using Quarter Model and Passive Suspension, Part VI: Sprung-mass...
Car Dynamics using Quarter Model and Passive Suspension, Part VI: Sprung-mass...Car Dynamics using Quarter Model and Passive Suspension, Part VI: Sprung-mass...
Car Dynamics using Quarter Model and Passive Suspension, Part VI: Sprung-mass...
 
Autonomous Parallel Parking Methodology for Ackerman Configured Vehicles
Autonomous Parallel Parking Methodology for Ackerman Configured VehiclesAutonomous Parallel Parking Methodology for Ackerman Configured Vehicles
Autonomous Parallel Parking Methodology for Ackerman Configured Vehicles
 
B012472931
B012472931B012472931
B012472931
 
REU spring 2016
REU spring 2016REU spring 2016
REU spring 2016
 

Viewers also liked

Effect of down step on High-Low Tones in Chinese
Effect of down step on High-Low Tones in ChineseEffect of down step on High-Low Tones in Chinese
Effect of down step on High-Low Tones in ChineseIJRES Journal
 
Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...
Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...
Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...IJRES Journal
 
Performance Measurement of Digital Modulation Schemes Using FPGA
Performance Measurement of Digital Modulation Schemes Using FPGAPerformance Measurement of Digital Modulation Schemes Using FPGA
Performance Measurement of Digital Modulation Schemes Using FPGAIJRES Journal
 
Review: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
Review: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate VariabilityReview: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
Review: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate VariabilityIJRES Journal
 
Modeling and Analysis of peritoneal dialysis piping set
Modeling and Analysis of peritoneal dialysis piping setModeling and Analysis of peritoneal dialysis piping set
Modeling and Analysis of peritoneal dialysis piping setIJRES Journal
 
Multi resolution defect transformation of the crack under different angles
Multi resolution defect transformation of the crack under different anglesMulti resolution defect transformation of the crack under different angles
Multi resolution defect transformation of the crack under different anglesIJRES Journal
 
Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...
Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...
Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...IJRES Journal
 
The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...
The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...
The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...IJRES Journal
 
Design and research of CNC platform based on CAN bus
Design and research of CNC platform based on CAN busDesign and research of CNC platform based on CAN bus
Design and research of CNC platform based on CAN busIJRES Journal
 
Solving the Kinematics of Welding Robot Based on ADAMS
Solving the Kinematics of Welding Robot Based on ADAMSSolving the Kinematics of Welding Robot Based on ADAMS
Solving the Kinematics of Welding Robot Based on ADAMSIJRES Journal
 

Viewers also liked (19)

Effect of down step on High-Low Tones in Chinese
Effect of down step on High-Low Tones in ChineseEffect of down step on High-Low Tones in Chinese
Effect of down step on High-Low Tones in Chinese
 
D0111720
D0111720D0111720
D0111720
 
E123440
E123440E123440
E123440
 
Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...
Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...
Reduce Resources for Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing Using Blowfish and DSA...
 
D122733
D122733D122733
D122733
 
C121326
C121326C121326
C121326
 
Performance Measurement of Digital Modulation Schemes Using FPGA
Performance Measurement of Digital Modulation Schemes Using FPGAPerformance Measurement of Digital Modulation Schemes Using FPGA
Performance Measurement of Digital Modulation Schemes Using FPGA
 
Review: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
Review: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate VariabilityReview: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
Review: Nonlinear Techniques for Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
 
F0112635
F0112635F0112635
F0112635
 
Modeling and Analysis of peritoneal dialysis piping set
Modeling and Analysis of peritoneal dialysis piping setModeling and Analysis of peritoneal dialysis piping set
Modeling and Analysis of peritoneal dialysis piping set
 
Multi resolution defect transformation of the crack under different angles
Multi resolution defect transformation of the crack under different anglesMulti resolution defect transformation of the crack under different angles
Multi resolution defect transformation of the crack under different angles
 
C132733
C132733C132733
C132733
 
Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...
Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...
Thesummaryabout fuzzy control parameters selected based on brake driver inten...
 
The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...
The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...
The Low-Temperature Radiant Floor Heating System Design and Experimental Stud...
 
C0110916
C0110916C0110916
C0110916
 
G0113647
G0113647G0113647
G0113647
 
Design and research of CNC platform based on CAN bus
Design and research of CNC platform based on CAN busDesign and research of CNC platform based on CAN bus
Design and research of CNC platform based on CAN bus
 
Solving the Kinematics of Welding Robot Based on ADAMS
Solving the Kinematics of Welding Robot Based on ADAMSSolving the Kinematics of Welding Robot Based on ADAMS
Solving the Kinematics of Welding Robot Based on ADAMS
 
A130115
A130115A130115
A130115
 

Similar to A0140110

Fuzzy rules incorporated skyhook theory based vehicular suspension design for...
Fuzzy rules incorporated skyhook theory based vehicular suspension design for...Fuzzy rules incorporated skyhook theory based vehicular suspension design for...
Fuzzy rules incorporated skyhook theory based vehicular suspension design for...IJERA Editor
 
Deep neural network for lateral control of self-driving cars in urban environ...
Deep neural network for lateral control of self-driving cars in urban environ...Deep neural network for lateral control of self-driving cars in urban environ...
Deep neural network for lateral control of self-driving cars in urban environ...IAESIJAI
 
ACTIVE SAFETY CONTROL TECHNIQUE TO PREVENT VEHICLE CRASHING
ACTIVE SAFETY CONTROL TECHNIQUE TO PREVENT VEHICLE CRASHINGACTIVE SAFETY CONTROL TECHNIQUE TO PREVENT VEHICLE CRASHING
ACTIVE SAFETY CONTROL TECHNIQUE TO PREVENT VEHICLE CRASHINGP singh
 
IMPROVED CONTROL DESIGN FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
IMPROVED CONTROL DESIGN FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLESIMPROVED CONTROL DESIGN FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
IMPROVED CONTROL DESIGN FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLESIJITCA Journal
 
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...IJITCA Journal
 
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...IJITCA Journal
 
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...IJITCA Journal
 
Improved Control Design for Autonomous Vehicles
Improved Control Design for Autonomous VehiclesImproved Control Design for Autonomous Vehicles
Improved Control Design for Autonomous VehiclesIJITCA Journal
 
International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (IJITCA)
International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (IJITCA)International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (IJITCA)
International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (IJITCA)IJITCA Journal
 
Adaptive Cruise Control System for Vehicle Using Model Predictive Control Alg...
Adaptive Cruise Control System for Vehicle Using Model Predictive Control Alg...Adaptive Cruise Control System for Vehicle Using Model Predictive Control Alg...
Adaptive Cruise Control System for Vehicle Using Model Predictive Control Alg...IRJET Journal
 
A Longitudinal Control Algorithm for Smart Cruise Control with Virtual Parame...
A Longitudinal Control Algorithm for Smart Cruise Control with Virtual Parame...A Longitudinal Control Algorithm for Smart Cruise Control with Virtual Parame...
A Longitudinal Control Algorithm for Smart Cruise Control with Virtual Parame...ijceronline
 
Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles
Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous VehiclesAutonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles
Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous VehiclesSergey Zhdanov
 
Ieeepro techno solutions ieee 2014 embedded project gps-copilot real-time ...
Ieeepro techno solutions    ieee 2014 embedded project gps-copilot real-time ...Ieeepro techno solutions    ieee 2014 embedded project gps-copilot real-time ...
Ieeepro techno solutions ieee 2014 embedded project gps-copilot real-time ...srinivasanece7
 
Ijett v5 n1p108
Ijett v5 n1p108Ijett v5 n1p108
Ijett v5 n1p108Athulya MB
 
Obstacle Detection and Collision Avoidance System
Obstacle Detection and Collision Avoidance SystemObstacle Detection and Collision Avoidance System
Obstacle Detection and Collision Avoidance SystemIRJET Journal
 
Optimization of automobile active suspension system using minimal order
Optimization of automobile active suspension system using  minimal orderOptimization of automobile active suspension system using  minimal order
Optimization of automobile active suspension system using minimal orderIJECEIAES
 
Fuzzy power point 1
Fuzzy power point 1Fuzzy power point 1
Fuzzy power point 1IshqUsmn
 
11.1 automatic moving object extraction (1)
11.1 automatic moving object extraction  (1)11.1 automatic moving object extraction  (1)
11.1 automatic moving object extraction (1)shanofa sanu
 
Vehicle Dynamics and Drive Control for Adaptive Cruise Vehicles
Vehicle Dynamics and Drive Control for Adaptive Cruise VehiclesVehicle Dynamics and Drive Control for Adaptive Cruise Vehicles
Vehicle Dynamics and Drive Control for Adaptive Cruise VehiclesIRJET Journal
 

Similar to A0140110 (20)

Fuzzy rules incorporated skyhook theory based vehicular suspension design for...
Fuzzy rules incorporated skyhook theory based vehicular suspension design for...Fuzzy rules incorporated skyhook theory based vehicular suspension design for...
Fuzzy rules incorporated skyhook theory based vehicular suspension design for...
 
Deep neural network for lateral control of self-driving cars in urban environ...
Deep neural network for lateral control of self-driving cars in urban environ...Deep neural network for lateral control of self-driving cars in urban environ...
Deep neural network for lateral control of self-driving cars in urban environ...
 
ACTIVE SAFETY CONTROL TECHNIQUE TO PREVENT VEHICLE CRASHING
ACTIVE SAFETY CONTROL TECHNIQUE TO PREVENT VEHICLE CRASHINGACTIVE SAFETY CONTROL TECHNIQUE TO PREVENT VEHICLE CRASHING
ACTIVE SAFETY CONTROL TECHNIQUE TO PREVENT VEHICLE CRASHING
 
IMPROVED CONTROL DESIGN FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
IMPROVED CONTROL DESIGN FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLESIMPROVED CONTROL DESIGN FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
IMPROVED CONTROL DESIGN FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
 
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
 
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
 
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
The International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (...
 
Improved Control Design for Autonomous Vehicles
Improved Control Design for Autonomous VehiclesImproved Control Design for Autonomous Vehicles
Improved Control Design for Autonomous Vehicles
 
International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (IJITCA)
International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (IJITCA)International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (IJITCA)
International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (IJITCA)
 
energies-08-06820.pdf
energies-08-06820.pdfenergies-08-06820.pdf
energies-08-06820.pdf
 
Adaptive Cruise Control System for Vehicle Using Model Predictive Control Alg...
Adaptive Cruise Control System for Vehicle Using Model Predictive Control Alg...Adaptive Cruise Control System for Vehicle Using Model Predictive Control Alg...
Adaptive Cruise Control System for Vehicle Using Model Predictive Control Alg...
 
A Longitudinal Control Algorithm for Smart Cruise Control with Virtual Parame...
A Longitudinal Control Algorithm for Smart Cruise Control with Virtual Parame...A Longitudinal Control Algorithm for Smart Cruise Control with Virtual Parame...
A Longitudinal Control Algorithm for Smart Cruise Control with Virtual Parame...
 
Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles
Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous VehiclesAutonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles
Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles
 
Ieeepro techno solutions ieee 2014 embedded project gps-copilot real-time ...
Ieeepro techno solutions    ieee 2014 embedded project gps-copilot real-time ...Ieeepro techno solutions    ieee 2014 embedded project gps-copilot real-time ...
Ieeepro techno solutions ieee 2014 embedded project gps-copilot real-time ...
 
Ijett v5 n1p108
Ijett v5 n1p108Ijett v5 n1p108
Ijett v5 n1p108
 
Obstacle Detection and Collision Avoidance System
Obstacle Detection and Collision Avoidance SystemObstacle Detection and Collision Avoidance System
Obstacle Detection and Collision Avoidance System
 
Optimization of automobile active suspension system using minimal order
Optimization of automobile active suspension system using  minimal orderOptimization of automobile active suspension system using  minimal order
Optimization of automobile active suspension system using minimal order
 
Fuzzy power point 1
Fuzzy power point 1Fuzzy power point 1
Fuzzy power point 1
 
11.1 automatic moving object extraction (1)
11.1 automatic moving object extraction  (1)11.1 automatic moving object extraction  (1)
11.1 automatic moving object extraction (1)
 
Vehicle Dynamics and Drive Control for Adaptive Cruise Vehicles
Vehicle Dynamics and Drive Control for Adaptive Cruise VehiclesVehicle Dynamics and Drive Control for Adaptive Cruise Vehicles
Vehicle Dynamics and Drive Control for Adaptive Cruise Vehicles
 

More from IJRES Journal

Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...
Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...
Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...IJRES Journal
 
Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...
Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...
Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...IJRES Journal
 
Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...
Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...
Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...IJRES Journal
 
Study and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil properties
Study and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil propertiesStudy and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil properties
Study and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil propertiesIJRES Journal
 
A Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their Structures
A Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their StructuresA Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their Structures
A Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their StructuresIJRES Journal
 
A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...
A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...
A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...IJRES Journal
 
Wear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible Rod
Wear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible RodWear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible Rod
Wear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible RodIJRES Journal
 
DDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and Detection
DDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and DetectionDDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and Detection
DDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and DetectionIJRES Journal
 
An improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioning
An improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioningAn improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioning
An improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioningIJRES Journal
 
Positioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision Workbench
Positioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision WorkbenchPositioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision Workbench
Positioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision WorkbenchIJRES Journal
 
Status of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and Now
Status of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and NowStatus of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and Now
Status of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and NowIJRES Journal
 
Experimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirs
Experimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirsExperimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirs
Experimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirsIJRES Journal
 
Correlation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound Signal
Correlation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound SignalCorrelation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound Signal
Correlation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound SignalIJRES Journal
 
Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...
Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...
Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...IJRES Journal
 
A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...
A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...
A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...IJRES Journal
 
Structural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubes
Structural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubesStructural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubes
Structural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubesIJRES Journal
 
An understanding of the electronic bipolar resistance switching behavior in C...
An understanding of the electronic bipolar resistance switching behavior in C...An understanding of the electronic bipolar resistance switching behavior in C...
An understanding of the electronic bipolar resistance switching behavior in C...IJRES Journal
 
A fast and effective impulse noise filter
A fast and effective impulse noise filterA fast and effective impulse noise filter
A fast and effective impulse noise filterIJRES Journal
 
Design of the floating-type memristor emulator and its circuit implementation
Design of the floating-type memristor emulator and its circuit implementationDesign of the floating-type memristor emulator and its circuit implementation
Design of the floating-type memristor emulator and its circuit implementationIJRES Journal
 
Extension of Some Common Fixed Point Theorems using Compatible Mappings in Fu...
Extension of Some Common Fixed Point Theorems using Compatible Mappings in Fu...Extension of Some Common Fixed Point Theorems using Compatible Mappings in Fu...
Extension of Some Common Fixed Point Theorems using Compatible Mappings in Fu...IJRES Journal
 

More from IJRES Journal (20)

Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...
Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...
Exploratory study on the use of crushed cockle shell as partial sand replacem...
 
Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...
Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...
Congenital Malaria: Correlation of Umbilical Cord Plasmodium falciparum Paras...
 
Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...
Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...
Dynamic Modeling for Gas Phase Propylene Copolymerization in a Fluidized Bed ...
 
Study and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil properties
Study and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil propertiesStudy and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil properties
Study and evaluation for different types of Sudanese crude oil properties
 
A Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their Structures
A Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their StructuresA Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their Structures
A Short Report on Different Wavelets and Their Structures
 
A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...
A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...
A Case Study on Academic Services Application Using Agile Methodology for Mob...
 
Wear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible Rod
Wear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible RodWear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible Rod
Wear Analysis on Cylindrical Cam with Flexible Rod
 
DDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and Detection
DDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and DetectionDDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and Detection
DDOS Attacks-A Stealthy Way of Implementation and Detection
 
An improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioning
An improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioningAn improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioning
An improved fading Kalman filter in the application of BDS dynamic positioning
 
Positioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision Workbench
Positioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision WorkbenchPositioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision Workbench
Positioning Error Analysis and Compensation of Differential Precision Workbench
 
Status of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and Now
Status of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and NowStatus of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and Now
Status of Heavy metal pollution in Mithi river: Then and Now
 
Experimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirs
Experimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirsExperimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirs
Experimental study on critical closing pressure of mudstone fractured reservoirs
 
Correlation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound Signal
Correlation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound SignalCorrelation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound Signal
Correlation Analysis of Tool Wear and Cutting Sound Signal
 
Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...
Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...
Resistance of Dryland Rice to Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.) Using ...
 
A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...
A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...
A novel high-precision curvature-compensated CMOS bandgap reference without u...
 
Structural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubes
Structural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubesStructural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubes
Structural aspect on carbon dioxide capture in nanotubes
 
An understanding of the electronic bipolar resistance switching behavior in C...
An understanding of the electronic bipolar resistance switching behavior in C...An understanding of the electronic bipolar resistance switching behavior in C...
An understanding of the electronic bipolar resistance switching behavior in C...
 
A fast and effective impulse noise filter
A fast and effective impulse noise filterA fast and effective impulse noise filter
A fast and effective impulse noise filter
 
Design of the floating-type memristor emulator and its circuit implementation
Design of the floating-type memristor emulator and its circuit implementationDesign of the floating-type memristor emulator and its circuit implementation
Design of the floating-type memristor emulator and its circuit implementation
 
Extension of Some Common Fixed Point Theorems using Compatible Mappings in Fu...
Extension of Some Common Fixed Point Theorems using Compatible Mappings in Fu...Extension of Some Common Fixed Point Theorems using Compatible Mappings in Fu...
Extension of Some Common Fixed Point Theorems using Compatible Mappings in Fu...
 

Recently uploaded

DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache MavenDevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache MavenHervé Boutemy
 
Tampa BSides - Chef's Tour of Microsoft Security Adoption Framework (SAF)
Tampa BSides - Chef's Tour of Microsoft Security Adoption Framework (SAF)Tampa BSides - Chef's Tour of Microsoft Security Adoption Framework (SAF)
Tampa BSides - Chef's Tour of Microsoft Security Adoption Framework (SAF)Mark Simos
 
Visualising and forecasting stocks using Dash
Visualising and forecasting stocks using DashVisualising and forecasting stocks using Dash
Visualising and forecasting stocks using Dashnarutouzumaki53779
 
SALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICES
SALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICESSALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICES
SALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICESmohitsingh558521
 
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...Scott Andery
 
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better StrongerModern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Strongerpanagenda
 
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and ConsThe Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and ConsPixlogix Infotech
 
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxPasskey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdf
Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdfMoving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdf
Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdfLoriGlavin3
 
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your QueriesExploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your QueriesSanjay Willie
 
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platformsDevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platformsSergiu Bodiu
 
Dev Dives: Streamline document processing with UiPath Studio Web
Dev Dives: Streamline document processing with UiPath Studio WebDev Dives: Streamline document processing with UiPath Studio Web
Dev Dives: Streamline document processing with UiPath Studio WebUiPathCommunity
 
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsTime Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsNathaniel Shimoni
 
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!Manik S Magar
 
SIP trunking in Janus @ Kamailio World 2024
SIP trunking in Janus @ Kamailio World 2024SIP trunking in Janus @ Kamailio World 2024
SIP trunking in Janus @ Kamailio World 2024Lorenzo Miniero
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQLDeveloper Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQLScyllaDB
 
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfWhat is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfMounikaPolabathina
 
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxMerck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 

Recently uploaded (20)

DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache MavenDevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
 
Tampa BSides - Chef's Tour of Microsoft Security Adoption Framework (SAF)
Tampa BSides - Chef's Tour of Microsoft Security Adoption Framework (SAF)Tampa BSides - Chef's Tour of Microsoft Security Adoption Framework (SAF)
Tampa BSides - Chef's Tour of Microsoft Security Adoption Framework (SAF)
 
Visualising and forecasting stocks using Dash
Visualising and forecasting stocks using DashVisualising and forecasting stocks using Dash
Visualising and forecasting stocks using Dash
 
SALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICES
SALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICESSALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICES
SALESFORCE EDUCATION CLOUD | FEXLE SERVICES
 
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
 
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better StrongerModern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
Modern Roaming for Notes and Nomad – Cheaper Faster Better Stronger
 
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and ConsThe Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
 
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxPasskey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdf
Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdfMoving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdf
Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pdf
 
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your QueriesExploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
 
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platformsDevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
 
Dev Dives: Streamline document processing with UiPath Studio Web
Dev Dives: Streamline document processing with UiPath Studio WebDev Dives: Streamline document processing with UiPath Studio Web
Dev Dives: Streamline document processing with UiPath Studio Web
 
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsTime Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
 
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
 
SIP trunking in Janus @ Kamailio World 2024
SIP trunking in Janus @ Kamailio World 2024SIP trunking in Janus @ Kamailio World 2024
SIP trunking in Janus @ Kamailio World 2024
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
 
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQLDeveloper Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
Developer Data Modeling Mistakes: From Postgres to NoSQL
 
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfWhat is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
 
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxMerck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Merck Moving Beyond Passwords: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 

A0140110

  • 1. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science (IJRES) ISSN (Online): 2320-9364, ISSN (Print): 2320-9356 www.ijres.org Volume 1 Issue 4 ǁ August 2013 ǁ PP.01-10 www.ijres.org 1 | Page Controller Gain Tuning For Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control Method Aveen Uthman1 , Shahdan Sudin2 1 (Faculty of Electrical Engineering/ UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, Malaysia) 2 (Faculty of Electrical Engineering/ UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, Malaysia) ABSTRACT: In convoy system, the control system on each vehicle requires information about proceeding vehicle motion, in order to maintain stability and satisfy operating constraints. A two-vehicle look-ahead control strategy is proposed and investigated for the operation of a convoy. The mathematical modeling for this control strategy has been found and simulated. This paper demonstrates the design process of an adaptive controller gain for a road vehicle convoy system. This process is done by simulation. The appropriate constants are used as the reference model for the adaptive controller implementation to find the effectiveness of the control. As a result, a road vehicle convoy system with an adaptive gain controller is produced. Keywords - two-vehicle look-ahead control strategy, model reference adaptive control, gradient approach. I. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, problems related to traffic congestion is dressed as issue which has to be considered. Since this issue continuously causes many accidents, traffic jams and so on. Convoys or platoons has been introduced and developed rapidly in order to overcome the collision. One of the matter which has to be taken into careful consideration in road convoy system formulation is the speed and the spacing if the following vehicle with respect to the preceding vehicle. It is important to maintain some safe distance between the following vehicle and preceding vehicle at any speed in convoy system in order to avoid any collision between both of them. Sensors are used to measure the speed and the position of the proceeding vehicle instead of estimating the information by the driver. The information which has been gotten by the sensor is used and processed by the following vehicle controller to produce the amount required speed and safe spacing distance. In autonomous control approach, safe distance can be ensured automatically controller based on the information obtained from the preceding vehicle. The autonomous controller on the following vehicle has the ability of activating of the vehicle cruise control mode.in this case it does not need to hold the steering nor press the fuel pedal by the driver, and automatically apply the brake when necessary in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. In fact, research in vehicle convoy has attracted the attention of several researchers in the past decades, particularly in the USA and Europe where safety, energy consumption and traffic congestions are the primary motivators. Major contributions are from the Chauffeur Project (Europe), the PATH program (USA), the Intelligent Transportation System program in Japan and the Cyber Car project in France. [1,2]In developed nations, the autonomous concept leads to the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS).As a vehicle enters the highway, his vehicle automatically takes-over the control of the vehicle while following the preceding vehicle. This feature also gives rise to steering less technology where during the autonomous control in action, the driver does not need to hold the steering wheel. All the driving tasks are taken care by the vehicle intelligent system. One of the autonomous features is the adaptive type control based on certain control strategy which gives rise to adaptive cruise control (ACC). An ACC controlled vehicle will follow the front vehicle at a safe distance. A Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) can be used in this type of control where the vehicle controller has the ability to adapt to the variation of speed and position of the preceding vehicle.[1] Figure1. Diagram of a road vehicle convoy system
  • 2. Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control www.ijres.org 2 | Page II. TWO-VEHICLE LOOK-AHEAD CONTROL STRATEGY In convoy s system, when one vehicle follows two preceding vehicle, the system is formed as shown in fig .1.The control the following vehicle consists of one of the two ways: either maintain the speed of the following vehicle as same as the speed of two immediate preceding vehicles or maintain a safe distance among them in order to avoid any collisions. This is where the string stability plays an important role by having a string stable vehicle convoy system[2]. The system is said to stable if the range errors decrease as they propagate along the vehicle stream. In this control strategy, the controlled vehicle receives the information from the preceding vehicle and the one in front of the preceding vehicle. So, the control system on the following vehicle needs information about the motion of preceding vehicles. As Yanakiev and Kanellakopoulos used in their work[3] ,they used a simple spring‐mass‐damper system to demonstrate the idea of string stability and show the string‐stability criterion for constant time headway and variable time‐headway policies. So from the actual diagram in Fig. 1, the vehicle following system can be represented a mass-spring-damper analogy[4] as shown in Fig. 2. A mathematical model for this control strategy is shown in Fig. 2 where irepresents the following vehicle, i-1 represents the immediate preceding vehicle, and i-1 represents the vehicle which is in front of preceding vehicle. The parameters in the above figure are vehicle mass (m),vehicle displacement (x), vehicle acceleration ( ), spring constant (kp) and damper constant (kv). The interest is only on the following vehicle. So, performing the mathematical modeling on only the following vehicle i and applying the Newton’s Second law results in the following Eq. (1). m i= Kp1 (xi-1- xi) + Kp2 (xi-2-xi) + kv1( i-1 - i) + Kv2 ( i-2- i)(1) Assuming unit mass for Eq. (1) and taking Laplacetransform, gives the following transfer function.Xi= (2) The transfer function in Eq. (2) depends on the followingspacing policy. The aim of this strategy is to maintain string stability forlongitudinal motion within the vehicle following system orthe vehicle convoy, particularly between a vehicle with avehicle or between vehicles with a following vehicle. Thisstrategy is adopted in order to design a controller byinvestigating the following two policies III. SPACING POLICY A spacing policy is defined as a rule that dictates how the speed of an automatically controlled vehicle must regulate as a function of the following distance. A control system should be designed such that it regulates the vehicle speed according to the designed spacing policy.[5] 1. Fixed Distance Spacing Policy This type of spacing policy keeps a constant inter-vehicular spacing regardless to the convoy’s speed. A well-known result states that it is impossible to achieve string stability in autonomous operation when this spacing policy is adopted[3]. The main reason of this impossibility is because the relative spacing error does not attenuate as it propagates down the convoy at all frequencies. Spacing error attenuation will only occur for frequencies above certain level as described in[3]. In addition, keeping the same fixed spacing at different convoy speed would be risky for safety and comfort of passengers, especially when the vehicles are closely separated. Furthermore, keeping the same constant spacing at different convoy speed would risk the safety and comfort of passengers, especially when the vehicles are closely separated. Obviously, at higher speed, faster vehicle reaction time is needed in emergency situation to avoid collision. Despite of this [3] and[6] showed that the constant spacing policy can give guaranteed string stability if the lead vehicle is transmitting its speed and/or acceleration to all following vehicles in the convoy and this can be done through radio communication. Obviously, at higher speed, faster vehicle reaction time is needed in an emergency situation to avoid collision. Nevertheless, the fixed spacing policy can give guaranteed string stability if the front vehicle provides its information on its speed and or position to the rear vehicle in the convoy. This can be done through radio communication or the rear vehicle having sensors to detect the above two parameters. Eq. (2) shown before is the transfer function for the fixed spacing policy.
  • 3. Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control www.ijres.org 3 | Page Figure 2. A mathematical model of a vehicle convoy system control strategy. 2. Fixed Time Headway Policy This policy use a constant time interval of inter-vehicular spacing, called time headway between the following vehicle and preceding vehicle. It is a speed dependent policy where the inter-vehicular spacing will vary according to the preceding vehicle speed. At higher speed, vehicles will be separated in a greater distance but always maintains a fixed time interval between vehicles. Most researchers used this spacing policy in designing controllers to ensure string stability as this policy mimics the behavior of human drivers. As vehicle speed is increased, a human driver will keep a safe inter-vehicular spacing with the immediate preceding vehicle. The performance of the fixed headway spacing policy used in autonomous and cooperative vehicles following systems has been studied. It is found that there exists minimum possible fixed headway spacing before the string stability of convoy collapses, which is related to the actual dynamics of the vehicle. The effect of this fixed headway spacing policy is equivalent to the introduction of additional damping in the transfer function, which allows the poles of the transfer function to be moved independently from the zeros of the same transfer function. With the addition of the fixed headway spacing, Eq. (2) then becomesXi= (3) and the control law developed as: ui=Kp1 (xi-1-xi -h i) +Kp2 (xi-2-xi-2h i) +kv1( i-1 - i) +Kv2 ( i-2- i) (4) Equation (4) can be re-arranged and reduced to a single pole system as follows, Xi= (5)To simplify the control law and at the same time ensurestability, a pole-zero cancellation technique is chosen. Thiscan be achieved by introducing the constraint (6) This reduces equation (5) to Xi= (7) This is a first order system. Since K v1 and K v2 are always positive, the pole of equation (7) is always on the left hand side of the s-plane and the system is always stable under the constraint of equation (6). Hence, the mathematical model of the proposed vehicle convoy system in equation (4) is string stable under the constraint of equation (6). 3. Vehicle Dynamic Consideration After having proved that the fixed time headway policy is suitable to be adopted, a simplified vehicle dynamics model is introduced in order to mimic the actual vehicle internal dynamics. In this case, the external dynamics is not considered. In the simplified model, the internal dynamics is represented as a lag function i.e., [7]the actual vehicle acceleration is obtained after a certain time delay. This is given by the relation in equation (8).
  • 4. Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control www.ijres.org 4 | Page Eq. (3) is modified to include the vehicle dynamics part and this gives a transfer function in Eq. (9). Xi= (9) With the inclusion of the vehicle dynamics, the control signal derived from the one vehicle look ahead control strategy is fed to drive the vehicle dynamics in order to produce the vehicle acceleration. Block diagram consisting of the control strategyand vehicle dynamics is shown in fig.4 . t is too small i.e. t~0 , then s3 = 0. The transfer function is thus reduced to a second order transfer function shown in equation (10). By considering Kp1=kv1 and Kp2=Kv2 Figure 4. Block diagram consisting of the control strategy and vehicle dynamics Eq. (10) is then simulated by using MATLAB Simulink. The controller block in Figure 4.6 contains two-vehicle look-ahead control strategy. The circuit is then simulated with the set values of h=1s with the values of kp1 which is equal to kv1 set as 0.28, 0.34, and 0.42 respectively and Kp2 which is equal to Kv2 set 0.36,0.33 and 0.29 respectively .The results are shown in Figures 4.7 and 4.8,. There are some ripples or oscillations observed in the speed and acceleration plots. It is found that the values of kp1=0.28 and Kp2=0.36 are still found to give the best result. This is still acceptable as the plots somehow show the real situation when the vehicle internal dynamics is taken into consideration. Figure 5. Speed response with fixed time headway for various kp and kvvalues and vehicle dynamics
  • 5. Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control www.ijres.org 5 | Page Figure 6. Acceleration response with fixed time headway for various kp and kvvalues and vehicle dynamics IV. MODEL REFERENCE ADAPTIVE CONTROL An adaptive controller can modify its behavior in response to changes in the dynamics of a system and the character of any disturbance. It is a controller with adjustable parameter and a mechanism for adjusting the parameter. An adaptive control system consists of two loops, normal feedback loop with plant and controller and an adaptive parameter mechanism loop. Figure 5.1 illustrates the general structure of the Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) system. The basic MRAC system consists of four main components: i) Plant to be controlled ii) Reference model to generate desired closed loop output response iii) Controller that is time-varying and whose coefficients are adjusted by adaptive mechanism iv) Adaptive mechanism that uses ‘error’ (the difference between the plant and the desired model output) to produce controller coefficient. Regardless of the actual process parameters, adaptation in MRAC takes in the form of adjustment of some or all of the controller coefficients so as to force the response of the resulting closed-loop control system to that of the reference model. Therefore, the actual parameter values of the controlled system do not really matter. 1. The Gradient Approach The Gradient Approach of designing an MRAC controller is also known as the MIT Rule as it was first developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA. This is the original approach developed for adaptive control design before other approaches were introduced to overcome some of its weaknesses. However, the Gradient approach is relatively simple and easy to use. In designing the MRAC controller, we would like the output of the closed-loop system (y) to follow the output of the reference model (ym). Therefore, we aim to minimize the error (e=y-ym) by designing a controller that has one or more adjustable parameters such that a certain cost function is minimized. V. ADAPTIVE CONTROLLER GAIN DESIGN An adaptive controller gain is to be designed for the two vehicle look-ahead control strategy with fixed time headway and vehicle dynamics by applying a Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC). This section presents a direct adaptive controller design which adapts the unknown vehicle parameters kp1 and. Kp2 The advantage of the adaptive approach is that unpredictable changes in the value of kp1 and kp2 can be easily accommodated. From the analysis of Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3, kp1=kv1=0.28 and kp2=kv2=0.36 give the best response. So, it will be used in equation (10) to produce a reference model in equation (11) to be used in designing the adaptive controller gain. The vehicle dynamic has been included in the control law to form the plant. the reference model is represented as in eq. (11). (11)
  • 6. Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control www.ijres.org 6 | Page The control objective is to adjust the controller parameters,kp1 and Kp2, so that e(t) is minimised. To do this, a cost function, J ( )is chosen and minimized. The cost function chosen is ofthe form Figure 7 .General structure of an MRAC system (12) And the reference model is: (13) r(t) = Reference input signal u(t) = Control signal y(t) = Plant output ym(t) = Reference model output e(t) = Difference between plant and reference model output = y(t) - ym(t) e =y – ym e= In this case we need to do some approximation: i.e. perfect model following, y m=y .Therefore, we then have, = and, , As a result: (14)
  • 7. Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control www.ijres.org 7 | Page And, (15) Figure (8) shows the simulation block diagram of gradient approach adaptive control used for tuning of controller gains (kp1 and kp2). Figure 8.The gradient approach adaptive gain controller simulation diagram Figure 9. Simulation diagram of adaptive mechanism The closed-loop system block diagram obtained is shown in Fig.8, where both in the equations are represented by gammas in simulation diagram. While fig.9 shows the adaptive mechanism simulation diagram.
  • 8. Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control www.ijres.org 8 | Page VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The simulation of MRAC gradient approach adaptive controller gain design is then done again using MATLAB Simulink. Both the output of the system responses (y and ym) are shown in Fig. 10 and Fig. 11. Fig. 10 shows that the model is following the output perfectly with values of 0.1, while Fig. 11 on the other hand shows the acceleration response of y produces some ripples when there is no acceleration. It can be seen It can be considered that the system is a perfect model convoy system since that the output response for plant y perfectly follows the reference model ym. The adaptive controller gain is again simulated but this time with gamma. values of 0.0001 meaning that decreasing gamma value until the ripple in acceleration is removed and this shown in fig. 12 and fig. 13. Figure 10. Comparison of y and ym for speed when is 0.1 Figure 11. Comparison of y and ymfor acceleration when is 0.1 Fig. 12 shows that the model y is following the reference model ym closely with values of 0.0001 while fig. 13 shows that the model acceleration also follows the reference model acceleration but with some amount of delay.
  • 9. Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control www.ijres.org 9 | Page Figure12. Comparison of y and ym for speed when is 0.0001 Figure 13. Comparison of y and ym for acceleration when is 0.0001 It can be said that better range of gamma values should be between 0.1 and 0.0001 in order to get acceptance simulation result. As aresult, A two-vehicle look-ahead control strategy with fixed headway policy has been adopted to design a controller to produce an output, which can respond immediately to the change in input; in this case, the input is the speeds of two- vehicle look ahead with varying speed conditions. With normal controller, the response does not quite follow the input. With the introduction of the MRAC adaptive controller gain, the response can be made to follow the input when suitable reference model is chosen. Moreover, using MRAC adaptive controller gain produces a smooth output as compared to the other one. VII. CONCLUSION The adaptive controller gain tuning for two-vehicle look –ahead convoy system has been investigated using Model Reference Adaptive Control concepts and the gradient approach. Simple adaptation law for the controller parameters has been presented assuming that the process under control can be approximated by a second order transfer function. The developed adaptation rule has been applied and simulated. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the technique. The resulting performance could be improved by a better choice
  • 10. Controller Gain Tuning for Road Vehicle Convoy System Using Model Reference Adaptive Control www.ijres.org 10 | Page Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai Johor.He received his M.Sc.E.E.in control and optimization from UTM in 1994 and PHD from the University of Manchester, United Kingdom in 2005. He has more than13 years experiences in the field of his proposed project (Dynamics and Control of Chapter 1 Vehicle Convoy Systems). His research interest includes control and optimization especially dynamic and control of vehicle convoy system and the stability of vehicle/following system as well. University, Iraq in 2007.She is currently master student of Mechatronics and Automatic Control Engineering program at Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. She is a member staff in control lab. at Sulaimani Technical College, Kurdistan Region, Iraq of the length of the adaptation period and better choice of adaption gain gamma.Although of gradient approach is easy to apply but it also known to have some disadvantages; the speed of adaptation depends on the values of the command signal. This problem is often dealt with by using a normalized adaptation rule. Second, the gradient approach does not guarantee the stability of the nominal system. The Lyapunov approach can be used to provide guaranteed nominal stability. A further limitation of the approach is the assumption of a structure for the nominal system. In this paper, a second order transfer function has been assumed resulting from the assumption of a very small time delay between the command signal and the vehicle dynamics as in ideal vehicle. Further investigation on the comparison with other control strategies will be done in future papers. VIII. Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge their gratitude toFaculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia for providing the resources and support in the completion of this paper. REFERENCES [1] Ng, T.C., J.I. Guzman, and M.D. Adams. Autonomous vehicle-following systems: A virtual trailer link model. in Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2005.(IROS 2005). 2005 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on. 2005: IEEE. [2] Cerone, V. and D. Regruto, Bounding the parameters of linear systems with input backlash. Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on, 2007. 52(3): p. 531-536. [3] Sudin, M.R.S., Shahdan, and M. Sapiee, Road Vehicle Following System With Adaptive Controller Gain Using Model Reference Adaptive Control Method. 2009. [4] Cook, S.S.a.P.A., Dynamics of Convoy Control Systems with Two-Vehicle Look-Ahead Strategy. International Conference on Robotics, Vision, Information and Signal Processing, 2003. pp. 327-332. [5] Yanakiev, D. and I. Kanellakopoulos. A simplified framework for string stability analysis in AHS. in Proceedings of the 13th IFAC World Congress. 1996. [6] Sudin, S., Dynamics And Control Of Vehicle Convoy System. PhD Thesis.School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, The University of Manchester., 2005. [7] Darbha, S. and K.R. Rajagopal, Intelligent cruise control systems and traffic flow stability. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 1999. 7(6): p. 329-352. [8] Shladover, S.E., Longitudinal control of automated guideway transit vehicles within platoons. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, vol. 100 no. 4, 1978. [9] Sudin, S. and P.A. Cook. Two-vehicle look-ahead convoy control systems. in Vehicular Technology Conference, 2004. VTC 2004-Spring. 2004 IEEE 59th. 2004: IEEE. Aveen Uthman she obtained her bachelor’s degrees in Mechatronics engineering from Baghdad Shahdan Sudin is a senior lecturer in the Department Control and Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of