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VOLUME-7 ISSUE-6S, JUNE 2019 , ISSN: 2321-9637 (Online) Published By: MG Aricent Pvt Ltd

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International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, Vol.7, No.6S, June 2019
E-ISSN: 2321-9637
Available online at www.ijrat.org
80
doi: 10.32622/ijrat.76S201918

Abstract—Internet of Things can be defined as connection
of millions of devices through network. As the number of
devices are rapidly increasing, it raised the issues like
scalability, flexibility, security and efficiency among IoT
system. thus, the efforts should be put to design the IoT
architecture to overcome the challenges. In this paper, the
brief introduction to IoT is given, followed by the challenges
faced by IoT system. The secure IoT architecture using
modern technologies like NFV(Network Function
Virtualization) and ICN(Information Centric Networking)
are explained.in the end the comparison of different
techniques used for IoT system is illustrated.
IndexTerms— Internet of Things, Network Function
Virtualization(NFV), Information Centric Networking(ICN).
I. INTRODUCTION
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an idea that includes
systems administration of gadgets at endpoint and physical
devices[1] to increment accommodation as well as
effectiveness of regular day to day life. The IoT system
incorporates ground breaking applications, for example,
brilliant homes, structures, urban areas, retail, transportation,
and open wellbeing. Advantages of IoT incorporates use of
asset use effectively, limit the human exertion, it spares time.
The Internet of things (IoT) is theprolongation of
Internet connectivity to physical devices and everyday
objects. The electronic devices, other hardware such as
actuators and sensors which contains embedded technology
can communicate over the internet and also can be remotely
controlled and monitored. Due to combination of
technologies like embedded system, sensors and real-time
analytics, internet of things has come into picture.
In 1998, the term internet of things was coined.it
refers to interconnection of devices by the internet. As of late,
the idea of IoT has turned out to be most basic in different
applications, for example, medicinal services checking, keen
farming, brilliant lattice, shrewd retail, keen assembling,
savvy home the board, etc. Applications, heterogeneous
Manuscript revised May 13, 2019 and published on June 5, 2019
Nithyashree C M, Mtech Student, Dept of Information Science &
Engineering, BMS college of Engineering, Bangalore, India
Dr. Sandeep Varma N, Assistant Professor, Dept of Information Science &
Engineering, BMS college of Engineering, Bangalore, India
entree, data handling, and detecting, are considered as the
significant segments that can be as a component of IoT
framework [1]. In expansion towards that, there are security
and protection by means of imperative parts in the IoT
system. The glitches are progressively increasing in terms of
security in IoT.
The paper reconnoiters challenges related to the
Internet of Things along with a review of various techniques
used to secure IOT Architecture and system and future work
in this innovative area.
The content of this paper is given as pursues: The
difficulties of the Internet of Things are advised in Section II.
Segment III gives writing audit. The different techniques
utilized for IoT System to defeat these difficulties and give
security, versatility and protection to Internet of Things (IOT)
framework are given in Section IV. Segment V gives the
examination of the considerable number of procedures which
are advised in Section IV. At last, the paper end and future
headings are exhibited in Section VI.
II. CHALLENGES OF IOT
Privacy
Privacy plays important role in users accessing and
processing data in IoT. Due to large number of connecting
devices, service and common communication which is
shared by people, privacy has key role in security principles.
The critical privacy problem is confidentiality of user’s data
for having the communication ability.
To overcome the data privacy challenges, we must
incorporate efficient security features for IoT applications
[2]. The IoT privacy issues includes:
 Huge Data:The volume of data which is generating from
IoT devices is irresistible. If the data generation
continues to increase in this phase, it results in creating
more entry points for the hackers and is threat to private
information.
Security
Security is major concerns for protecting the
devices, data and networks from the hackers. This can be
resolved by designing the technologies and policies to
preserve the data integrity and to look after the unauthorized
access of information[2].
The chances of exploiting the security
vulnerabilities has amplified due to increase in number of
connected devices. The security of IoT deals with protecting
A Survey on Securing IoT Architecture through Modern
Techniques
Nithyashree C M, Dr. Sandeep Varma N
International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, Vol.7, No.6S, June 2019
E-ISSN: 2321-9637
Available online at www.ijrat.org
81
doi: 10.32622/ijrat.76S201918
the connected devices and network of the system. It has a
problem of a greater number of unsecured devices which
communicate through the internet. As expanding the number
of associated devices, the opportunity to exploit security
vulnerabilities is likewise increment, as in modest or low
standard structured devices, because of inadequate
information streams the odds of information burglary is
expanded through which individual’s health and safety can
be unsafe.
Various IoT systems will have group of similar or
adjacent similar devices. This consistency grows the
potential effect of any single security shortcoming by the
absolute quantity of devices that all have similar
highlights[3].
Scalability
Scalability is the capacity of a device to adjust to the
changes in the environment and meet the changing needs. It is
important feature of any system which has the capability to
grip the growing amount of work.
As the number of devices which are connected to the
IoT systems are increasing, scalability has become the major
threat. The devices should have the ability to adjust to the
environment of the system. There should be a specialized
solution to make people to understand the issues in working
with the software and legacy systems.
Connectivity
The biggest challenge of IoT is connecting
numerous numbers of devices, and it will affect the current
communication structure and technologies underlying it.
Some systems use centralized, server/client approach to
authorize, validate and connect nodes in network.
The centralized model is effective for present IoT
frameworks, in which a great many gadgets are included. Be
that as it may, when these number increments to join a huge
number of gadgets, this framework will be moved toward
becoming bottleneck. Such frameworks will require
tremendous speculations and costs in keeping up cloud
servers that can deal with such a lot of data trade, and whole
frameworks can go down if the server ends up inaccessible.
The IoT system can be depend on decentralized network to
take care of above-mentioned issues. This can be possibly
achieved by moving IoT architecture towards the edge, with
the help of fog computing systems in which cloud servers can
take responsibility of data collection and analytics and smart
devices such as IoT hubs take care of mission-critical
operations.
III. LITERATURE SURVEY
This section provides a review of literature on
different techniques used to secure IOT system.
Igor Miladinovic and Sigrid Schefer-Wenzl has
proposed a NFV enabled IoT architecture for scalability of
IOT Architecture. As a southbound interface for IoT
application’s they adopted web services based on
representational state transfer (REST) web architecture[4].
Robert E. Hiromoto, Michael Haney and Aleksandar
Vakanski has given a Secure Architecture for IoT with Supply
Chain Risk Management. The system which is proposed will
reduce vulnerabilities of malicious supply chain risks by using
technologies like machine learning (ML), cryptographic
hardware monitoring (CHM) and distributed system
coordination (DSC) techniques to alleviate the consequences of
unforeseen (including general component failure) threats[5].
Pradip Kumar Sharma, Saurabh Singh, Young-Sik
Jeong, and Jong Hyuk Park has designed a Distributed
Blockchains-Based Secure SDN Architecture for IoT
Networks i.e. DistBlockNet. This combines the advantages
of two emerging technologies: SDN and blockchains
technology[6].
Sabrina Sicari, Alessandra Rizzardi, Luigi Alfredo
Grieco and Alberto Coen-Porisini described detailed IOT
Architecture using ICN(Information Centric Networking) for
securing purpose[7].
Dr. S. Smys and S. Sridhar proposed an Intelligent
Security Framework for IoT Devices. The proposed
architecture actualizes Asymmetric Key Encryption to share
session key between the hubs and afterward utilizes this
session key for message exchange This shields the
framework from Distributed Denial of Service Attacks and
Quantum calculation attacks[8].
Amiya Kumar Sahu, Suraj Sharma, Deepak Puthal,
Abhishek Pandey and Rathin Shit considered a smart home
based on IoT architecture where the IoT smart Hub(ISH)
communicate with the cloud in one hand, and home
appliances and smart devices on the other. This design
ensures security in the smart home scenario[9].
Effy Raja Naru, Dr. Hemraj Saini, Mukesh Sharma has
provided an excellent insight into the lightweight techniques
used for secure data transmission in IOT[10]..
IV. TECHNIQUES
IoT architecture based on Network Function Virtualization
In many ways we can incorporate NFV and SDN In
an IOT architecture and these approaches helps in reducing
IoT traffic, cost savings and helps in faster service
innovation. The architecture [4] address the benefits of
security, specified its less complex to apply and preserves the
security measures on a centralized system rather than on
single devices. The other advantages of these architecture are
scalability and maintainability of the system.
Fig 1, represents architecture which is proposed. The
sensors and actuators communicate with IoT gateway. The
IoT gateway are not responsible for any application logic
rather runs on a simple hardware. The purpose of gateway
rendering between IP protocol towards its northbound
interface and divers’ protocol which are necessary for IoT
device towards its southbound interface. Ensuring the NFV
concepts, the application logic is available in data center and
International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, Vol.7, No.6S, June 2019
E-ISSN: 2321-9637
Available online at www.ijrat.org
82
doi: 10.32622/ijrat.76S201918
keeps running on standard equipment, regular for all
applications for differing network functions. As needs be, the
IoT application is comprehended as a network function and
centralized in a data center.
Fig 1. NFV based IOT Architecture
The different layers of the data center’s functions are given
below:
 HARDWARE LAYER consists of COTS hardware
components, together with network interfaces, storage
and CPUs. This serves as elastic as well as scalable
hardware platform for network functions and to all IoT
applications.
 VIRTUALIZATION LAYER is an abstraction
layer[4]. It delivers virtual machines for Iot applications
using the physical hardware resources.
 MANAGEMENT AND ORCHESTRATION
LAYER is helpful for coordination of the IoT
application and resources, along with lifecycle
management of IoT applications.

Northbound Interface of the IoT Gateway:
The exchange of monitoring and information
control are the function of the interface between IoT gateway
and Application logic.It needs to be:
 Simple, to permit low complexity of IoT gateways
 Scalable, to withstand a large amount of end devices
and IoT gateways.
 Fast, to maintain the latency between IoT gateways
and application logic for better user experience with the
system
 Flexible, to support different needs of IoT
applications Adaptations

In this design, Representational state transfer
(REST) or on the other hand Restful Web Services[11] is
utilized as interface between the application and IoT
entryway. The key favorable position of REST API in the
engineering is there is no compelling reason to deal with any
states in door.
The architecture’s flow of is given as follows. Based
on the sensor types, it takes the most recent incentive from
sensor or effectively checks the present estimation of the
sensor and send it to the application at whatever point
mentioned. Depending on the received data, the command to
the IoT gateway is send by application and in turns controls
the actuators.
The interaction between the Iot application and
gateway is shown in fig 2,the application will request for the
value of sensor from the IoT gateway with ID 4108.the IoT
gateway after collecting the value from the sensor it will
respond the request by sending 200 OK. After receiving the
value, the application decides to alter some actuators based
on logic. If room temperature is high, the request will go to
IoT gateway to reduce it and by modifying the temperature it
will send 200 OK response.
Further future work of this concept is taken care by
illustrating its applicability by two scenarios namely
non-time-critical and time-critical[12].
Fig 2. Interaction between Iot Gateway and Application.
IoT architecture based on Information Centric Networking
(ICN)
Information-centric networking (ICN) is an
approach to change the Internet structure away from a
host-centric standard based on continuous connectivity and
the end-to-end principle, to a network architecture in which
the principal point is “named information”.
The key features of Information-Centric
Networking (ICN) are: (a) the recognizing the network
units(contents, devices and services) by name as a substitute
of their IP address. (b)a system to route which includes both
names and addresses.(c) security of content etc. Such
International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, Vol.7, No.6S, June 2019
E-ISSN: 2321-9637
Available online at www.ijrat.org
83
doi: 10.32622/ijrat.76S201918
capabilities and functions help in the mobility support,
scalability, multicasting and the caching of the contents[7].
IoT -ICN ARCHITECTURE
The unified IoT platform utilizing an ICN centric
methodology is proposed as a middleware technology[13].In
this engineering, ICN functionalities are run particularly
from IoT administrations. This is useful in overseeing IoT
information revelation and conveyance. The basic capacities
to be upheld by the essential ICN foundation are: (a)device
and system administration revelation, through an efficient
substance distribute/buy in the board. (b)service dependent
on naming, which recommends the capacity to give one of a
kind characters, for example, name to the gadget assets,
guaranteeing the diligence just as in presence of security
issues and mobility[7]. (c) to condense content access
latencies, techniques like context processing and storage
caching are used.
The architecture includes five components:
 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS help in sensing and
actuating the data and forwarding the data to the
aggregator.
 AGGREGATOR, which has two important
function: (a). To link the communication between the
resource-constrained nodes which are part of network
and the other aggregators. (b).In local network,
aggregators help in integrating the sensing and actuating
services.
 LOCAL SERVICE GATEWAY (LSG), helps in
communication between local IoT system and global,
managing the local name assignment and applying
policies of data access for the local IoT devices.
 ICN-IOT SERVER, which take cares of lookup
services and the subscriptions. As this server is involved
in the regulate of the name and exchange of certificate
between publishers and subscribers, it is not signified as
a blockage for the content provision.
SERVICES/CONSUMERS, these are application
interfaces which interacts with the ICN-IoT Server
Fig 3. IOT -ICN Architecture
The main objective is the distributed network nodes should
take care of the data discovery, processing and delivery by
keeping it to close proximity. The aggregators and the LSGs
ought to have self-design capacities and ready to convey local
services, yet in addition scaling to expansive IoT services.
The incorporation functionalities additionally have a
noteworthy job in this. Fig. 3[7], demonstrates a pattern of the
proposed ICN-IoT middleware, alongside its associations
and capacities
V. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES
The Different techniques are used to design a secure iot
architecture to overcome challenges. Table 1,gives the
comparison of techniques and their benefits
Table 1. Comparison between Related Work
VI. CONCLUSION
The Internet of Things has become important part in our
day to day life.it acquired domains like Retail, health,
agriculture, industry etc. the widespread distribution is
controlled by some limitation and challenges yet. The IoT
architecture should be designed to withstand the challenges
and to overcome the limitations. This can be done by using
the modern technologies like NFV,ICN etc. As the future
work, the blockchain technology and machine learning
methods can be used to design the secure IoT architecture.
REFERENCES
[1] L. Prathibha and K. Fatima, "Exploring Security and Authentication
Issues in Internet of Things," 2018 SecondInternational Conference on
Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS), Madurai, India,
2018, pp. 673-678.
[2] M. S. Virat, B. S M, B. Aishwarya, D. B N and M. R. Kounte,
"Security and Privacy Challenges in Internet of Things," 2018 2nd
International Conference on Trends inElectronics and Informatics
(ICOEI), Tirunelveli, 2018, pp.454-460.
[3] E. P. Yadav, E. A. Mittal and D. H. Yadav, "IoT: Challenges and Issues
in Indian Perspective," 2018 3rdInternational Conference On Internet
of Things: Smart Innovation and Usages (IoT-SIU), Bhimtal, 2018, pp.
1-5.
International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, Vol.7, No.6S, June 2019
E-ISSN: 2321-9637
Available online at www.ijrat.org
84
doi: 10.32622/ijrat.76S201918
[4] Igor Miladinovic and Sigrid Schefer-Wenzl, “A Highly Scalable IoT
Architecture through Network Function Virtualization,” Open Journal
of Internet of Things (OJIOT), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2017
[5] R. E. Hiromoto, M. Haney and A. Vakanski, "A secure architecture for
IoT with supply chain risk management," 20179th IEEE International
Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing
Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS), Bucharest, 2017,
pp. 431-435.
[6] P. K. Sharma, S. Singh, Y. Jeong and J. H. Park, "DistBlockNet: A
Distributed Blockchains-Based Secure SDN Architecture for IoT
Networks," in IEEE CommunicationsMagazine, vol. 55, no. 9, pp.
78-85, Sept. 2017.
[7] S. Sicari, A. Rizzardi, L. A. Grieco and A. Coen-Porisini, "A secure
ICN-IoT architecture," 2017 IEEE InternationalConference on
Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops),Paris, 2017, pp.
259-264.
[8] S. Sridhar and S. Smys, "Intelligent security framework for iot devices
cryptography based end-to-end security architecture," 2017
International Conference on InventiveSystems and Control (ICISC),
Coimbatore, 2017, pp. 1-5.
[9] A. K. Sahu, S. Sharma, D. Puthal, A. Pandey and R. Shit, "Secure
Authentication Protocol for IoT Architecture," 2017International
Conference on Information Technology (ICIT),Bhubaneswar, 2017,
pp. 220-224.
[10] E. R. Naru, H. Saini and M. Sharma, "A recent review on lightweight
cryptography in IoT," 2017 InternationalConference on I-SMAC (IoT
in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC), Palladam, 2017, pp.
887-890.
[11] R. T. Fielding, “REST: Architectural Styles and the Design of
Network-based Software Architectures,”Doctoraldissertation,
University of California, Irvine, 2000. [Online]
.

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76 s201918

  • 1. International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, Vol.7, No.6S, June 2019 E-ISSN: 2321-9637 Available online at www.ijrat.org 80 doi: 10.32622/ijrat.76S201918  Abstract—Internet of Things can be defined as connection of millions of devices through network. As the number of devices are rapidly increasing, it raised the issues like scalability, flexibility, security and efficiency among IoT system. thus, the efforts should be put to design the IoT architecture to overcome the challenges. In this paper, the brief introduction to IoT is given, followed by the challenges faced by IoT system. The secure IoT architecture using modern technologies like NFV(Network Function Virtualization) and ICN(Information Centric Networking) are explained.in the end the comparison of different techniques used for IoT system is illustrated. IndexTerms— Internet of Things, Network Function Virtualization(NFV), Information Centric Networking(ICN). I. INTRODUCTION The Internet of Things (IoT) is an idea that includes systems administration of gadgets at endpoint and physical devices[1] to increment accommodation as well as effectiveness of regular day to day life. The IoT system incorporates ground breaking applications, for example, brilliant homes, structures, urban areas, retail, transportation, and open wellbeing. Advantages of IoT incorporates use of asset use effectively, limit the human exertion, it spares time. The Internet of things (IoT) is theprolongation of Internet connectivity to physical devices and everyday objects. The electronic devices, other hardware such as actuators and sensors which contains embedded technology can communicate over the internet and also can be remotely controlled and monitored. Due to combination of technologies like embedded system, sensors and real-time analytics, internet of things has come into picture. In 1998, the term internet of things was coined.it refers to interconnection of devices by the internet. As of late, the idea of IoT has turned out to be most basic in different applications, for example, medicinal services checking, keen farming, brilliant lattice, shrewd retail, keen assembling, savvy home the board, etc. Applications, heterogeneous Manuscript revised May 13, 2019 and published on June 5, 2019 Nithyashree C M, Mtech Student, Dept of Information Science & Engineering, BMS college of Engineering, Bangalore, India Dr. Sandeep Varma N, Assistant Professor, Dept of Information Science & Engineering, BMS college of Engineering, Bangalore, India entree, data handling, and detecting, are considered as the significant segments that can be as a component of IoT framework [1]. In expansion towards that, there are security and protection by means of imperative parts in the IoT system. The glitches are progressively increasing in terms of security in IoT. The paper reconnoiters challenges related to the Internet of Things along with a review of various techniques used to secure IOT Architecture and system and future work in this innovative area. The content of this paper is given as pursues: The difficulties of the Internet of Things are advised in Section II. Segment III gives writing audit. The different techniques utilized for IoT System to defeat these difficulties and give security, versatility and protection to Internet of Things (IOT) framework are given in Section IV. Segment V gives the examination of the considerable number of procedures which are advised in Section IV. At last, the paper end and future headings are exhibited in Section VI. II. CHALLENGES OF IOT Privacy Privacy plays important role in users accessing and processing data in IoT. Due to large number of connecting devices, service and common communication which is shared by people, privacy has key role in security principles. The critical privacy problem is confidentiality of user’s data for having the communication ability. To overcome the data privacy challenges, we must incorporate efficient security features for IoT applications [2]. The IoT privacy issues includes:  Huge Data:The volume of data which is generating from IoT devices is irresistible. If the data generation continues to increase in this phase, it results in creating more entry points for the hackers and is threat to private information. Security Security is major concerns for protecting the devices, data and networks from the hackers. This can be resolved by designing the technologies and policies to preserve the data integrity and to look after the unauthorized access of information[2]. The chances of exploiting the security vulnerabilities has amplified due to increase in number of connected devices. The security of IoT deals with protecting A Survey on Securing IoT Architecture through Modern Techniques Nithyashree C M, Dr. Sandeep Varma N
  • 2. International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, Vol.7, No.6S, June 2019 E-ISSN: 2321-9637 Available online at www.ijrat.org 81 doi: 10.32622/ijrat.76S201918 the connected devices and network of the system. It has a problem of a greater number of unsecured devices which communicate through the internet. As expanding the number of associated devices, the opportunity to exploit security vulnerabilities is likewise increment, as in modest or low standard structured devices, because of inadequate information streams the odds of information burglary is expanded through which individual’s health and safety can be unsafe. Various IoT systems will have group of similar or adjacent similar devices. This consistency grows the potential effect of any single security shortcoming by the absolute quantity of devices that all have similar highlights[3]. Scalability Scalability is the capacity of a device to adjust to the changes in the environment and meet the changing needs. It is important feature of any system which has the capability to grip the growing amount of work. As the number of devices which are connected to the IoT systems are increasing, scalability has become the major threat. The devices should have the ability to adjust to the environment of the system. There should be a specialized solution to make people to understand the issues in working with the software and legacy systems. Connectivity The biggest challenge of IoT is connecting numerous numbers of devices, and it will affect the current communication structure and technologies underlying it. Some systems use centralized, server/client approach to authorize, validate and connect nodes in network. The centralized model is effective for present IoT frameworks, in which a great many gadgets are included. Be that as it may, when these number increments to join a huge number of gadgets, this framework will be moved toward becoming bottleneck. Such frameworks will require tremendous speculations and costs in keeping up cloud servers that can deal with such a lot of data trade, and whole frameworks can go down if the server ends up inaccessible. The IoT system can be depend on decentralized network to take care of above-mentioned issues. This can be possibly achieved by moving IoT architecture towards the edge, with the help of fog computing systems in which cloud servers can take responsibility of data collection and analytics and smart devices such as IoT hubs take care of mission-critical operations. III. LITERATURE SURVEY This section provides a review of literature on different techniques used to secure IOT system. Igor Miladinovic and Sigrid Schefer-Wenzl has proposed a NFV enabled IoT architecture for scalability of IOT Architecture. As a southbound interface for IoT application’s they adopted web services based on representational state transfer (REST) web architecture[4]. Robert E. Hiromoto, Michael Haney and Aleksandar Vakanski has given a Secure Architecture for IoT with Supply Chain Risk Management. The system which is proposed will reduce vulnerabilities of malicious supply chain risks by using technologies like machine learning (ML), cryptographic hardware monitoring (CHM) and distributed system coordination (DSC) techniques to alleviate the consequences of unforeseen (including general component failure) threats[5]. Pradip Kumar Sharma, Saurabh Singh, Young-Sik Jeong, and Jong Hyuk Park has designed a Distributed Blockchains-Based Secure SDN Architecture for IoT Networks i.e. DistBlockNet. This combines the advantages of two emerging technologies: SDN and blockchains technology[6]. Sabrina Sicari, Alessandra Rizzardi, Luigi Alfredo Grieco and Alberto Coen-Porisini described detailed IOT Architecture using ICN(Information Centric Networking) for securing purpose[7]. Dr. S. Smys and S. Sridhar proposed an Intelligent Security Framework for IoT Devices. The proposed architecture actualizes Asymmetric Key Encryption to share session key between the hubs and afterward utilizes this session key for message exchange This shields the framework from Distributed Denial of Service Attacks and Quantum calculation attacks[8]. Amiya Kumar Sahu, Suraj Sharma, Deepak Puthal, Abhishek Pandey and Rathin Shit considered a smart home based on IoT architecture where the IoT smart Hub(ISH) communicate with the cloud in one hand, and home appliances and smart devices on the other. This design ensures security in the smart home scenario[9]. Effy Raja Naru, Dr. Hemraj Saini, Mukesh Sharma has provided an excellent insight into the lightweight techniques used for secure data transmission in IOT[10].. IV. TECHNIQUES IoT architecture based on Network Function Virtualization In many ways we can incorporate NFV and SDN In an IOT architecture and these approaches helps in reducing IoT traffic, cost savings and helps in faster service innovation. The architecture [4] address the benefits of security, specified its less complex to apply and preserves the security measures on a centralized system rather than on single devices. The other advantages of these architecture are scalability and maintainability of the system. Fig 1, represents architecture which is proposed. The sensors and actuators communicate with IoT gateway. The IoT gateway are not responsible for any application logic rather runs on a simple hardware. The purpose of gateway rendering between IP protocol towards its northbound interface and divers’ protocol which are necessary for IoT device towards its southbound interface. Ensuring the NFV concepts, the application logic is available in data center and
  • 3. International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, Vol.7, No.6S, June 2019 E-ISSN: 2321-9637 Available online at www.ijrat.org 82 doi: 10.32622/ijrat.76S201918 keeps running on standard equipment, regular for all applications for differing network functions. As needs be, the IoT application is comprehended as a network function and centralized in a data center. Fig 1. NFV based IOT Architecture The different layers of the data center’s functions are given below:  HARDWARE LAYER consists of COTS hardware components, together with network interfaces, storage and CPUs. This serves as elastic as well as scalable hardware platform for network functions and to all IoT applications.  VIRTUALIZATION LAYER is an abstraction layer[4]. It delivers virtual machines for Iot applications using the physical hardware resources.  MANAGEMENT AND ORCHESTRATION LAYER is helpful for coordination of the IoT application and resources, along with lifecycle management of IoT applications.  Northbound Interface of the IoT Gateway: The exchange of monitoring and information control are the function of the interface between IoT gateway and Application logic.It needs to be:  Simple, to permit low complexity of IoT gateways  Scalable, to withstand a large amount of end devices and IoT gateways.  Fast, to maintain the latency between IoT gateways and application logic for better user experience with the system  Flexible, to support different needs of IoT applications Adaptations  In this design, Representational state transfer (REST) or on the other hand Restful Web Services[11] is utilized as interface between the application and IoT entryway. The key favorable position of REST API in the engineering is there is no compelling reason to deal with any states in door. The architecture’s flow of is given as follows. Based on the sensor types, it takes the most recent incentive from sensor or effectively checks the present estimation of the sensor and send it to the application at whatever point mentioned. Depending on the received data, the command to the IoT gateway is send by application and in turns controls the actuators. The interaction between the Iot application and gateway is shown in fig 2,the application will request for the value of sensor from the IoT gateway with ID 4108.the IoT gateway after collecting the value from the sensor it will respond the request by sending 200 OK. After receiving the value, the application decides to alter some actuators based on logic. If room temperature is high, the request will go to IoT gateway to reduce it and by modifying the temperature it will send 200 OK response. Further future work of this concept is taken care by illustrating its applicability by two scenarios namely non-time-critical and time-critical[12]. Fig 2. Interaction between Iot Gateway and Application. IoT architecture based on Information Centric Networking (ICN) Information-centric networking (ICN) is an approach to change the Internet structure away from a host-centric standard based on continuous connectivity and the end-to-end principle, to a network architecture in which the principal point is “named information”. The key features of Information-Centric Networking (ICN) are: (a) the recognizing the network units(contents, devices and services) by name as a substitute of their IP address. (b)a system to route which includes both names and addresses.(c) security of content etc. Such
  • 4. International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, Vol.7, No.6S, June 2019 E-ISSN: 2321-9637 Available online at www.ijrat.org 83 doi: 10.32622/ijrat.76S201918 capabilities and functions help in the mobility support, scalability, multicasting and the caching of the contents[7]. IoT -ICN ARCHITECTURE The unified IoT platform utilizing an ICN centric methodology is proposed as a middleware technology[13].In this engineering, ICN functionalities are run particularly from IoT administrations. This is useful in overseeing IoT information revelation and conveyance. The basic capacities to be upheld by the essential ICN foundation are: (a)device and system administration revelation, through an efficient substance distribute/buy in the board. (b)service dependent on naming, which recommends the capacity to give one of a kind characters, for example, name to the gadget assets, guaranteeing the diligence just as in presence of security issues and mobility[7]. (c) to condense content access latencies, techniques like context processing and storage caching are used. The architecture includes five components:  EMBEDDED SYSTEMS help in sensing and actuating the data and forwarding the data to the aggregator.  AGGREGATOR, which has two important function: (a). To link the communication between the resource-constrained nodes which are part of network and the other aggregators. (b).In local network, aggregators help in integrating the sensing and actuating services.  LOCAL SERVICE GATEWAY (LSG), helps in communication between local IoT system and global, managing the local name assignment and applying policies of data access for the local IoT devices.  ICN-IOT SERVER, which take cares of lookup services and the subscriptions. As this server is involved in the regulate of the name and exchange of certificate between publishers and subscribers, it is not signified as a blockage for the content provision. SERVICES/CONSUMERS, these are application interfaces which interacts with the ICN-IoT Server Fig 3. IOT -ICN Architecture The main objective is the distributed network nodes should take care of the data discovery, processing and delivery by keeping it to close proximity. The aggregators and the LSGs ought to have self-design capacities and ready to convey local services, yet in addition scaling to expansive IoT services. The incorporation functionalities additionally have a noteworthy job in this. Fig. 3[7], demonstrates a pattern of the proposed ICN-IoT middleware, alongside its associations and capacities V. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES The Different techniques are used to design a secure iot architecture to overcome challenges. Table 1,gives the comparison of techniques and their benefits Table 1. Comparison between Related Work VI. CONCLUSION The Internet of Things has become important part in our day to day life.it acquired domains like Retail, health, agriculture, industry etc. the widespread distribution is controlled by some limitation and challenges yet. The IoT architecture should be designed to withstand the challenges and to overcome the limitations. This can be done by using the modern technologies like NFV,ICN etc. As the future work, the blockchain technology and machine learning methods can be used to design the secure IoT architecture. REFERENCES [1] L. Prathibha and K. Fatima, "Exploring Security and Authentication Issues in Internet of Things," 2018 SecondInternational Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS), Madurai, India, 2018, pp. 673-678. [2] M. S. Virat, B. S M, B. Aishwarya, D. B N and M. R. Kounte, "Security and Privacy Challenges in Internet of Things," 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends inElectronics and Informatics (ICOEI), Tirunelveli, 2018, pp.454-460. [3] E. P. Yadav, E. A. Mittal and D. H. Yadav, "IoT: Challenges and Issues in Indian Perspective," 2018 3rdInternational Conference On Internet of Things: Smart Innovation and Usages (IoT-SIU), Bhimtal, 2018, pp. 1-5.
  • 5. International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, Vol.7, No.6S, June 2019 E-ISSN: 2321-9637 Available online at www.ijrat.org 84 doi: 10.32622/ijrat.76S201918 [4] Igor Miladinovic and Sigrid Schefer-Wenzl, “A Highly Scalable IoT Architecture through Network Function Virtualization,” Open Journal of Internet of Things (OJIOT), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2017 [5] R. E. Hiromoto, M. Haney and A. Vakanski, "A secure architecture for IoT with supply chain risk management," 20179th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS), Bucharest, 2017, pp. 431-435. [6] P. K. Sharma, S. Singh, Y. Jeong and J. H. Park, "DistBlockNet: A Distributed Blockchains-Based Secure SDN Architecture for IoT Networks," in IEEE CommunicationsMagazine, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 78-85, Sept. 2017. [7] S. Sicari, A. Rizzardi, L. A. Grieco and A. Coen-Porisini, "A secure ICN-IoT architecture," 2017 IEEE InternationalConference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops),Paris, 2017, pp. 259-264. [8] S. Sridhar and S. Smys, "Intelligent security framework for iot devices cryptography based end-to-end security architecture," 2017 International Conference on InventiveSystems and Control (ICISC), Coimbatore, 2017, pp. 1-5. [9] A. K. Sahu, S. Sharma, D. Puthal, A. Pandey and R. Shit, "Secure Authentication Protocol for IoT Architecture," 2017International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT),Bhubaneswar, 2017, pp. 220-224. [10] E. R. Naru, H. Saini and M. Sharma, "A recent review on lightweight cryptography in IoT," 2017 InternationalConference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC), Palladam, 2017, pp. 887-890. [11] R. T. Fielding, “REST: Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures,”Doctoraldissertation, University of California, Irvine, 2000. [Online] .