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OPEN ACCESS Journal
Of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
| IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. ...
Distributed Utility - Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control In Manets
| IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.i...
Distributed Utility - Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control In Manets
| IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.i...
Distributed Utility - Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control In Manets
| IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.i...
Distributed Utility - Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control In Manets
| IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.i...
Distributed Utility - Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control In Manets
| IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.i...
Distributed Utility - Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control In Manets
| IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.i...
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Distributed Utility-Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control in MANETS

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Cooperative communication, that utilizes near terminals to relay the overhearing
information to grasp the variability gains, choices a nice potential to strengthen the transmission
potency in wireless networks. to the subsume the hard medium access interactions evoked by relaying
and leverage the advantages of such cooperation, associate economical Cooperative Medium Access
management (CMAC) protocol is required. throughout this paper, we've got an inclination to tend to
propose a completely unique cross-layer Wide unfold Energy-adaptive Location-based CMAC
protocol, notably WEAL-CMAC, for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). the design objective of
WEAL-CMAC is to strengthen the performance of the MANETs in terms of network amount and
energy potency. a wise energy consumption model is used throughout this paper, that takes the energy
consumption on each transceiver instrumentation and transmit instrumentation into thought. A
distributed utility-based best relay different strategy is incorporated, that selects the most effective
relay supported location information and residual energy. moreover, with the aim of enhancing the
spacial apply, associate innovative network allocation vector setting is provided to the subsume the
variable transmission power of the beginning and relay terminals. we've got an inclination to tend to
point that the planned WEAL-CMAC considerably prolongs the network amount below varied
circumstances even for prime instrumentation energy consumption cases by comprehensive simulation
study

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Distributed Utility-Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control in MANETS

  1. 1. International OPEN ACCESS Journal Of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 5| May. 2014 | 17 | Distributed Utility-Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control in MANETS Mr. M. Naresh1 , Mr. Gudditti.Viswanath2 , Mr. T. SunilKumarReddy3 1 ((M.Tech) Software Engineering, Sir Vishveshwaraiah Institute of Science&Tech., Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh, India) 2, 3 (Asst.Professor, Dept of C.S.E, Sir Vishveshwaraiah Institute of Science & Tech. , Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh, India) Mail ids: madakanaresh@gmail.com 1 , viswag111@gmail.com 2 , sunil_reddy1982@yahoo.co.in 3 I. Introduction The wireless network offers the advantages of present property and mobile access. However, with a lot of randomness and fewer stability, the wireless network still cannot succeed a similar dependableness and high rate as its wired counterpart, as a result of its distinctive options like attenuation, shadowing and path loss. to handle these issues, several techniques are planned, among that multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) [1,2] is one among the foremost promising solutions. sadly, it's not possible to equip palm-sized and powered mobile terminals with multiple receiving and transmission antennas [2]–[5], that limits the appliance of MIMO technique. Given the published nature of the wireless medium, information transmission from a begin terminal will be overheard by different terminals. As a result, it's doable for the beginning to work with these overhearing terminals (also called helpers) to create a virtual MIMO system. This user cooperation will offer several edges, together with system outturn improvement, interference mitigation and seamless service provision [6]. throughout the past decade, there area unit several studies on the cooperation at the physical layer [3,7]–[10]. several physical-layer cooperation protocols area unit planned, like amplify-and-forward (AF) [8], rewrite and- forward (DF) [8], compress-and-forward (CF) [9], and coded cooperation (CC) [10]. the look and analysis of those physical-layer relaying techniques area unit typically supported the subsequent assumptions: _ A1: information is often transmitted during a cooperative manner. _ A2: the beginning forever is aware of WHO the helpers area unit to work with. _ A3: only 1 dedicated helper is usually concerned. _ A4: Helpers area unit forever prepared and willing to assist. Apparently, these assumptions might not be forever true in real network situations. concerning A1, if the relay channel is of caliber, cooperation might not be helpful or necessary. Moreover, the beginning might like to not transmit hand and glove as a result of energy or security issues. Indeed, from a physical-layer stance, Abstract: Cooperative communication, that utilizes near terminals to relay the overhearing information to grasp the variability gains, choices a nice potential to strengthen the transmission potency in wireless networks. to the subsume the hard medium access interactions evoked by relaying and leverage the advantages of such cooperation, associate economical Cooperative Medium Access management (CMAC) protocol is required. throughout this paper, we've got an inclination to tend to propose a completely unique cross-layer Wide unfold Energy-adaptive Location-based CMAC protocol, notably WEAL-CMAC, for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). the design objective of WEAL-CMAC is to strengthen the performance of the MANETs in terms of network amount and energy potency. a wise energy consumption model is used throughout this paper, that takes the energy consumption on each transceiver instrumentation and transmit instrumentation into thought. A distributed utility-based best relay different strategy is incorporated, that selects the most effective relay supported location information and residual energy. moreover, with the aim of enhancing the spacial apply, associate innovative network allocation vector setting is provided to the subsume the variable transmission power of the beginning and relay terminals. we've got an inclination to tend to point that the planned WEAL-CMAC considerably prolongs the network amount below varied circumstances even for prime instrumentation energy consumption cases by comprehensive simulation study Keywords: Network Lifetime, Cooperative Communication, Medium Access Control Protocol, Relay Selection.
  2. 2. Distributed Utility - Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control In Manets | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 5| May. 2014 | 18 | the beginning merely broadcasts its signal and doesn't ought to comprehend the helpers. However, from a higher-layer’s purpose of read, a link between the beginning node and therefore the finish node ought to be established for non-broadcast services. the beginning should incorporate the address(es) of the chosen helper(s) because the finish of a frame in order that it'll not be born however forwarded by the helper(s). nevertheless, A2 may be invalid once helpers area unit moving. the beginning cannot have up-to-date information of the helpers to work with. moreover, A3 could be a robust assumption since it's difficult to pick a best helper among multiple candidates that catch the transmission from the beginning. II. The Planned WEAL-CMAC Protocol In this section, with the target of prolonging the network lifespan and increasing the energy potency, we tend to gift a unique CMAC protocol, particularly WEAL-CMAC, for multihop MANETs. once cooperative relaying is concerned, the channel reservation has to be extended in each house and time so as to coordinate transmissions at the relay. To touch upon the relaying and dynamic transmission power, besides the standard management frames RTS, CTS and ACK, extra management frames area unit needed. DELCMAC introduces 2 new management frames to facilitate the cooperation, i.e., Eager-To-Help (ETH) and Interference- Indicator (II). The ETH frame is employed for choosing the simplest relay during a distributed and light-weight manner, that is shipped by the winning relay to tell the beginning, finish and lost relays. during this paper, the simplest relay is outlined because the relay that has the utmost residual energy and needs the minimum transmission power among the capable relay candidates. The II frame is used to reassert the interference vary of allotted transmission power at the winning relay, so as to boost the spacial apply. Among all the frames, RTS, CTS, ETH and ACK area unit transmitted by mounted power. and therefore the transmission power for the II frame and information packet area unit dynamically allotted. we tend to denote the time durations for the transmission of RTS, CTS, ETH, ACK and II frames by TRRTS, TRCTS , TRETH, TRACK and TRII , severally. 2.1 Protocol Description FIG1.TheFrameExchangingProcessOf WEAL-CMAC Fig. 1. The frame exchanging method of WEAL-CMAC. The frame exchanging method of WEAL- CMAC is shown in Fig. 1. kind of like the IEEE 802.11 DCF protocol, the RTS/CTS shake is employed to order the channel initially. As we know, the cooperative transmission isn't necessary within the case that the sending power is little as a result of the extra overhead for coordinative the relaying overtakes the energy saving from diversity gain. Those inefficient cases square measure avoided by introducing a sending power threshold Λp. In WEAL-CMAC, upon receiving the RTS frame, the tip computes the desired sending power for the transmission mechanism PDs There square measure 2 cases looking on the calculated PDs .• Case (i): PDs≤ Λp. the tip sends a CTS frame with FLAG_Field (FLAG-F) adequate to zero, which means that the transmission mechanism is adequate. Thus, once the sending power for the transmission mechanism is sufficiently low, WEAL-CMAC is reduced to the DCF protocol and therefore has backward compatibility with the gift 802.11 commonplace. • Case (ii): PDs > Λp. FLAG-F within the CTS frame is about to one, that indicates that the cooperative relaying is desired. All the terminals having overheard RTS and CTS, and not interfere with alternative current transmissions square measure thought of because the relay candidates. when the relay candidates check if they're ready to cut back the energy consumption (given within the Eqn. (1)), the capable relay candidates contend for relaying by causation ETH when a utility-based go into reverse . Notice that there could exist the case that 2 relay candidates hidden with one another (outside the transmission range). However, they will still sense the message sent from one another (within the sensing vary that is about at one.9 times of the transmission point the machine by default). The case that multiple ETH frames collide thanks to hidden wouldn't exist. when SIFS (short entomb frame space), the winning relay broadcasts the II message to reassert the interference vary of the allotted sending power at relay, that is employed within the NAV setting when the on top of management frame exchanging, the beginning and relay hand in glove send an equivalent knowledge frames to the tip in 2
  3. 3. Distributed Utility - Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control In Manets | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 5| May. 2014 | 19 | consecutive time intervals exploitation the allotted sending power Finally, the tip sends associate ACK back to the beginning if it decodes the message with success. The flow charts of the terminals square measure given within the Appendix B. The elaborated protocol operations square measure provided from the attitude of various terminals: 2.1.1 Operations at the Start 1. Once a begin desires to initiate the info transmission with payload LENGTH X bytes, it 1st senses the channel to ascertain if it's idle. If the channel is idle for DIFS, the beginning chooses a random backoff timer between zero and CW. once the backoff counter reaches zero, the beginning sends out a RTS to order the channel. Notice that completely different from DCF, the placement data of the beginning is carried within the RTS, that is employed within the best power allocation. 2. If the beginning doesn't receive a CTS at intervals TRRTS+TRCTS+SIFS, a retransmission method are performed. Otherwise, within the case that FLAG_F of CTS is zero, the WEAL-CMAC is reduced to DCF protocol, and that we omit its operations within the following. within the case that FLAG_F is one, the beginning waits for an additional TRscoop BackOf f +TRETH+SIFS, wherever TRmax Back Of f is that the most backoff time for the relay . If ETH isn't received, which implies that no capable relay exist, the beginning sends the info by transmission mechanism with rate M. 3. If each CTS and ETH square measure received, when expecting TRII+SIFS, the beginning initiates a cooperative transmission with rate 2M exploitation the best sending power PCs that is piggybacked within the ETH. Notice that so as to keep up the end-to-end outturn, doubled rate is used within the cooperative transmission mode. we tend to assume that the terminal will support 2 transmission rates by completely different cryptography and modulation schemes. 4. If associate ACK isn't received when 16(X+XH)/2M+TRACK+2S IFS, wherever Xh is that the header length (in bytes), the beginning would perform a random backoff same as DCF. Otherwise, the transmission method succeeds and therefore the begin handles consecutive packet within the buffer if any. Notice that the unit for L and gonadotropic hormone is computer memory unit, and therefore the unit for rate is bits per second, therefore the UTC for one knowledge frame is 8(L + Lh)/2M. 2.1.2 Operations at the End: 1. Upon receiving the RTS, the top sends a CTS back when SIFS. The CTS contains the situation data of the top, the FLAG_F, and therefore the sending power for the transmission mechanism PDs (in the shape of dBm, occupying four bytes), that is employed for the doable relay competition. 2. within the case that FLAG_F is one, if the top has not detected any ETH inside TRmaxBack o f f +TRCTS +TRETH+SIFS, it assumes that the transmission mechanism are going to be performed and waits for the information packet from the beginning. 3. Otherwise, the top waits for the information packets from the beginning and winning relay. If the top will rewrite the combined signals properly, it sends back associate ACK. Otherwise, it simply lets the beginning timeout and convey. 2.1.3. Operations at the Relay 1. Any terminal that receives each RTS and CTS (with FLAG_F equals 1) and doesn't interfere with different transmissions in its neck of the woods may be thought to be a relay candidate. Upon receiving the CTS, every relay candidate checks whether or not it's able to scale back the whole energy consumption by (2PDs-PCs-PCr-2P’)×(X+Xh)/2M− (PCrP’)×TRII-(P+3P)×TRETH>0 (1) PCs and PCr sit down with the sending power within the cooperative transmission mode for begin and relay PDs and P sit down with the sending power within the transmission mechanism mode for begin and therefore the mounted sending power severally.Term(2PDs-PCs-PCr- 2P’)×(X+Xh)/2M denotes the saved energy consumption in sending the information by CC, term(PCr+P’)×TRIIand(P+3P’)×TRETH denotes the extra energy consumption on management overhead. By Eqn. (1), the relay checks whether or not CC will scale back the whole energy consumption each on sending and receiving, compared to transmission mechanism. each capable relay candidate (satisfies Eqn. (1)), starts a backoff timer when SIFS interval. 2. Intuitively, the backoff at an improved relay expires earlier, thus the simplest relay can channel associate ETH initial. The lost relays quit competition once sensing the ETH. The ETH contains the best sending power PCs for the beginning (in the shape of dBm, occupying four bytes). 3. when SIFS, the winning relay broadcasts the II message mistreatment power PCr . II message is employed to confirm the interference vary of the relay with the target to reinforce the spacial recycle.
  4. 4. Distributed Utility - Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control In Manets | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 5| May. 2014 | 20 | III. Performance Evaluation In this section, we tend to assess WEAL-CMAC via in depth simulations examination with IEEE 802.11 DCF and Coop- macintosh [11]. Since the aim of our theme is to prolong the network period of time and increasing the energy potency, the analysis metrics during this paper square measure the sending power, total energy consumption, network period of time, aggregate Table I. The sending power denotes the facility consumed at transmit electronic equipment (without the facility consumed at transmit circuitry). the whole energy consumption is that the summation of the sending (including each transmit electronic equipment and circuitry) and receiving energy value at the beginning, finish and relay. The period of time is outlined because the length from the network low-level formatting to the time that the primary terminal runs out of power. To validate the performance enhancements in WEAL-CMAC, we tend to utilize each the single-hop situation and therefore the multi-hop multi-connection situation. The simulation is disbursed in QualNet network machine [13]. The initial energy of all the terminals square measure set to one J. The propagation channel of 2 ray path loss model is adopted. Constant rate with one Mbps is employed in WEAL-CMAC and DCF, whereas custom-made knowledge rates with one, 2, 5.5 Mbps square measure utilized in CoopMAC. The mounted sending power used for management frames is ready to twelve dBm and, the mounted sending power used for knowledge border CoopMAC is ready to seventeen dBm as a result of the high rate (the sending power for the information frames in WEAL-CMAC and DCF is dynamically allocated). The simulation settings and parameters are listed in Table I. 3.1. Single hop scenario Fig.2 An Illustration Of The Single-Hop Scenario We 1st compare our WEAL-CMAC with the IEEE 802.11 DCF during a single-hop state of affairs that solely consists of 3 terminals (one begin, one finish and one relay), to indicate the variations between cooperative and non-cooperative communication on energy consumption. As shown in Fig two, the space between begin and finish changes from five m to thirty m, and angles ∠SER and ∠ESR keep at arccos(2/3). Fig. 3shows the variance of the transmission power to satisfy totally different outage likelihood necessities, once the RTS 120bits Noise power -80 dbm CTS 124bits Fixedtransmit power 30 dbm ACK 192bits Data rate 3mbps ETH 172bits Pathloss exponent 5 II 60 bits Initial energy E 3 j PHYheader 162bits Energy Threshold 30 MACheader 162bits Powerthreshold ^p 2 dbm Unit time T 0.1ms Circuitry power 9,12,15db m
  5. 5. Distributed Utility - Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control In Manets | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 5| May. 2014 | 21 | space between begin and finish is twenty m. it's simple that prime outage likelihood demand results in high price in terms of transmission power. we have a tendency to observe that for the specified rate and outage likelihood, the transmission power for cooperative transmission is way but the one for transmission mechanism. Since the likelihood of success ninety nine.9% is suitable for many of the wireless network applications, the simulation study within the remainder of this paper square measure all supported the outage likelihood zero.1%. FIG3. Transmitting Power Versus Outage Probability FIG4. Energy Consumption Versus S-D Distance 3.2 Multi-hopMulti-connection Scenarios Next, we have a tendency to illustrate the performance of WEAL-CMAC in a very realistic multi-hop multi-connection state of affairs along side IEEE 802.11 DCF and CoopMAC. This complicated state of affairs takes the interference and collision caused by totally different connections under consideration. As shown in Fig. 5, FIG5. A Snapshot Of The Multi-Hop Network
  6. 6. Distributed Utility - Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control In Manets | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 5| May. 2014 | 22 | Square measure at random placed in a very sq. space of 250 × 250m2. The dotted lines indicate that every one the terminals belong to constant subnet. The five solid lines indicate that five Constant Bit Rate (CBR) connections, within which starts (nodes one, 11, 21, 31, 41) transmit UDP-based traffic at one packet per one hundred milliseconds to the ends (nodes thirty, 40, 50, 60, 20) through multi-hop. the info payload length is about to 1024 bytes (unless declared otherwise). AODV [14] routing protocol is employed to determine the routing methods, that is wide utilized in MANETs. different routing protocols as DSR or energy aware routing protocol may be used, the performance of the projected macintosh layer theme is freelance of network layer schemes. IV. Conclusion In this paper, we've got projected a completely unique distributed energy adaptational location-based cooperative macintosh protocol for MANETs. By introducing WEAL-CMAC, each energy advantage and placement advantage may be exploited so the network period is extended considerably. we've got additionally projected an efficient relay choice strategy to settle on the most effective relay terminal and a cross-layer best power allocation theme to line the sending power. Moreover, we've got increased the abstraction employ to attenuate the interference among totally different connections by exploitation novel NAV settings. we've got incontestable that WEAL-CMAC will considerably prolong the network period comparison with the IEEE 802.11 DCF and CoopMAC, at comparatively low outturn and delay degradation price. As a future work, we'll investigate our WEAL-CMAC for larger scale network size and with high quality. we'll additionally bear in mind to develop an efficient cross-layer cooperative diversity-aware routing formula along side our DELCMAC to conserve energy whereas minimizing the outturn and delay degradation. REFERENCES [1] K. J. R. Liu, A. K. Sadek, W. Su, and A. Kwasinski, Cooperative Communications and Networking. Cambridge, 2008. [2] Y. W. P. Hong, W. Huang, and C. C. J. Kuo, Cooperation Communications and Networking: Technology and System Design. Springer,2010. [3] A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip, and B. Aazhang, “User cooperation diversity - Part I: System description,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51,no. 11, pp. 1927–1938, 2003. [4] P. Liu, Z. Tao, S. Narayanan, T. Korakis, and S. S. Panwar, “CoopMAC: A cooperative MAC for wireless LANs,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 340–354, 2007. [5] R. Ahmad, “Performance analysis of relay based cooperative MAC protocols,” Ph.D. dissertation, Victoria University, 2010. [6] W. Zhuang and M. Ismail, “Cooperation in wireless communication networks,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Mag., vol. 19, no. 2, pp.10–20, 2012. [7] A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip, and B. Aazhang, “User cooperation diversity - Part II: Implementation aspects and performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1939–1948, 2003. [8] J. N. Laneman, D. N. C. Tse, and G. W. Wornell, “Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: Efficient protocols and outage behavior,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 3062–3080, 2004. [9] G. Kramer, M. Gastpar, and P. Gupta, “Cooperative strategies and capacity theorems for relay networks,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 3037–3063, 2005. [10] T. E. Hunter and A. Nosratinia, “Diversity through coded cooperation,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 283–289, 2006. [11] S. Cui, A. J. Goldsmith, and A. Bahai, “Energy-efficiency of MIMO and cooperative MIMO in sensor networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1089.1098, Aug. 2004. [12] P. Liu, Z. Tao, S. Narayanan, T. Korakis, and S. S. Panwar, “Coop- MAC: a cooperative MAC for wireless LANs,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Commun., vol. 25, pp. 340-354, Feb. 2007. [13] http://www.scalable networks.com/products/qualnet/ [14] C. E. Perkins, and E. Royer, “Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing,” IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, 1999. BIOGRAPHIES M.Naresh is an PG Scholor in the Department of Computer science & engineering, Sir Vishveshwariah Institute of Science and Technology, Madanapalli. He received the B.Tech degree in information technology from JNTU University in 2012.His research include mobile computing, wireless networks.
  7. 7. Distributed Utility - Based Energy Efficient Cooperative Medium Access Control In Manets | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 5| May. 2014 | 23 | Gudditti.Viswanath is born in 1982 in India. He is graduated in B.C.A from Osmania University, Hyderabad, post graduated in M.C.A from S.K. University and second post graduated in M.Tech from JNTU Anantapur. He is currently working as a Assistant professor in the department of Computer science and engineering at Sir Vishveshwariah Institute of Science and Technology, Madanapalli. , Chittoor. T. Sunil Kumar Reddy is an associate professor in the Department of Computer science & engineering at Sir Vishveshwariah Institute of Science and Technology, Madanapalli. He received the B.Tech degree in Information Technology from Satyabhama University in 2005, the M.Tech degree in Information Technology from V.I.T University in 2007and he is pursuing PhD degree in computer science & engineering from JNTUA University, Anantapur. His research interests include Cloud Computing, High performance computers, Wireless Networks.

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