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  1. 1. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-1914-1919 ISSN: 2249-6645 DESIGN OF RING ROAD FOR ERODE DISTRICT USING GIS T.SUBRAMANI1 P.MALAISAMY2 1 Professor & Dean, Department of Civil Engineering, VMKV Engg. College, Vinayaka Missions University, 2 PG Student of Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, VMKV Engg. College,Vinayaka Missions University, Salem, IndiaAbstract: Design of ring road deals with the roads and bike roads routing determination (Mackenzie anddevelopment of a comprehensive plan for Construction and Walker 2004, Malpica ve Pedraza 2001). GIS based routeoperation of transportation facilities. In order to develop determination for railway (Ashish and Dhingra 2005, Kovefficient and better transport facility, it is necessary to have vd. 2005, Gipps vd. 2001), irrigation/drainage channelsa proper procedure transport movement. This ring road (Yusof and Baban 2000, Smith 2006), power line (Chenghelps to a great extent in improving the safe and fast and Chang 2001) have already been implemented.movement of both human and goods traffic, thereby The present study was initiated to demonstrate the use ofincreasing the economy of the City.This improved various data from different sources, GIS analysis and rastereconomy contributes the growth of the country. The first network analysis techniques for developing a least costand foremost step is reducing the traffic for the particular pathway for linear civil engineering structures. This isroute by diverting the density of the vehicles to enhance probably the most asked question posed to those in thethe safe transport and environmental pollution. This project Geographic Information Systems (GIS) field and isdeals with the traffic problem of the erode city and probably the hardest to answer in a succinct and clearprovides better transportation.In this project GIS is used manner.for surveying, for preparing Contour maps, for developingthree dimensional Digital Elevation Models, for various 1.2 SOFTWARE Different software packages are important for GIS.types of route alignments and for estimation of cutting and Central to this is the GIS application package. Suchfilling volumes. software is essential for creating, editing and analyzing The purpose of this study was to develop a tool to spatial and attribute data, therefore these packages contain alocate a suitable less route between two points. The GIS myriad of GIS functions inherent to them. Extensions orapproach using ground parameters and spatial analysis add-ons are software that extends the capabilities of the GISprovided to achieve this goal. Raster based map analysis software package. Component GIS software is the oppositeprovide a wealth of capabilities for incorporating terrain of application software. Component GIS seeks to buildinformation surrounding linear infrastructure. Costs software applications that meet a specific purpose and thusresulting from terrain, geomorphology, land use, drainage are limited in their spatial analysis capabilities. Utilities areand elevation resulting low cost estimation for stand-alone programs that perform a specific function. Forimplementing the shortest routes for the study area .Finally example, a file format utility that converts from on type ofRing road for Erode city of 22 kms all around which GIS file to another. There is also web GIS software thatconnect the major roads of byepass was formulated. helps serve data through Internet browsers.Keywords: Design, ring road,Erode district,Using gis 1.2.1 Data Data is the core of any GIS. There are two primary I. INTRODUCTION types of data that are used in GIS. A geodatabase is a Determining the best route through an area is one database that is in some way referenced to locations on theof the oldest spatial problems. This problem has recently earth. Geodatabases are grouped into two different types:been solved effectively using GIS and Remote Sensing vector and raster. Vector data is spatial data represented astechnologies. During the last decade, a few attempts have points, lines and polygons. Raster data is cell-based databeen made to automate the route-planning process using such as aerial imagery and digital elevation models.GIS technology. A review of a number of papers suggests Coupled with this data is usually data known as attributethat the methodology is still at an exploratory stage (Saha et data. Attribute data generally defined as additionalal., 2005). Anumber of research have already been information about each spatial feature housed in tabularperformed in pipeline route design using GIS which include format. Documentation of GIS datasets is knownoptimal routing for pipeline selection of best route for as metadata. Metadata contains such information as theexpansion and road network, this will achieve by using high coordinate system, when the data was created, when it wasresolution remote sensing image. In this context, physical, last updated, who created it and how to contact them andenvironmental, political, social, economical and legal definitions for any of the code attribute data.processes was considered and implemented for road andpipeline routing determination (Rylsky 2004, Saha, V.D 1.2.2 Remote sensing system2005, Delevar and Naghibi 2003, Yusof and Baban 2004, With the background treatise on remote sensing weGlasgow vd. 2004, Berry 2000, Çevik and Topal 2003, have made so far, it would now be easier make an analysisLuettingearve Clark 2005). Multiple factors were of the different stages in remote sensing.considered using GIS techniques for road, highway, forest  Origin of electromagnetic energy. 1914 | P a g e
  2. 2. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-1914-1919 ISSN: 2249-6645 Transmission of energy System (GLONASS) was in use by the Russian military Intervening of energy or self emission only until it was made fully available to civilians in 2007. Detection of energy There are also the planned Chinese Compass navigation Transmission or coding of the sensor output system and the European Unions Galileo positioning Collection of ground truth system. Data analysis and interpretation 1.2.9 How GPS Work1.2.3 Remote sensors The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a The instrument used to measure electromagnetic technical marvel made possible by a group of satellites inradiation reflected or emitted by the radiation either emitted earth orbit that transmit precise signals, allowing GPSor reflected from the earth is called passive sensors, sensors receivers to calculate and display accurate location, speed,which carry electromagnetic radiation to illuminates the and time information to the user. By capturing the signalsearth’s surface are called active sensors. from three or more satellites (among a constellation of 31 satellites available), GPS receivers are able to use the1.2.4 Platforms mathematical principle of trilteration to pinpoint your Sensor system need to be placed on suitable location. With the addition of computing power, and dataobservation platforms and need to be a pre-defined altitude stored in memory such as road maps, points of interest,.Platforms can be stationary or mobile depending on the topographic information, and much more, GPS receivers areneeds of the observation mission and the constraints. Geo- able to convert location, speed, and time information into astationary ,which are about 3600km above earth second is useful display format. GPS was originally created by thesun synchronous satellites which are nearer to earth. United States Department of Defense (DOD) as a military application. The system has been active since the early1.2.5 Digital Processing Techniques 1980s, but began to become useful to civilians in the late Digital facilitates quantitative analysis, make use 1990s. Consumer GPS has since become a multi-billionof full spectral information and avoid individual bias. dollar industry with a wide array of products, services, andSimultaneous analysis of multi-temporal and multi sensor Internet-based utilities.GPS works accurately in all weatherfacilitated in digital methods. The computer analysis the conditions, day or night, around the clock, and around thesignature ,so as to associates each pixel with a particular globe. There is no subscription fee for use of GPS signals.feature of imagery. GPS signals may be blocked by dense forest, canyon walls, or skyscrapers, and they don’t penetrate indoor spaces well,1.2.6 Generation of DEM and slope so some locations may not permit accurate GPS navigation. Slope map was generated using the elevationinformation derived from ancillary topographical and GIS 1.2.10 Types of GPS for Driving, Outdoors, Sportstechniques. ARCGISs TOPOGRID functions were used to Imagine never being lost or needing to ask forgenerate DEM and slope maps. A sampling method was directions as you drive. Imagine going out for a run or bikeused to extract representative points to build a surface ride and capturing all of your speed, distance, elevationmodel that approximates the actual surface. The contour change and heart rate data and uploading it to a training logmap, was prepared from the SOI topographic. or an online map you can share. Imagine going hiking and always knowing the way back to camp. Imagine playing1.2.7 Shortest Path Analysis golf and always knowing the exact distance to the pin. The inputs required for shortest path analysis are a These scenarios and many more are reality with the use ofsource and a destination raster, cost raster surface, cost Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.weighted distance, direction raster. After preparing all therequired inputs Spatial Analyst is used to generate the II. Aim And Scope Of Investigationshortest path and the results for analysis.  To establish shortest path for road network.  To minimize the traffic in the city.1.2.8 Global Positioning System  To provide a better and comfortable for updating the The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space- traffic and other related information in roadbased global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that administration.provides reliable location and time information in all  To reduce travelling and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth  To prepare various thematic maps.when and where there is an unobstructed line of sight to  To find paths /routes/places for laying eco-friendly ringfour or more GPS satellites. It is maintained by the United road.States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a  To reduce the pollution rate in the city.GPS receiver. The GPS project was started in 1973 toovercome the limitations of previous navigation III. Study Area - Erode Citysystems,[1] integrating ideas from several predecessors, Erode is a city, a municipal corporation and theincluding a number of classified engineering design studies headquarters of Erode district in the South Indian state offrom the 1960s. GPS was created and realized by the U.S. Tamil Nadu. It is situated at the centre of the South IndianDepartment of Defense (USDOD) and was originally run Peninsula, about 400 kilometres (249 mi) southwest fromwith 24 satellites. It became fully operational in 1994. In the state capital Chennai and on the banks of the riversaddition to GPS, other systems are in use or under Cauvery and Bhavani, between 11° 19.5" and 11° 81.05"development. The Russian global navigation Satellite 1915 | P a g e
  3. 3. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-1914-1919 ISSN: 2249-6645North latitude and 77° 42.5" and 77° 44.5" East longitude. Figure.2 shows Satellite Image For ErodeAs per Census 2011 alignments. It has population around156,953.Erode Local planning Area extends up to the city, and will be extended to 109 km2. Theroadway connects all the parts of the state and nearby statessuch as Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh with thecity. The City has both local (City) and mofussil (city-to-city) bus services with connections to nearby towns andvillages. Plenty of city buses are ply to connect all parts ofthe city. One can get buses from Erode to almost any part ofthe state. NH connecting Salem – Coimbatore – Cochinpasses through Erode and Bypasses the city via Bhavani(Lakshminagar by-pass), Chithode, Perundurai, which is the FIGURE.2 SATELLITE IMAGE FOR ERODEmajor National Highway connectivity for the city.SH 79connecting Rasipuram - Tiruchengode - Pallipalayam – V. Design Guide LinesErodeSH-15 connecting Erode – Gobi – Sathy – Ooty .NH- 5.1 PLANNING OF ROAD IN PLAIN AREAS67A connecting Karur – Erode – Sathy – MysoreAnother Planning of roads in plain area is somewhatplanned from Erode (Bhavani) – Anthiyur – Bangalore. different from hill areas. In hill areas alignment of roads hasFigure.1 shows the study area details. to be circuitous and is primarily governed by the topography. In the plain area we should find the elevation and depression by the survey. The elevation areas should be leveled by removing the upper surface of the earth and this soil can be used for filling up the low lying areas.The roads in our country in plain areas, they have been classified as National Highways , State Highways, Major District Roads, Other District Roads and Village Roads according to specification , traffic needs , and socio-economic, administrative or strategic consideration. Some National Highways are point to point which will connect the state boundaries. State. Highways will connect all the National Highways. Major District roads will connect all the State Highways .Other District Roads and Village Roads will connect the Major District Roads however from FIGURE.1 ERODE CITY MAP topographical considerations; these can be broadly divided into arterial roads and link roads. Arterial roads will include IV. Data Base Generation national/state highways and major district roads. Link roads take off from arterial roads to link villages/production areas4.1 DATA COLLECTION in small/sub-valleys. These will comprise other districtSurvey of India Toposheet No. 58 E /12 roads and village roads.4.2 LAND SAT (MSS) DATA 2007 5.2 HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT Maps, field work and remote sensing techniques The position or layout of the centre line of theare necessary for proposed road design and construction. highway on the ground is called alignment. In general theTopographic maps, geomorphology, Land use/Land Cover, alignment is of two types,Drainage, DEM, road, Slope and Contour maps were used  Horizontal alignmentfor this proposed route. The favorable path analysis, using  Vertical alignmentvarious data and GIS analysis, was intended to confirm the 5.2.1 Requirementsbest transport route within this site. The basic requirements of ideal alignments between two terminal stations are4.3 DATA PROCESS AND ANALYSIS  Short – A straight line alignment would be the, though In this implementation, the best route is found for a there may be several practical considerations whichnew road. The steps to find possible path are outlined would cause the deviation from the shortest path.below. Path is identified by using ArcGIS 9.1 Spatial  Easy – The alignment should be such that it is easy toAnalysis Module. construct and maintain with minimum problems.Create Source, Destination and Datasets  Safe – The alignment should be safe enough forGenerate different Thematic Maps (Classify and Weight construction andmaintenance from the view point ofage) stability of natural hill slopes,embankments, cut slopes.Perform Weighted Distance  Economical – The alignment is considered economicalCreate Direction Datasets only if the total cost including the initial cost,Identified Shortest Path with Distance and Direction maintenance cost.Datasets 1916 | P a g e
  4. 4. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-1914-1919 ISSN: 2249-66455.2.2 Factors controlling alignment errain by very sparingly used. It should be ensured that For an alignment to be shortest, it should be there is sufficient length between the two curves forstraight between two terminals which are not always introduction of requisite curves. Curves in same directionpossible due to practical difficulties such as intermediate separated by short tangents, known as broken back curves,obstructions and topography. A shortest route may have should be avoided as far as possible in the interest ofvery steep gradients and hence not easy for operations. aesthetics and replaced by a single curve.Similarly there will be construction and maintenanceproblems along the route which may be otherwise short and 5.2.8 Minimum Curve Radiieasy. Canals are often deviated from the shortest route in On a horizontal, the centrifugal force is balancedorder to cater for intermediate places of importance or by the combined effect of super elevation and side friction.obligatory points. Basic equation for this condition of equilibrium is as follows:5.2.3 Obligatory points v2/g R=e + f These are control points governing the alignment of a R=v²/127(e + f)canal . These control points may be broadly divided into Where v = vehicle speed in meter/secondtwo categories, V = vehicle speed in km/hr Points through which the alignment is to pass. g = acceleration due to gravity in meter/s² Points through which alignment should not pass. e = super elevation in meterObligatory points through which alignment has to pass may f = coefficient of side friction between vehicle type andcause alignment to often deviate from the shortest or pavements (taken as 0.15)easiest path. r = radius in meter5.2.4 Geometric design 5.2.9 Vertical Alignment Geometric design factors gradient, radius of Broken back grade lines, i.e. two vertical curves incurvature govern the final alignment. As far as possible the same direction separated by a shorttangent, should bewhile aligning a canal, the gradient should be gradually avoided due to poor appearance, and preferably replaced byincreasing. It may be necessary to make adjustments in a single curve.Decks of small cross drainage structureshorizontal alignment of canal keeping in view the minimum should follow the same profile as the flanking roadradius of curvature and the gradient. section with no break in the grade line.5.2.5 Slope stability 5.2.10 Co-ordination of Horizontal and Vertical While aligning canal, special care should be taken Alignmentto align along the side of the hill which is stable. A problem The overall appearance of a highway can bein doing this is that of the landslides. The cutting and filling enhanced considerably by judicious combinationto construct the canal on the hill side causes steepening of ofhorizontal and vertical alignment. Plan and profile of theexisting slopes and effects its stability road should not be designedinterpedently but in unison so as to produce appropriate three dimensional effect.5.2.6 Engineering surveys for Highway Alignment Before canal alignment, engineering surveys are to VI. Methodologybe carried out. The surveys may be completed in four The base (study area) map, Drainage, Slope andstages; first three stages consider all possible alternate Contour maps were prepared with help of SOI Toposheetalignment keeping in (on 1:50,000 scale). High resolution LANSAT satellite dataview the various requirements .Four stages of engineering of 2007 was used and by using Digital Image Processingsurveys are, techniques the following thematic maps such as Map study geomorphology, Land use / Land Cover were generated. Reconnaissance The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated using Preliminary survey various GIS based analysis, such as overlay, raster network Final location and detailed survey analysis. The DEM is used in order to understand the terrain condition, environmental factors and social economic status5.2.7 Horizontal Alignment in this study area. Finally, possible / feasible route was The horizontal alignment should be fluent and identified based on various physical and cultural parametersblend well with the surrounding topography. The horizontal and their inherent properties. The cost reduction analysisalignment should be co-ordinate carefully with the was also done for substantiating the formation of ring road.longitudinal profile. Breaks in horizontal alignments at Figure.3. Shows the flow diagram.cross drainage structure and sharp curves at the end of longtangents/straight sections should be avoided.Short curvesgives appearance of kinks, particularly for small deflectionsangles should be avoided. The curves should be sufficientlylong and have suitable transitions to provide pleasingappearances. Curve length should be at least 150m for adeflection angle of 5 degrees and this should be increasedby 30m for each degree deflection angle. Reverse curvesmay be needed in difficult t 1917 | P a g e
  5. 5. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-1914-1919 ISSN: 2249-6645 Satellite Data Survey of India Top sheet Base Map Digital Image Processing Drainage and Geomorpholo River Systems gy map map FIGURE.5 GEOMOR PHOLOGY MAP Slope and Land use / Contour Land cover map IX. DRAINAGE PATTERN Erode district is drained by Cauvery and Ponnaiyar river basin. The Cauvery River forms the western and south-western boundary of the district. The domestic and GIS integration / industrial usage of water is being satisfied by Cauvery river Site suitability analysis water. As far as the drainage fabrication of the study area is concerned, it is covered by third order and fifth order streams in the North and Northeast part.. These streams are seasonal and become dry during summer season and the main stream which is passing through this area of interest is Favorable route Selection Thirumanimuttar (Figure.6) FIGURE.3 FLOW DIAGRAM VII. TOPOGRAPHY Topographic and geologic data of the proposedroad network area were prepared in a GIS ready format andused as input to the GIS database. The locations of roads,railways, wetland, forests and drainage features werederived from the topographic map layer. The map thatproduced by SOI is the base for national topographicdatabase and has a number of features for instance locationof roads, railways ,wetland ,forests , drainage features,elevation points (Figure. 4 ). In this proposed project,digital elevation model (DEM) was prepared from theelevation data. It was used as input to the least cost and FIGURE.6 DRAINAGE PATTERNshortest pathway analysis. X. LOCATION FOR BRIDGES VIII. Geomorphology In the study area, it is advisable that to construct Different landforms present in the area are necessary bridges in the study area where there is crossingdepicted in Figure.5. This geomorphic unit were extracted of streams that are higher order (more than 3 rd order). Andfrom the satellite image by digital data interpretation and the culvert is used for the streams that are lower order (lessincorporated into the GIS database. These geomorphic units than 3rd order) (Figure.7).were classified into Plateau, Scarp face, Debris slope,bazada, residual hill and pediments (deep, shallow &moderate). FIGURE.4 TOPOSHEET 58 E/12 FIGURE.7. LOCATION FOR BRIDGES 1918 | P a g e
  6. 6. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-1914-1919 ISSN: 2249-6645 XI. LAND USE / LAND COVER features, including on-the-fly map projections, The land use map was prepared from Digital LAN andannotation in the database. Updates of ArcView 3.xSAT 2007 satellite data and the features were classified as extensions, including 3D Analyst andSpatial Analyst, cameper Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development later with release of ArcGIS 8.1, which was unveiled at the(NRSA,1995) classification system and following land use EsriInternational User Conference in 2000.pattern were identified as agricultural land, forests, miningarea, water body, plantations, barren rock area and urban XIII. CONCLUSIONareas. Most of the area is being occupied by fallow land. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool toHills/barren rocky area is located in the northern and locate a suitable less route between two points. The GISsouthern part of the study area. Besides these two major approach using ground parameters and spatial analysiscategories, the crop land is also sporadically distributed in provided tothe study area. (Figure.8). FIGURE.9 FINAL RING ROAD FOR ERODE CITY FIGURE.8. LAND USE / LAND COVER achieve this goal. Raster based map analysis provide a wealth of capabilities for incorporating terrainXII. OVERVIEW OF SOFTWARE- Arcgis information surrounding linear infrastructure. Costs ArcGIS is a suite consisting of a group of resulting from terrain, geomorphology, land use, drainagegeographic information system (GIS) softwareproducts and elevation resulting low cost estimation forproduced by Esri. There are also server-based ArcGIS implementing the shortest routes for the study area. Theproducts, as well as ArcGIS products for PDAs.Extensions Figure.9 shows the final ring road for erode city of 22 kmscan be purchased separately to increase the functionality of all around which connect the major roads of byepass.ArcGIS. ReferenceArcGIS 8.x [1]. Ashish, V., Dhinga, S., L., 2005, Integrated Framework In late 1999, Esri released ArcGIS 8.0, which ran Using Geographical InformationSystem, Journal of urban planning and development, urban public transportation worldon the Microsoft Windows operatingsystem. ArcGIS Review: challenges and innovations. Vol: 131 no: 2, pp: 98-combined the visual user-interface aspect of ArcView GIS 1113.x interfacewith some of the power from the Arc/INFO [2]. Berry, K., J., 2000, Optimal Path Analysis and Corridorversion 7.2 workstation. This pairing resulted in a new Routing: Infusing StakeholderPerspective in Calibration andsoftware suite called ArcGIS, which included thecommand- Weighting of Model Criteria.line ArcInfo workstation (v8.0) and a new graphical user [3]. Cheng, M., Y., Chang, G., L., 2001, Automating Utilityinterface applicationcalled ArcMap (v8.0) incorporating Route Design and Planning Through GIS, Vol: 10, N: 4, pp.some of the functionality of ArcInfo with a 507-516(10).moreintuitiveinterface, as well as an ArcGIS file [4]. Çevik, E., Topal T., 2003, GIS-Based Landslide Susceptibility Mapping for a Problematic Segment of themanagement application called ArcCatalog(v8.0). The Natural Gas Pipeline, Hendek (Turkey), Environmentalrelease of the ArcGIS suite constituted a major change in Geology, and Vol: 44, pp: 949-962.Esris software offerings,aligning all their client and server [5]. Delevar, R., M., Naghibi, F., 2003, Pipeline Routing Usingproducts under one software architecture known asArcGIS, Geospatial Information System Analysis.developed using Microsoft Windows COM standards.One [6]. Gipps, G., P., Kevin, Q., G., Held, A., Barnett, G., 2001,major difference is the programming (scripting) languages New Technologies for TransportRoute Selection,available to customize orextend the software to suit Transportation Research Part C, Vol: 9 pp:135-154..particular user needs. [7]. Glasgow, J., French, S., Zwick, P., Kramer, L., In the transition to ArcGIS, Esri droppedsupport of Richardson, S., Berry, K., J., 2004, AConsensus Method Finds Preferred Routing.its application-specific scripting languages, Avenue and the [8]. Kov, K., C., Chowdhury, R., Flentje, P., 2005, Hazard andARC MacroLanguage (AML), in favor of Visual Basic for Risk Assessment of Rainfall –Induced Land sliding Along aApplications scripting and open access toArcGIS Railway Line.components using the Microsoft COM standards. ArcGIS isdesigned to store data in a proprietary RDBMS format,known asgeodatabase.ArcGIS 8.x introduced other new 1919 | P a g e