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  1. 1. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-1903-1907 ISSN: 2249-6645 Multilevel Converter for Ac–Dc Harmonic Immunity in VSC Hvdc Transmission 1 Polisetty Hema Sundar, 2Aswani Kumar Eedara 1 Mtech Student Scholar Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASI Inst. Of Technology and Engg. , Tadepalligudem, W.G.Dist., A.P, India. 2 Head of the Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engg., SASI Inst. of Technology and Engg. Tadepalligudem,W.G.Dist., A.P, India Email:1hemasundar10@gmail.com, 2aswani@sasi.ac.inAbstract: The concept of multilevel inverters, introduced cost, investing in smart grid technologies has become aabout 20 years ago entails performing power conversion in serious focus for utilities [1].multiple voltage steps to obtain improved power quality, Advanced technologies, such as flexiblelower switching losses, better electromagnetic alternating current transmission system (FACTS) andcompatibility, and higher voltage capability. The benefits voltage-source converter (VSC)-based high-voltage dcare especially clear for medium-voltage drives in industrial (HVDC) power transmission systems, are essential for theapplications and are being considered for future naval ship restructuring of the power systems into more automated,propulsion systems. Several topologies for multilevel electronically controlled smart grids. An overview of theinverters have been proposed over the years; the most recent advances of HVDC based on VSC technologies ispopular cascaded H-bridge apart from other multilevel offered in [2]. The most important control and modelinginverters is the capability of utilizing different dc voltages methods of VSC-based HVDC systems and the list ofon the individual H-bridge cells which results in splitting existing installations are also available in [2]the power conversion amongst higher-voltage lower-frequency and lower-voltage higher-frequency inverters.Control methods based on selective harmonic eliminationpulse-width modulation (SHE-PWM) techniques offer thelowest possible number of switching transitions. Thisfeature also results in the lowest possible level of converterswitching losses. For this reason, they are very attractivetechniques for the voltage-source-converter-(VSC) basedhigh-voltage dc (HVDC) power transmission systems. The .paper discusses optimized modulation patterns which offer Fig. 1. Phase of the two-level VSC for the HVDC powercontrolled harmonic immunity between the ac and dc side. transmission system[7].The application focuses on the conventional two-levelconverter when its dc-link voltage contains a mix of low-frequency harmonic components. Simulation andexperimental results are presented to confirm the validity ofthe proposed switching patterns. Finally a five levelMultilevel converter topology is applied for this applicationKeywords-Amplitude modulation (AM), dc-ac powerconversion, harmonic control, HVDC, insulated-gatebipolar transistor (IGBT), power electronics, power Fig. 2. Three-phase two-level VSC.transmission system, pulse-width modulation, voltage-source converter (VSC). The first generation of utility power converters is based on current-source converter (CSC) topologies [3], [4]. Today, many projects still use CSCs due to their ultra-high I. INTRODUCTION power capabilities. With the invention of fully controlled The continuous growth of electricity demand and power semiconductors, such as insulated-gate bipolarever increasing society awareness of climate change issues transistors (IGBTs) and integrated gate-commutateddirectly affect the development of the electricity grid thyristors (IGCTs) [5], the VSC topologies are moreinfrastructure. The utility industry faces continuous pressure attractive due to their four-quadrant power-flowto transform the way the electricity grid is managed and characteristics [6]. A typical configuration of the VSC-operated. On one hand, the diversity of supply aims to based HVDC power transmission system is shown in Fig. 1increase the energy mix and accommodate more and as it is shown in [7] and [8].various sustainable energy sources. On the other hand, there With the advancement of power electronics andis a clear need to improve the efficiency, reliability, energy emergence of new multilevel converter topologies, it issecurity, and quality of supply.With the breadth of benefits possible to work at voltage levels beyond the classicthat the smart grid can deliver, the improvements in semiconductor limits. The multilevel converters achievetechnology capabilities, and the reduction in technology high-voltage switching by means of a series of voltage steps, each of which lies within the ratings of the individual www.ijmer.com 1903 | P a g e
  2. 2. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-1903-1907 ISSN: 2249-6645power devices. Among the multilevel Converters [1-4], the the auxiliary controller is implemented in the negative-cascaded H-bridge topology (CHB) is particularly attractive sequence d-q frame.in high-voltage applications, because it requires the least The objective of this paper is to discuss thenumber of components to synthesize the same number of effectiveness of optimized modulation based onvoltage levels. precalculated SHE-PWM in a two-level three-phase VSC to Additionally, due to its modular structure, the make the ac side immune from the fluctuations of the dchardware implementation is rather simple and the link without the use of passive components. However, sincemaintenance operation is easier than alternative multilevel the VSC studied here does not include a closed-loopconverters. The multilevel voltage source inverter is controller, strategies to compensate unbalances are notrecently applied in many industrial applications such as ac addressed in this paper.power supplies, static VAR compensators, drive systems, This paper is organized in the following way. Inetc. One of the significant advantages of multilevel Section II, a brief analysis of the VSC and the modulationconfiguration is the harmonic reduction in the output method is provided. Section III contains the characteristicswaveform without increasing switching frequency or of the method on a VSC with dc-side ripple voltage. Sectiondecreasing the inverter power output [5-11]. The output IV provides extensive experimental results to support thevoltage waveform of a multilevel inverter is composed of theoretical arguments. Conclusions are documented inthe number of levels of voltages, typically obtained from Section V.capacitor voltage sources. The so-called multilevel startsfrom three levels. As the number of levels reach infinity, the II. Analysis Of The Pwm Converter And She-Pwmoutput THD approaches zero. The number of the achievable The optimized SHE-PWM technique isvoltage levels, however, is limited by voltage unbalance investigated on a two level three-phase VSC topology withproblems voltage clamping requirement, circuit layout, and IGBT technology, shown in Fig. 2. A typical periodic two-packaging constraints. level SHE-PWM waveform is shown in Fig. 3. On the other hand, optimized modulation methods The waveforms of the line-to-neutral voltages can beoffer many advantages toward tight control of converter- expressed as follows:generated harmonics [19]. A minimization method to findthe complete set of solutions by solving the SHE-PWMequations for two-level inverters is discussed in [20]. In thispaper, the dc-link voltage is assumed to be constant. In [10],a method is proposed to prevent the dc-link ripple voltagefrom creating low-order harmonics on the ac side of fixedand variable frequency inverters. However, only one of the (1)multiple SHE-PWM sets [20] of solutions is reported. When is the operating frequency of the ac, and An investigation of the harmonic interactionbetween the ac and dc side for STATCOM is presented in is the dc-link voltage.[21] including the so-called dynamic SHE-PWM schemebased on precalculated angles for better THD. However, thedynamic SHE-PWM scheme is applied only for a three-level converter and can be applied only for knownmagnitude and frequency of the ripple. Another method for Fig. 3. Typical two-level PWM switching waveform withimproving the harmonic performance of a two-level VSC five angles perquarter cycle.with SHE-PWM is studied in [22]. However, only one setof SHE-PWM solutions is considered for the method of[22] which requires the exact values of magnitude, phase,and frequency of the ripple in order to be implemented. Control strategies to compensate unbalances arereported in the literature. Mild imbalances caused byunbalanced loads of the ac side are regulated by usingseparate control loops for the positive- and negative-sequence components of the voltage as proposed in [23].Efficient control of unbalanced compensator currents can beachieved by a control algorithm based on the D-STATCOMmodel [24]. D-STATCOM allows separate control ofpositive- and negative-sequence currents and decoupledcurrent control of the d-q frame. An advanced strategybased on direct power control under unbalanced gridvoltage conditions has been recently presented for a doublyfed induction generator [25]. To take the full advantages ofVSCs for HVDC power transmission systems, an auxiliarycontroller is added to the main controller which isconventionally implemented in the positive-sequence d-q Fig. 4. Solution trajectories. (a) Per-unit modulation indexframe [26]. To compensate for unbalanced ac-side loads, over a complete periodic cycle. (b) Five angles in radians. www.ijmer.com 1904 | P a g e
  3. 3. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-1903-1907 ISSN: 2249-6645Thus, the line-to-line voltages are given by III. Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Converter 2.1 Full H-Bridge S1 S3 (2) VoutThe SHE-PWM method offers numerical solutions which Vdcare calculated through the Fourier series expansion [20] ofthe waveform S4 S2 Figure. 6 Full H-Bridge Switches Turn ON Voltage Level Where N+1 are the angles that need to be found. S1,S2 Vdc Using five switching angles per quarter-wave in S3,S4 -Vdc(N=4)SHE-PWM, k= 5, 7, 11, 13 to eliminate the 5th, 7th, S4,D2 011th,and 13th harmonics. During the case of a balancedload, the third and all other harmonics that are multiples of Table 1. Switching table for H-Bridgethree are cancelled, due to the 120 symmetry of theswitching function of the three-phase converter. The even Fig.6 shows the Full H-Bridge Configuration. Byharmonics are cancelled due to the half-wave quarter-wave using single H-Bridge we can get 3 voltage levels. Thesymmetry of the angles, being constrained by number output voltage levels of cascaded Full H-Bridge are given by 2n+1 and voltage step of each level is given by Vdc/n. Where n is number of H-bridges connected in cascaded. The switching table is given in Table 1 and 2. ZSFig. 5. Simulation results for SHE-PWM eliminating 5th,7th, 11th, and 13th harmonics. (a) DC-link voltage. (b)Solution trajectories to eliminate harmonics and intersection Table 2. Switching table for Cascaded H-Bridgepoints with the modulating signal (M=0.75). (c) Line-to-neutral voltage. (d) Line-to-line voltage. (e) and (f) Switches Turn On Voltage LevelPositive- and negative-sequence line-to-line voltage spectra,respectively. S1, S2 Vdc S1,S2,S5,S6 2Vdc S4,D2,S8,D6 0 S3,S4 -Vdc S3,S4,S7,S8 -2Vdc www.ijmer.com 1905 | P a g e
  4. 4. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-1903-1907 ISSN: 2249-6645 IV. SIMULATION RESULTS4.1 Modeling of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Converter Fig.7 shows the Matlab/Simulink Model of fivelevel Cascaded H-Bridge multilevel converter. Each H-bridge DC voltage is 50 V. In order to generate three phaseoutput such legs are connected in star/delta. Each llegegating pulses are displaced by 120 degrees. Figure. 10 Nine Level Line Voltage Fig.10 shows the Level shifted Carrier PWM wave form. Here four carriers each are level shifted by 0.5 in positive and negative side are compared with sine wave. Figure. 7 Matlab/SImulink Model of CHB Figure. 11 Carrier Signals of Level Shifted PWM Fig.11 shows the phase voltage of level shifted carrier PWM CHB inverter. Fig.12&13 shows the phase and line voltage of level shifted carrier PWM CHB inverter. Here phase voltage has five voltage levels where as line voltage has nine voltage levels. Figure. 8 Carrier Signals of Phase Shifted Carrier PWMFig.8 shows the Phase shifted Carrier PWM wave form.Here four carriers each are phase shifted by 90 degrees arecompared with sine wave. Figure. 12 Five Level Phase Voltage Figure. 9 Five Level outputFig.9 shows the phase voltage of phase shifted carrier PWMCHB inverter. Fig.10 shows the line voltage of phaseshifted carrier PWM CHB inverter. Here phase voltage hasfive voltage levels where as line voltage has nine voltagelevels. Figure. 13 Nine Level Line Voltage www.ijmer.com 1906 | P a g e
  5. 5. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-1903-1907 ISSN: 2249-6645 V. CONCLUSIONS [17] M. N. Anwar and M. Teimor, ―An analytical method for This paper presents Novel Hybrid H-Bridge multilevel selecting dc-link-capacitor of a voltage stiff inverter,‖ inconverter. The proposed converter produces more voltage Proc. 37th IAS Annu.Meeting IEEE Industry Applications Conf., Dearborn, MI, Oct. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 803–810.levels with less number of switches compared to H- bridge [18] F. D. Kieferndorf, M. Forster, and T. A. Lipo, ―Reduction ofconfiguration. This will reduce number of gate drivers and dc-bus capacitor ripple current with PAM/PWM converter,‖protection circuits which in turn reduces the cost and IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 607–614, Mar.complexity of the circuit. Finally a five level single H- 2004.bridge is proposed. A SIMULINK based model is [19] P. N. Enjeti, P. D. Ziogas, and J. F. Lindsay, ―Programmeddeveloped and Simulation results are presented. PWM techniques to eliminate harmonics: A critical evaluation,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind.Appl., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 302– References 316, Mar. 1990.[1] J. McDonald, ―Leader or follower [The business scene],‖ [20] V. G. Agelidis, A. Balouktsis, I. Balouktsis, and C. Cossar, ―Multiple sets of solutions for harmonic elimination PWM IEEE Power Energy Mag., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 18–90, Nov. bipolar waveforms: Analysis and experimental verification,‖ 2008.[2] N. Flourentzou, V. G. Agelidis, and G. D. Demetriades, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 415–421, ―VSC-based HVDC power transmission systems: An Mar. 2006. [21] L. Ran, L. Holdsworth, and G. A. Putrus, ―Dynamic overview,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. selective harmonic elimination of a three-level inverter used 592–602, Mar. 2009.[3] A. A. Edris, S. Zelingher, L. Gyugyi, and L. J. Kovalsky, for static VAr compensation,‖ Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Gen., ―Squeezing more power from the grid,‖ IEEE Power Eng. Transm. Distrib., vol. 149, no. 1, pp. 83–89, Jan. 2002. [22] S. Filizadeh and A. M. Gole, ―Harmonic performance Rev., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 4–6, Jun. 2002. analysis of an OPWM-controlled STATCOM in network[4] B. K. Perkins and M. R. Iravani, ―Dynamic modeling of applications,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 2, pt. 1, high power static switching circuits in the dq-frame,‖ IEEE pp. 1001–1008, Apr. 2005. Trans. Power Syst., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 678–684, May 1999.[5] P. Steimer, O. Apeldoorn, E. Carroll, and A. Nagel, ―IGCT [23] C. Hochgraf and R. H. Lasseter, ―Statcom controls for operation with unbalanced voltages,‖ IEEE Trans. Power technology baseline and future opportunities,‖ in Proc. Del., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 538–544, Apr. 1998. IEEE Transmi. Distrib. Conf. Expo., Oct. 2001, vol. 2, pp. 1182–1187. [24] B. Blazic and I. Papic, ―Improved D-STATCOM control for operation with unbalanced currents and voltages,‖ IEEE[6] V. G. Agelidis and G. Joos, ―On applying graph theory Trans. Power Del., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 225–233, Jan. 2006. toward a unified analysis of three-phase PWM inverter topologies,‖ in Proc. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., Seattle, WA, Jun. 1993, pp. 408–415. P. HEMA SUNDAR, pursuing M.Tech[7] J. Arrillaga, Y. H. Liu, and N. RWatson, Flexible Power in SASI institute of Technology and Transmission: The HVDC options. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, Engineering with the specialization 2007. Power Electronics. I completed my[8] G. Asplund, ―Application of HVDC light to power system under graduation in the stream of enhancement,‖in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Winter Electrical and Electronics Engineering in Meeting, Singapore, Jan. 2000, vol. 4, pp. 2498–2503. SASI institute of Technology and[9] P. N. Enjeti, P. D. Ziogas, and M. Ehsani, Engineering, Tadepalligudem, Andhra Pradesh. My areas of ―UnbalancedPWMconverter analysis and corrective measures,‖ in Proc. IEEE Industry Applications Soc. Annu. intrest are Power Electronic drive systems, Harmonic Meet., San Diego, CA, Oct. 1989, pp. 861–870. studies in power systems.[10] P. N. Enjeti and W. Shireen, ―A new technique to reject dc- link voltage ripple for inverters operating on programmedPWM waveforms,‖ IEEE Trans. Power ASWANI KUMAR EEDARA received Electron., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 171–180, Jan. 1992. the B.Tech. degree in Electrical and[11] J. Y. Lee and Y. Y. Sun, ―Adaptive harmonic control in Electronics Engineering from the JNTU PWM inverters with fluctuating input voltage,‖ IEEE Trans. college of Engineering Hyderabad, Ind. Electron., vol. IE-33, no. 1, pp. 92–98, Feb. 1986. India in 2005 and the M.E. degree in[12] S. Funabiki and Y. Sawada, ―Computative decision of pulse width in three-phase PWM inverter,‖ in Proc. IEEE Industry Power Systems from the University Applications Soc. Annu. Meet., Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 1988, College of Engineering Osmania university Hyderabad in pp. 694–699. 2008.He worked as Project Trainee at GE-consumer and[13] T. Kato, ―Precise PWM waveform analysis of inverter for Industrial Hyderabad for one year. He has been on the selected harmonic elimination,‖ in Proc. IEEE Industry faculty of SASI Institute of Technology and Engineering at Appl. Soc. Annu. Meeting, Piscataway, NJ, Sep. 1986, vol. 1, Tadepalligudem as an Assistant Professor in Department of pp. 611–616. Electrical and Electronics Engineering Since 2008.He has[14] B. P. McGrath and D. G. Holmes, ―A general analytical been working as Head of the Department of E.E.E. since method for calculating inverter dc-link current harmonics,‖ in Proc. IEEE Ind. Appl. Soc. Annu. Meeting, Edmonton, MAY 2012. He is member of IAENG .He has one AB, Canada, Oct. 2008, pp. 1–8. international journal publication. He is presently doing his[15] A. M. Cross, P. D. Evans, and A. J. Forsyth, ―DC link research in the area of Power Electronics applications in current in PWM inverters with unbalanced and nonlinear Power systems at JNTUK.His areas of interest are FACTS loads,‖ Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Elect. Power Appl., vol. 146, Controllers, Evolutionary algorithms, Modeling and no. 6, pp. 620–626, Nov. 1999. simulation of Power Electronics and Power Systems.[16] M. H. Bierhoff and F. W. Fuchs, ―DC-link harmonics of three-phase voltage-source converters influenced by the pulsewidth-modulation strategy—An analysis,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 2085–2092, May 2008. www.ijmer.com 1907 | P a g e