Oct. 31                                   IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012    Optimal State Assignment to Spare Cell inputs for...
Oct. 31                              IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012                                                     imple...
Oct. 31                               IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012Spare cells are redundant cells or extra cellsdistributed...
Oct. 31                                IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012                                                       a...
Oct. 31                             IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012                                                    multipl...
Oct. 31                                                IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012                                        ...
Oct. 31                                               IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012                                         ...
Oct. 31                                              IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012                                          ...
Oct. 31                              IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012                                                     with ...
Oct. 31                                      IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012                                                  ...
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Optimal State Assignment to Spare Cell inputs for Leakage Recovery

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Optimal State Assignment to Spare Cell inputs for Leakage Recovery

  1. 1. Oct. 31 IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012 Optimal State Assignment to Spare Cell inputs for Leakage Recovery Vasantha Kumar B.V.P N. S. Murthy Sharma K. Lal Kishore A. Rajakumari Synopsys (India) Pvt. Ltd BVCE College, Odalarevu, JNT University, Ananthapur, B.V.R.I.T, Narsapure, Hyderabad, India India, 533210. Hyderabad, India Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract— This work presents a novel models to minimize leakage power of spareleakage recovery method based on optimal cells. The proposed method was tested onstate assignment to spare cells in the standard cell based LVDS layout createdlayout during post placement stage of the using Synopsys SAED 32/28nm and otherphysical design flow. As the technology available Synopsys Design Ware 65nm,continues to shrinks, leakage power is 45nm, 40nm & 28nm standard cell libraries.growing at exponential rate due to the With the proposed method we couldaggressive scaling trends of channel observe 48% to 30% reduction in spare celllengths, gate oxide thickness, and doping leakage power and 3.8% to 0.7% reductionprofiles combined with an increasing in overall design leakage power.number of transistors packaged in a singlechip. For the high speed designs with multi Keywords-Spare Cells; State dependentthreshold libraries leakage recovery is the leakage power; Engineering Change Orderbiggest challenge apart from meeting (ECO);Constant Insertion; Libertytiming goals. There is a need for reducing Standard; Subthreshold Leackage Power;leakage power where ever possible in Power Recovery.various stages of the design flow. During I. INTRODUCTIONthe physical implementation stages VLSIdesigns often needs be corrected due to Minimization of power is one of the mostthe changes in specification or design rule important performance metrics in the design ofconstraints violations. This correction portable systems and wireless communicationprocess is called Engineering Change devices. On the other hand the demand forOrder (ECO). Spare cells are redundant greater integration, higher performance, andcells introduced in the layout during early lower dynamic power dissipation drives scalingphysical design stage whose inputs are of CMOS devices. In nanoscaled CMOStraditionally tied to Power (VDD) or Ground devices leakage currents have increased(VSS) and will be used during ECO dramatically leading to higher static powerchanges. However these spare or ECO dissipation. There are many leakage sources.cells in stand-by mode also contributes to a Among them the three major contributors aresignificant sub-threshold leakage power in gate oxide tunneling based leakage (~54.79lower technology nodes. In this paper we percent), subthreshold leakage (~44.5are proposing a method which involves percent), and Band-To-Band-Tunneling (BTBT)assigning optimal standby at every input of based leakage (~0.68 percent) for 45 nm Bulk-spare cell gate based on state dependent CMOS [1]. Other components of leakageleakage power tables available in library include Gate Induced Drain Leakage (GIDL), Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (DIBL), etc.,www.ijascse.in Page 1
  2. 2. Oct. 31 IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012 implementations is to meet timing with the lowest possible leakage. Various system and architectural strategies are available to reduce[2]. The magnitude of each leakage component overall power but there still remains thedepends on the process technology used. challenge of arriving at the optimal library cellHowever use of high-K dielectric gate helps mix for at-speed lowest power.reduce gate oxide leakage current. But, whenhigh-K dielectric is used, the channel mobility A. Multi-threshold libraries cellsdegrades leading to reduced performance.SiGe layer has been used to strain Si to Multi-threshold libraries are used to achieveovercome reduced carrier mobility to improve the optimal library cell mix for at-speed lowestperformance. This, however, causes an power design. These libraries are released withincrease in subthreshold and BTBT leakage multiple versions typically called as high Vtcurrent [3]. For 65nm and below scaled CMOS (HVT), standard Vt (SVT) and low Vt(LVT) cellsdevices the most important sources of leakage which are differentiated by gate length and/orare: subthreshold leakage, gate leakage, and gate implant thus providing a variety of trade-the reversed bias junction BTBT leakage. offs in performance versus leakage. SVT cellsSubthreshold current rises due to lowering of refers to the cell with standard threshold for thethreshold voltage which is scaled to maintain given process technology. The HVT cells refertransistor ON current on the face of falling to cells with higher threshold voltage than thepower supply voltage. Gate leakage current standard for that process technology. Similarly,density is increasing due to scaling of oxide the LVT cells are faster than SVT cells but thethickness resulting in rising tunneling current. leakage is also correspondingly high. TypicallyIn fact, gate leakage is expected to increase at in high speed CPU design, the percentage ofleast by 10 times for each of the future LVT cells from Synthesis netlist can be up togenerations [4]. 99% as the designs are first synthesized using LVT cells to meet speed target. Even inReverse-biased tunneling band-to-band physical design stage since performance targetleakage is increasing due to reduction in is most critical requirement designers put morejunction depletion width that is necessary to effort on timing optimization from placementcontain transistor short channel effects (SCE). through post routing optimization. HoweverIn previous CMOS technologies, dynamic power optimization during placement stages ispower easily wins over leakage power but as done optionally or incrementally if critical timingshown in Figure. 1, ITRS road map predicted can be met with small total negative slackthat this trend is coming to an end [5]. As (TNS). Final stage leakage power recovery istechnologies scales down, percentage of only done at ECO stages by swapping LVTleakage power to total power is gradually going cells with HVT cells on positive slack paths.up with every node as shown in Figure.2.Leakage is an unwanted byproduct and B. Spare (or) ECO Cells leakagesubstantially reduces the operational time ofthe devices thereby rendering such devices Design leakage is of particular importanceuncompetitive. It is, therefore, absolutely not only to data path combinational logics,necessary to eliminate leakage, wherever it is memory blocks and sequential elements butpossible. As leakage becomes increasingly also to standby circuit connections of ECO orsignificant in overall power consumption with spare cells. In this paper we are focusing onfeature size reduction, the goal of many standby leakage elimination in spare cells.www.ijascse.in Page 2
  3. 3. Oct. 31 IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012Spare cells are redundant cells or extra cellsdistributed in the design as backup cells toimplement any ECOs that may be required inthe design, at a later stage. Spare cells do notplay any active role in the IC operation. Butsome of these cells can be selectivelyconnected to the normally functioningelectronic components, during revising orrerouting process of IC. This process is oftenreferred to as an ECO, and the spare cells canbe alternatively referred to as ECO cells. Figure 1. ITRS road map showing static power surpassing dynamic powerBased on the performance of the design andswitching activity involved differentcombinations of HVT, SVT and LVT cells will 900be sprinkled in the design core as spare cells. 800Spare cell not only occupy more chip areas 700causing substantial impact on the profit but are Power Consumption[W] 600also responsible for the more leakage power 500[6]. The goal of the spare cell is to provide 400sufficient resources for ECO at every possible 300location so they are evenly distributed over the 200whole layout. Spare cells contribute to 5-20% 100of the total cell count in an IC [7]. As all the 0spare cells are not used by the additional 2011 2012 2014 2015 2016 2018 2019 2020 2023 2024 2013 2017 2021 2022 2025 2026design revisions, significant amount of power Switching Power, Logic Switching Power, Memoryleakage exists throughout the life time of the Leakage Power, Logic Leakage Power, Memory Figure 2. SYSD11 SOC Consumer Stationary Power Consumptionchip due to cells which are not the part of the Trends(from ITRS)logic. In traditional design flows unused sparecells inputs are connected to VDD and VSS by foundry. To demonstrate the leakagesupply rails, which is called constant insertion recovery form ECO cells we have showntechnique and they will draw static or leakage experimental results on LVDS design usingcurrent [8]. But this method of always tying Synopsys SAED 32/28nm library and otherinputs of spare cells to GND or VCC will not available Synopsys Design Ware 65nm, 45nm,ensure less leakage. 40nm & 28nm standard cell libraries [9, 10]. This paper is organized in to six sections. So, to address this issue we proposed an Section II talks about various ECO techniquesoptimal state assignment technique to spare along with prior work to reduce leakage powercell inputs to reduce their leakage power based in spare cells. Section III talks about stateon state dependent leakage table given dependent leakage power, Section IV talks about proposed method for reducing spare cells leakage, Section V talks about experimental results and Section VI conclusions.www.ijascse.in Page 3
  4. 4. Oct. 31 IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012 after the SoC is fabricated and issues are caught during its post silicon validation (i.e very late design change request). As, the mask II. SPARE CELL BASED ECO’S AND MOTIVATION generation cost for the base layers is multiple Design changes are inevitable and are times the mask generation cost for the metalincreasing in complexity due to rapid growth in layers so addition/deletion or movement of anyVery Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) design standard cell requires the base layer changesize. When these changes occur towards the hence any of such activity is avoided and someend of the design cycle, where the design has extra unused or redundant standard cells areconverged after significant efforts, it is added in the design for this purpose known asinfeasible to go through the top down design Spare Cells [12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Spareflow again. This demands a method called cells are the extra functional cells kept in theEngineering Change Order (ECO) to keep design for ECO. The number of spare cells andthese changes local to avoid any need to do their type depends on the design complexityre-synthesis of the whole design. Since the and functionality, but it is advisable to useECOs are done very close to tape out, these universal gates so that we can get most of theare time critical missions and any inefficiency functionality or from the design functionality.in implementation will directly impact the cost The most commonly useful type of spare cellsof the product. ECOs can be functional and are INV, BUF, NAND and NOR, while thenonfunctional. Functional ECOs deal with complex gates like XOR are rarely used [19].making logical changes to the design. The coreobjective of a functional ECO is to B. Prior Work and motivationaccommodate RTL changes without major There are some techniques developed toperturbation to the converged design. reduce leakage in the circuit level, likeNonfunctional ECOs deal with changes that programmable spare cells which will separateaffect signal integrity, Design Rule Verification power rail from cell structure proposed by(DRV) or routing. Anubhav Srivastava [6] and spare cell with two power supply rails proposed by Yung-Chin HouA. Implementing ECOs [20]. This approach involves altering design cells layout (or) creating new libraries which There are two types of functional ECO requires significant changes to traditional flows.flows during physical design flow. Also metal-configurable-gate-array spare cellUnconstrained ECO (Non-Freeze Silicon ECO) ECO flows are becoming popular in recentflow and Freeze silicon ECO flow [11]. technologies which needs gate array cellsUnconstrained ECO flow is used if the design library provided by library vendor separatelyhas not been taped out yet or before the mask [21]. During the re-spin these cells can bepreparations of the chip. In this flow there is programmed by metal mask changes for ECOflexibility of addition/deletion of standard cells implementation, thus reducing mask cost.while doing the change. These changes are These above mentioned methods are notfirst implemented logically with any type or flexible for re-spin designs and methodologiesnumber of standard cells and then these cells like gate array eco requires new libraries withare placed and routed incrementally as part of entirely different flows. Engineering changephysical implementation. This do not impact order (ECO) is a highly constrained designthe mask cost for the SoC as all the masks are optimization based on an existing design withprepared after database is sent to Fab and no tight design schedules due to time to marketspare cells are required in the design. Freeze consideration [22]. Because of these reasonssilicon ECO flow is used if cell placement is designers do not tend to change their designfixed or the changes are required to be donewww.ijascse.in Page 4
  5. 5. Oct. 31 IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012 multiplied with its probability. (Here the probability refers to the chances that the net "A" and "B" would be in such a state that theflows quickly to adopt these new flows which Boolean condition is satisfied). So the totalinvolves process changes. Also most of the re- leakage power would be the summation of allspin designs with uses spare cell methodology these "when" conditions multiplied with theirfor ECOs also require a smart of way of probability. This can be formulated as shownreducing spare cell leakages with minimum below:changes to lower metals. So there is a need fora smart approach with very minimum changes Pr(when1)*Val1 + Pr(when2)*Val2 + [1 - Pr(when1) - Pr(when2)]*Total_Val (1)to existing design flows to address spare cellleakage. Pr (when1), Indicates the probability that the III. STATE DEPENDENT LEAKAGE POWER first condition will occur (i.e. "! A*B" will be true). Pr(when2), Indicates the probability that The CMOS gates leakage power the second condition will occur (i.e"A*!B" will beconsumption would depend on the different true). The signal probability values Pr(A),states taken by the inputs of the gates [23]. Pr(B), and so on will be obtained from the netThis is referred as state dependent leakage switching activity file provided as the input topower consumption of the CMOS gates. For a the EDA tools. General formula for calculationgate which has “n” inputs, there can be 2n of state dependent leakage power can bestates for which the leakage power given as follows:consumption is found using the simulationmodels of the circuit and is stored in a format Pr(when1)*Val1+Pr(when2)*Val2+…which can used by the EDA tools to estimate Pr(when2n)*Val2n+[1-Pr(when1)-Pr(when2)-the state dependent leakage power of those …Pr(when2n)]*Total_Val (2)gates. Every cell would contribute to the state Where “n” stands for the no of inputs of the gate anddependent leakage power including the sparecells in the design. The silicon vendor models Total_Val= cell_leakage_power (3)these state dependent leakage tables in theform of .lib (liberty) format [24]. Below is anexample of state dependent leakage values IV. PROPOSED METHODspecified in .lib for AND gate: For illustration let’s assume that the AND cell_leakage_power : 1.0 ; gate in above example .lib is a spare cell. This leakage_power() { when : "!A B" ; gate can have 4 different combinations (C1, value : 1.5 ; C2, C3 and C4) of the A and B and hence four } different state dependent leakage power leakage_power() { values. If the state dependent leakage power when : "A !B" ; table of this AND gate would be summarized value : 2.0 ; } as shown in Table 1. As per the traditional approach, if A and B inputs of the AND gate The EDA tools will calculate the total are tied to ground, C4 would be evaluated toleakage power consumption using above be true and the leakage value would be V4 aspower models for leakage power optimization per the table and the probability of occurrenceof functional paths. In the above power model of other conditions C1, C2 and C3 will be zero.example there are two "when" conditions; each Now from equation (2) Pr(C1), Pr(C2), Pr(C3) is"when" condition will be evaluated and zero as A and B of the AND gate is tied towww.ijascse.in Page 5
  6. 6. Oct. 31 IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012 Vds2=(nkT/q(1+2+))*ln((A1/A2)eqVdd/nkT+1) (8) Vds(i)=(nkT/q(1+2+))*ln(1+(Ai-1/Ai)(1-eqVds(i-1)/nkT)) (9)ground and it’s leakage power can be givenas: Vdd is the power supply voltage. Vg, Vd, and Psdlp of AND gate =Pr(whenC4)*V4 =1*V4= V4 (4) Vs are the gate voltage, drain voltage, and source voltage of the CMOS transistorPr(whenC4) = 1 as the inputs are tied to respectively. The bulk is connected to ground.ground and hence when this condition will be Vth is the zero bias threshold voltage.  is theevaluated to be true. But the leakage value V4 body effect coefficient.  is the DIBLmay not be the lowest value of power in the coefficient, representing the effect of Vdstable. This is the problem with the traditional (Vds=Vd-Vs) on threshold voltage. C’ox is theapproach of connecting all spare cell inputs to gate oxide capacitance. 0 is the zero biasground. So we propose a state dependent mobility. n is the subthreshold swing coefficientleakage optimization method to idle spare cells of the transistor. Considering the stackingwhere we assign a optimal state to inputs effect equation (8) shows Vds2 in terms of Vddwhich will guarantee lowest possible leakage. and equation (9) shows Vds(i) in terms of Vds(i-In the proposed algorithm or flow we would be 1) by equating the currents.finding out the minimum leakage value Vmin forthe spare gate and find the corresponding input TABLE I. STATE DEPENDENT LEAKAGE POWER OF 2-INPUT AND GATEcondition Cmin from .lib models and tie the When Condition Leakage Power Valuespare cell inputs based on this condition. If aspare master gate say “spareN” has n input C1(A, B) V1pins, then there can be 2n when conditions orstates in the power model table and 2n values C2(A!, B) V2of the leakage power values. So the minimumstate dependent leakage power of the spare C3(A, B!) V3master as per the proposed flow would be: P[minsdlp,spareN] = Pr(whenCmin) * Vmin (5) C4(A! B!) V4As the inputs of the spare master “spareN” aretied to always evaluate condition Cmin,P[minsdlp,spareN] = Vmin for the spare master A. Problem formation and algorithm“spareN”. If there are “m” instances of this Now our problem is defined as follows:spare master “spareN” in the design then as Given a set of placed spare cell instances in aper the proposed flow the total minimum layout, our objective is to find the optimal stateleakage power consumption would be: which gives minimum leakage value form state Total P[sdlp,spareN] = m * P[minsdlp,spareN] (6) dependent leakage power table of the corresponding .lib (liberty) files and tie themThe total standby power in equation (6) can be accordingly to their inputs. Our algorithmrepresented by model proposed in [25] as SDLPT_Based_Sparecell_Connection_Algorithfollows. m is shown in Figure 3. This proposed algorithm is written using tcl in order to be usedIsub=Aeq(Vg-Vs-Vth-Vs+Vds)/nkT (1-e-qVds/kT) (7) in placement or post routing stages of physical design flow. The physical implementation flow where A=0C’ox(W/Leff)(kT/q)2e1.8 for the proposed method is shown in Figure 4.www.ijascse.in Page 6
  7. 7. Oct. 31 IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012 V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Our algorithm was used to tie the spare cells inputs with optimal state which promises low standby leakage on Low Voltage Differential Signalling (LVDS) design. We have usedFigure 3. SDLPT_Based_Sparecell_Connection_Algorithm TABLE II. LEAKAGE RECOVERY IN LVDS DESING IMPLEMENTED USING HVT CELLS ACROSS VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES WITH PROPOSED METHOD % of % of % Spare Cell Spare Cell Spare Cell % Spare Cell Spare Reduction Total Overall Leakage Leakage in Leakage Reduction Leakage in Technology Cells in the S.No Cell Design with Design with in Spare Design (HVT cells) Count overall Count Leakage Traditional with Proposed Cells with (%) Design Flow Traditional Flow Leakage proposed leakage Flow Flow 1 65nm 291 30(10.3) 23.454nW 1.051nW 4.48111 691.515pW 34.20409 2.99428 -1.48111 2 45nm 382 30(7.8) 6.508uW 325.125nW 4.99577 250.049nW 23.09143 3.88702 -1.09577 3 40nm 547 50(9.1) 192.856nW 8.518nW 4.41677 6.987nW 17.9737 3.6519 -0.71677 4 32nm 372 30(8.0) 26.196uW 878.018nW 3.35173 793.798nW 9.59206 3.04 -0.35173 5 28nm 608 50(7.3) 4.376uW 85.092nW 1.94452 54.222nW 36.27838 1.24788 -0.74452 TABLE III. LEAKAGE RECOVERY IN LVDS DESING IMPLEMENTED USING SVT CELLS ACROSS VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES WITH PROPOSED METHOD % of % of % Spare Cell Spare Cell Spare Cell % Spare Cell Spare Reduction Total Overall Leakage Leakage in Leakage Reduction Leakage in Technology Cells in the S.No Cell Design with Design with in Spare Design (SVT cells) Count overall Count Leakage Traditional with Proposed Cells with (%) Design Flow Traditional Flow Leakage proposed leakage Flow Flow 1 65nm 289 30(10.3) 305.601nW 15.953nW 5.22021 10.597nW 33.57362 3.52945 -1.72021 2 45nm 383 30(7.8) 21.488uW 1.096uW 5.10052 774.427nW 29.3406 3.65875 -1.40052 3 40nm 546 50(9.1) 1.191uW 49.799nW 4.18128 36.356nW 26.99452 3.08741 -1.08128 4 32nm 378 30(7.9) 87.164uW 3.694uW 4.23799 3.332uW 9.79968 3.83862 -0.43799 5 28nm 553 50(9.0) 35.303uW 789.896nW 2.23748 406.740nW 48.50715 1.16478 -1.03748 TABLE IV. LEAKAGE RECOVERY IN LVDS DESING IMPLEMENTED USING LVT CELLS ACROSS VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES WITH PROPOSED METHODwww.ijascse.in Page 7
  8. 8. Oct. 31 IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012 % of % of % Spare Cell Spare Cell Spare Cell % Spare Cell Spare Reduction Total Overall Leakage Leakage in Leakage Reduction Leakage in Technology Cells in the S.No Cell Design with Design with in Spare Design (LVT cells) Count overall Count Leakage Traditional with Proposed Cells with (%) Design Flow Traditional Flow Leakage proposed leakage Flow Flow 1 65nm 290 30(10.3) 1.204uW 61.769nW 5.13032 40.283nW 34.78444 3.40656 -1.73032 2 45nm 383 30(7.8) 47.422uW 2.145uW 4.52322 1.510uW 29.60373 3.22739 -1.32322 3 40nm 407 50(12) 2.970uW 224.308nW 7.55246 151.559nW 32.43264 5.23113 -2.35246 4 32nm 340 30(8.8) 578.984uW 31.447uW 5.43141 22.198uW 29.41139 3.8962 -1.53141 5 28nm 560 50(8.9) 123.511uW 2.729uW 2.20952 1.483uW 45.65775 1.21294 -1.00952TABLE V. LEAKAGE RECOVERY IN LVDS DESING IMPLEMENTED USING OPTIMIAL LIBRARY CELL MIX FOR AT-SPEED LOWEST POWER WITH PROPOSED METHOD % of % of % Technology Spare Cell Spare Cell Spare Cell % Spare Cell Reduction Node Total Spare Overall Leakage Leakage in Leakage Reduction Leakage in in the S.No (Mix of Cell Cells Design with Design with in Spare Design overall HVT, SVT Count Count Leakage Traditional with Proposed Cells with Design & LVT %) Flow Traditional Flow Leakage proposed leakage Flow Flow 1 65nm 298 30(10.0) 50.242nW 6.018nW 11.97803 3.993nW 33.64905 8.28131 -3.69672 2 45nm 385 30(7.7) 6.161uW 931.709nW 15.12269 669.898nW 28.10008 11.35576 -3.76693 3 40nm 493 50(10.1) 586.520nW 68.188nW 11.62586 47.649nW 30.12114 8.41883 -3.20703 4 32nm 417 30(7.1) 30.655uW 1.817uW 5.92725 1.640uW 9.74133 5.38093 -0.54632 5 28nm 540 50(7.3) 59.705uW 895.802nW 1.50038 481.001nW 46.30499 0.81127 -0.68911 design suits. First 15 sets of layouts as shown in Table-II, Table-III & Table-IV are implemented for each threshold (VT) cells across all mentioned technology libraries separately to observe the leakage variation. The second set of 5 layouts as shown in Table- V are created using all combinations of HVT, SVT & LVT cells to demonstrate real design scenario with optimal library cell mix for at- speed lowest power design. After synthesis we have done the floorplan, placement and placement optimizations using Synopsys IC Compiler®. At this point we inserted various spare cells into the layout and sprinkled them Figure 4. Proposed Leakage Minimization Flow evenly across the layout. We have inserted 7Synopsys SAED 32nm Multi-threshold library to 12% of total design cells as spare cells inand 65nm, 45nm, 40nm & 28nm Synopsys these layouts. Figure 5 shows the spare cellsDesign Ware Multi-threshold libraries distribution in LVDS design which areconsisting of HVT, SVT & LVT cells. For this highlighted in white throughout the layout. Wewe carried out synthesis on LVDS RTL using have selected spare cells based onthese technology logical libraries using conclusions made in [9] with majority of INV,Synopsys’s Design Compiler® to get gate level BUF, NAND, OR and few NOR gates. We havenetlist. We have implemented for sets of also included few scanable flops per eachwww.ijascse.in Page 8
  9. 9. Oct. 31 IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012 with proposed flow and it is consistent across different VT cells. This results in 1.7 to 0.7% of overall designs leakage recovery which is veryclock group. In the second set of layouts in significant for any handheld device chip. TheTable-II the combination of HVT, SVT & LVT results from Table-III shows real designcells are maintained as per the timing scenario with mix of different VT cells showsrequirements and number of LVT spare cells an overall designs leakage recovery of 3.7% toare restricted up to 20% of total spare cells. 0.7% with proposed spare cell connections.Only for 28nm technology 14% LVT cells and Also with the recent enhancements in routing67% of SVT cells are used during synthesis for technology to handle special power cells combmeeting timing. For the remaining technologies routing of spare cells as per proposed methodLVT cells percentage is restricted to below 2% is not an issue. The input connections made byand SVT cell to below 30% of total design cells the tool during the routing as per the proposedcount. HVT cells are used to primarily to optimal inputs states for the spare cells ORreduce the leakage power by maintain design and XNOR in SAED 32nm layout is shown intime and total negative slack (TNS). At this Figure 6.point we have made two copies of theselayouts in each design directory fordemonstrating variation in overall designleakage due to spare cells when they areconnected in traditional (constant insertionmethod) versus proposed methods. Afterspreading spare or ECO cells in to the layout atplacement stage we have used our tcl basedalgorithm to assign optimal states derived fromstate dependent leakage tables to the input ofspare cells. Similarly other set of layout sparecell inputs are connect to ground (VSS). After Figure 5. Spare Cells Distribution across the layout in LVDS designthis we proceeded to clock tree synthesis andfinished routing and routing optimizations usingIC Compiler® on all layouts. For thisimplementation starting form Synthesis wehave used fast process, high temperature andhigh voltage corner which is the worst casePVT corner for leakage where the leakagevalues trend will as expected and withoutleakage inversion. Now finally at this point toanalyze the leakage power of the design andspare cells contribution toward designsleakage in all layouts we have usedSynopsys’s PrimeTime-PX® signoff poweranalysis tool. The result in Table-II shows the Figure 6. Spare Cells OR and XNOR connections after routingcomparison between the spare cell leakagepower numbers between traditional andproposed flows and their contributions to VI. CONCLUSIONSoverall design leakage. Nearly 48% to 30% of In this paper we proposed a new stateleakage recovery in spare cells is observed dependent leakage tables based connectionswww.ijascse.in Page 9
  10. 10. Oct. 31 IJASCSE Vol 1 Issue 3, 2012 future", IEEE International Conference on Microelectronic Systems Education, 2009, pp. 20- 24 [10] Goldman R., Bartleson K., Wood T., Kranen K., Cao C., Melikyan V., "Synopsys Interoperable Processto ideal spare cell inputs which ensures Design Kit", European Workshop onminimum leakage power when compared to Microelectronics Education, 2010traditional constant insertion method where all [11] State Dependent Leakage Power Calculation [Online]. Available: https://solvnet.synopsys.cominputs will be tied to power or ground. The [12] Kuan-Hsien Ho, Yen-Pin Chen, Jia-Wei Fang, Yao-method of using state dependent leakage Wen Chang, “ECO timing optimization using spare cells and technology remapping”. IEEE TCAD, vol.tables to compute standard cells leakage has 29, no. 5, pp. 697-710, May 2010.been explored much earlier. However its [13] Shao-Yun Fang, Tzuo-Fan Chien, Yao-Wen Chang, “ Redundant-wires-aware ECO timing and mask-costapplication to spare cells is new. The proposed optimization” In Proc. ICCAD, pp. 381-386,Nov.method was tested on post placed layouts 2010.using 65nm and below technologies and [14] Kuan-Hsien Ho, Jiang, J.-H.R., Yao-Wen Chang, “TRECO: dynamic technology remapping for timingresults after routing shows that there is a huge engineering change orders”, In Proc. ASP-DAC pp.reduction of 48 to 30 percent standby leakage 331-336, Jan. 2010. [15] Yu-Min Kuo, Ya-Ting Chang, Shih-Chieh Chang,power of spare cells and 1.7 to 0.7% reduction Marek-Sadovvska, M, “Engineering change usingin total standby leakage of IC. The proposed spare cells with constant insertion”. In Proc. ICCAD, pp. 544-547, Nov.2007.method can be easily adapted to new or re- [16] N. Modi and M. 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