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  1. 1. SIX WEEKS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT On “CCNA” In partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and communication Engineering AT “NETMAX TECHNOLOGIES PATIALA” Submitted to Guided by Submitted byMr. Barinder Singh DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING RIMT-INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY MANDI GOBINDGARH-147301 Page | 1
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWhile presenting this report I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to entireNETMAX staff that were indispensable part of my training giving me unending guidance,inspiration, encouragement and providing me excellent environment throughout my training atNETMAX TECHNOLOGIES. The training was an extremely productive & enrichingexperience, not only technically but also from providing some practical skills.I am extremely thankful to Mr.Barinder Singh who had devoted a lot of time in guiding andsupervising me during my training.I must place my gratitude towards Prof. Rajneesh Talwar (H.O.D. of E.C.E. Dept.) for theirvaluable advice and guidance in carrying out this enjoyable and productive experience, whichprovided me a great opportunity to search new horizons. Ashima Malhotra Page | 2
  3. 3. PREFACETechnology has rapidly grown in past two-three decades. An engineer without practicalknowledge and skills cannot survive in this technical era. Theoretical knowledge does matter butit is the practical knowledge that is the difference between the best and the better. Organizationsalso prefer experienced engineers than fresher ones due to practical knowledge and industrialexposure of the former. The practical training is highly conductive for solid foundation for:- 1. Knowledge and personality 2. Exposure to industrial environment. 3. Confidence building. 4. Enhancement of creativity. Page | 3
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION NETMAX TECHNOLOGIES, SCO 52, 2ND FLOOR LEELA BHAWAN PATIALA .COMPANY PROFILENETMAX TECHNOLOGIES as an organization is established in 2001 in the field of NetworkSupport, Network training, Software training and Embedded systems.In Education, we have strategic alliance with Pearson VUE and Prometric. We are authorizedTesting Partner of REDHAT & CISCO. We are also NOVELL EDUCATION PARTNER withwhich we provide NOVELL and SUSE LINUX courses. NetMax Technologies also conductcourses in CADENCE based design tools.NETMAX TECHNOLOGIES also provide Technical Research & Development support andconsultancy to some electronics companies.Our clients for R&D support in field of embedded systems:  Recorders and Medicare Ltd Chandigarh.  TELEBOX India Ltd.  Lotus Machines Pvt. Ltd. Chandigarh.  Impearl Electronics Pvt. Ltd. Chandigarh.  KANTA Electrical Ltd. Mohali.The partial list of our client for network field is as below:  CEDTI, Mohali  Premier ISP, Chandigarh  Innovative solutions, Chandigarh  Emmtel ISP, Chandigarh  NIPER, Mohali  Navik Technologies, Chandigarh  Software Technology Parks India, Mohali  Glide Internet Services  Rana Group  IDS  HFCL Infotel Ltd.  Targus Technologies Pvt Ltd  STPI, Mohali  BBMB  The Tribune Page | 5
  6. 6.  Ind SwiftOUR TEAMWe are a strong technical team of certified professionals for catering to these solutions and havepresence in Chandigarh and Punjab. We have skilled team of engineers who are experienced indesign, programming. We are having more than 15 engineers who are having prestigiouscertifications like CCNA, CCNP, CCSP, CCSA, MCSE, RHCE,C++,C,JAVA & PhP, MySqlProgramming.Support Area (network solutions):  LINUX / UNIX networks  SUN networks  CISCO devices (Routers, Switches, Firewalls, Cache Engine, RAS etc)  Bandwidth Manager software and hardware  Radio Links  Security Solutions NETMAX TECHNOLOGIES provide the following Courses in IT & Embedded Systems givenbelow:Network Training:  CISCO CCNA, CCNP  RED HAT LINUX 5  WINDOWS 2000, 2003 (MCP,MCSA & MCSE)  MCITP 2008.Software Training:  C++  C  JAVA ( CORE JAVA & ADVANCE JAVA)  ASP.NET  PHP My sql Programming. We provide Technical support and consultancy to electronics companies in the fieldof Embedded micro controllers like 8 bit and 16 bit family based embedded system design,analog systems design(including signal conditioning circuits, filter design, etc) ,precision signalamplifier design for applications like ECG, low power design, precision temperaturemeasurement etc .Power electronics including dc/dc converters, ac/dc converters,thyristor firingbased circuit, battery charging and monitor circuits etc. Application of Embedded systems andanalog control systems in industrial as well as home automation.Our core strengths are our commitment, technical expertise and cost effective solutions.We ensure high service levels and prompt support availability leading to lower downtime. Page | 6
  7. 7. NETMAX TECHNOLOGIES is a leader in education services and developer of innovativeembedded solutions. To meet the demands of Post PC era, NeTmax provides complete solutionsas well as design-to-order services to satisfy our customers.NETMAX TECHNOLOGIES:  BARINDER SINGH, 9914713373  HARPREET SINGH, 9814900118HEAD OFFICE:NETMAX TECHNOLOGIES, SCO 58-59, Sector 34A, Chandigarh.0172-4644644Branch Office:NETMAX TECHNOLOGIES, SCO 52 2ND FLOOR LEELA BHAWAN PATIALA.0175- 5018351,9914713373, 9814900118. Page | 7
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION TO CCNAWhat is Network?In one network more than one computer connected with each other through centralized device.They can share files and resources with each other.LANLAN stands for Local Area Network. The scope of the LAN is within one building, one schoolor within one lab. In LAN (Hub), media access method is used CSMA/CD in which eachcomputer sense the carrier before sending the data over the n/w. if carrier is free then you cantransmit otherwise you have to wait or you have to listen. In multiple access each computer haveright that they can access each other. If two computers sense the carrier on same time then thecollision occur. Each computer, in the network, aware about the collision. Now this stoptransmitting and they will use back off algorithm. In which random number is generated. Thisnumber or algorithm is used by each computer. Who has short number or small number, he hasfirst priority to transmit the data over the network and other computers will wait for their turn.WANWAN stands for Wide Area Network, in which two local area networks are connected throughpublic n/w. it may be through telecommunication infrastructure or dedicated lines. For e.g: -ISDN lines, Leased lines etc.In which we can use WAN devices and WAN technology. You can also connect with yourremote area through existing Internetwork called Internet.DevicesHubHub is centralized device, which is used to connect multiple workstations. There are two types ofHub: -(i) Active Hub(ii) Passive Hubit has no special kind of memory. It simply receives the frame (data) and forwards it to all itsnodes except the receiving node. It always performs broadcasting. In case of hub, there is onecollision domain and one broadcast domain. In case of hub, the media access method is usedCSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection).(i) Active Hub In Active hub, it receives the frame regenerate and then forward to all its nodes. Page | 8
  9. 9. (ii) Passive Hub In Passive hub, it simply receives the frame and forward to all its connected nodes.You cannot perform LAN segmentation using hub.SwitchSwitch is also used to connect multiple workstations. Switch is more intelligent than hub. It hasspecial kind of memory called mac address/filter/lookup table. Switch reads mac addresses.Switch stores mac addresses in its filter address table. Switch when receives frame, it reads thedestination mac address and consult with its filter table. If he has entry in its filter table then heforwards the frame to that particular mac address, if not found then it performs broadcasting toall its connected nodes. Every port has its own buffer memory. A port has two queues one is input queue andsecond is output queue. When switch receives the frame, the frame is received in input queue andforward from output queue. So in case of switch there is no chance or place for collisions. In caseof switch, the media access method is used CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ CollisionAvoidance). Switches provide more efficiency, more speed and security.There are two types of switches: -(i) Manageable switches (can be configured with console cable).(ii) Non-manageable switches.We can perform LAN segmentation by using switches.BridgeBridge is a hardware device, which is used to provide LAN segmentation means it is used forbreak the collision domain. It has same functionality as performed by switch. We can use bridgebetween two different topologies. It has fewer ports. Each port has a own buffer memory. Itworks on Data Link Layer of OSI model. It also read mac address and stores it in its filter table.In case of bridge there is one broadcast domain.RouterRouter is hardware device, which is used to communicate two different networks. Routerperforms routing and path determination. It does not perform broadcast information. There aretwo types of routers: -(i) Hardware Routers are developed by Cisco, HP.(ii) Software Routers is configured with the help of routing and remote access. This feature isoffered by Microsoft. This feature is by default installed, but you have to enable or configure it.Hardware routers are dedicated routers. They are more efficient.But in case of software routers, it has less features, slow performance. They are not very muchefficient. Page | 9
  10. 10. Lan CardLan card is media access device. Lan card provide us connectivity in the network. There is aRJ45 (Registered Jack) connector space on the Lan card. RJ45 is used in UTP cable. There isanother led which is also called heartbeat of Lan card. When any activity occur it may bereceiving or transmitting any kind of data. This led start blinking and also tell us the status of lancard.LAN TopologiesBUS TopologyCable Type – CoaxialConnector Type – BNC (Bayonet Neill-Concelman), T type, TerminatorCoaxial – Thick Maximum length – 500 meters N/w devices 100Coaxial – Thin Maximum length – 185 meters N/w devices 30 Page | 10
  11. 11. Star TopologyCable type - UTPConnector type - RJ45Maximum Length – 100 meters (with proper color coding)UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)STP (Shielded Twisted Pair)In case of hub media access method will be CSMA/CD. Page | 11
  12. 12. Ring TopologyCable - UTPThere is token ring method used, so there is no collision chance.Ethernet FamilySpeed Base band10 Base 2 200-meter Coaxial cable10 Base 5 500-meter Thick Coaxial cable10 Base T 100 meter Twisted Pair (UTP)10/100(present) Base TX 100 meter UTP100 Base T4 100 meter UTP 4 Pairs used100 Base FX up to 4 kms Fiber Optic1000(Server) Base TX 100 meter UTP1000 Base FX up to 10 kms Fiber Optic10000 Base FX Fiber OpticColorGreen – Green whiteOrange – Orange whiteBlue – Blue whiteBrown – Brown whiteGreen cable has maximum twists. Page | 12
  13. 13. Pin Configuration Cross Straight1 3 1 12 6 2 23 1 3 36 2 6 6Straight Cable1 Orange white - Orange white2 Orange - Orange3 Green white - Green white4 Blue - Blue5 Blue white - Blue white6 Green - Green7 Brown white - Brown white8 Brown - Brown Cross Cable1 Orange white - Green white2 Orange - Green3 Green white - Orange white4 Blue - Blue5 Blue white - Blue white6 Green - Orange7 Brown white - Brown white8 Brown - Brown Page | 13
  14. 14. RJ45 ConnectorOSI (Open Systems Interconnection) ModelOSI model is the layer approach to design, develop and implement network. OSI providesfollowing advantages: - (i) Designing of network will be standard base. (ii) Development of new technology will be faster. (iii) Devices from multiple vendors can communicate with each other. (iv) Implementation and troubleshooting of network will be easy. (1) Application Layer: - Application layer accepts data and forward into the protocol stack. It creates user interface between application software and protocol stack. (2) Presentation Layer: - This layer decides presentation format of the data. It also able to performs other function like compression/decompression and encryption/decryption. (3) Session Layer: - This layer initiate, maintain and terminate sessions between different applications. Due to this layer multiple application software can be executed at the same time. (4) Transport Layer: - Transport layer is responsible for connection oriented and connection less communication. Transport layer also performs other functions like a. Error checking b. Flow Control Buffering Windowing Multiplexing c. Sequencing d. Positive Acknowledgement e. Response Page | 14
  15. 15. (5) Network Layer This layer performs function like logical addressing and path determination. Each networking device has a physical address that is MAC address. But logical addressing is easier to communicate on large size network. Logical addressing defines network address and host address. This type of addressing is used to simplify implementation of large network. Some examples of logical addressing are: - IP addresses, IPX addresses etc. (6) Data Link Layer The functions of Data Link layer are divided into two sub layers a. Logical Link Control b. Media Access Control (i) Logical Link Control defines the encapsulation that will be used by the NIC to delivered data to destination. Some examples of Logical Link Control are ARPA (Ethernet), 802.11 wi-fi. (ii) Media Access Control defines methods to access the shared media and establish the identity with the help of MAC address. Some examples of Media Access Control are CSMA/CD, Token Passing. (7) Physical Layer Physical Layer is responsible to communicate bits over the media this layer deals with the standard defined for media and signals. This layer may also perform modulation and demodulation as required.Router Architecture Page | 15
  16. 16. LAN Processor I/O Controlle WAN r Memory Controller RAM BIOS ROM Flash RAM Incomplete O/S IOS IOS NVRAMStartup Configuration Non-Volatile RAMRouter Access ModesWhen we access router command prompt the router will display different modes. According tothe modes, privileges and rights are assigned to the user.User mode Page | 16
  17. 17. In this mode, we can display basic parameter and status of the router we can test connectivity andperform telnet to other devices. In this mode we are not enable to manage & configure router.Privileged modeIn this mode, we can display all information, configuration, perform administration task,debugging, testing and connectivity with other devices. We are not able to perform hereconfiguration editing of the router. The command to enter in this mode is ‘enable’. We have to enter enable passwordor enable secret password to enter in this mode. Enable secret has more priority than enablepassword. If both passwords are configured then only enable secret will work.Global configurationThis mode is used for the configuration of global parameters in the router. Global parametersapplied to the entire router.For e.g: - router hostname or access list of routerThe command enter in this mode is ‘configure terminal’.Line configuration modeThis mode is used to configure lines like console, vty and auxiliary. There are main types of linethat are configured.(i) Console router(config)#line console 0(ii) Auxiliary router(config)#line aux 0(iii) Telnet or vty router(config)#line vty 0 4Interface configuration modeThis mode is used to configure router interfaces. For e.g:- Ethernet, Serial, BRI etc.Router(config)#interface <type> <number>Router(config)#interface serial 1Routing configuration modeThis mode is used to configure routing protocol like RIP, EIGRP, OSPF etc. Page | 17
  18. 18. Router(config)#router <protocol> [<option>]Router(config)#router ripRouter(config)#router eigrp 10Configuring PasswordThere are five types of password available in a router(1) Console Password router#configure terminal router(config)#line console 0 router(config-line)#password <word> router(config-line)#login router(config-line)#exitto erase password do all steps with no command.(2) Vty Passwordrouter>enablerouter#configure terminalrouter(config)#line vty 0 4router(config-line)#password <word>router(config-line)#loginrouter(config-line)#exit(3) Auxiliary Passwordrouter#configure terminalrouter(config)#line Aux 0router(config-line)#password <word>router(config-line)#loginrouter(config-line)#exit(4) Enable Passwordrouter>enablerouter#configure terminalrouter(config)#enable password <word>router(config)#exit(5) Enable Secret PasswordEnable Password is the clear text password.Router>enableRouter#configure terminalRouter(config)#enable secret <word>Router(config)#exit Page | 18
  19. 19. Encryption all passwordsAll passwords other than enable secret password are clear text password. We can encrypt allpasswords using level 7 algorithm. The command to encrypt all password areRouter#configure terminalRouter(config)#service password-encryptionManaging ConfigurationThere are two types of configuration present in a router(1) Startup Configuration(2) Running Configuration(1) Startup configuration is stored in the NVRAM. Startup configuration is used to save settingsin a router. Startup configuration is loaded at the time of booting in to the Primary RAM.(2) Running Configuration is present in the Primary RAM wherever we run a command forconfiguration, this command is written in the running configuration.To save configurationRouter#copy running-configuration startup-configurationOrRouter#writeTo display running-configurationRouter#show running-configurationTo display startup configurationRouter#show startup-configurationTo erase old configurationRouter#erase startup-configurationConfiguring HostNameRouter#configure terminalRouter#hostname <name><name>#exit or end or /zConfiguration Interfaces Page | 19
  20. 20. Interfaces configuration is one of the most important part of the router configuration. By default,all interfaces of Cisco router are in disabled mode. We have to use different commands as ourrequirement to enable and configure the interface.Configuring IP, Mask and Enabling the InterfaceRouter#configure terminalRouter(config)#interface <type> <no>Router(config-if)#ip address <ip> <mask>Router(config-if)#no shutdownRouter(config-if)#exitTo configure Interface descriptionRouter#configure terminalRouter(config)#interface <type> <no>Router(config-if)#description <line>To display interface statusRouter#show interfaces (to show all interfaces)Router#show interface <type> <no>This command will display following parameters about an interface 1) Status 2) Mac address 3) IP address 4) Subnet mask 5) Hardware type / manufacturer 6) Bandwidth 7) Reliability 8) Delay 9) Load ( Tx load Rx load) 10) Encapsulation 11) ARP type (if applicable) 12) Keep aliveConfiguring secondary IPRouter#config terminalRouter(config)#interface <type> <no>Router(config-if)#IP address address secondaryRouter(config-if)#no shutdown (to enable the interface because they always shutdown) Page | 20
  21. 21. Router(config-if)#exitRouter#show run (to display secondary IP)To display commands present in historyRouter#show historyTo display history sizeRouter#show terminalConfiguring BannersBanners are just a message that can appear at different prompts according to the type. Differentbanners are: -Message of the day (motd)This banner appear at every access method IP Address v4IP address is a 32-bit address. It is divided into four octets. Each octet has 8 bits. It has two partsone is network address and second is host address. in local area network, we can used private IPaddress, which is provided by IANA (Internet Assigning Numbering Authority). IP addresses aredivided into five classes. Page | 21
  22. 22. Class Range N/w bits Host bits Subnet mask Total IP Valid IPA 1 – 126 8 24 16777216 16777214B 128 – 191 16 16 65536 65534C 192 – 223 24 8 256 254D 224 – 239 it is reserved for multicast.E 240 – 255 it is reserved for research/scientific use.We can use first three classes. IANA provides private IP addresses from first three classes.Class Private IP RangeA – – – MaskSubnet mask is also 32-bit address, which tell us how many bits are used for network and howmany bits are used for host address.In Subnet mask Network bits are always 1 and Host bits are always 0.IP Addresses invalid or reserve IP AddressesWhen we are going to assign IP addresses to our computers then we have to follow some rules.Rules: -(1) All Host bits cannot be 0 (, because it represent network address which is reservedfor router.(2) All Host bits cannot be 1 (, because this is broadcast address of that network(10th network).(3) All bits cannot be 0 (, because this address is reserved for Default routing. Defaultrouting is used in case of Stub n/w (means our network has one exit point).(4) All bits cannot be 1 (, because this is reserved for Broadcasting.(5) - This is Loopback address, which is used for self-communication ortroubleshooting purpose.C:>ipconfigC:>ipconfig/all Page | 22
  23. 23. It shows all detail. IP RoutingWhen we want to connect two or more networks using different n/w addresses then we have touse IP Routing technique. The router will be used to perform routing between the networks. Arouter will perform following functions for routing. (1) Path determination (2) Packet forwarding Page | 23
  24. 24. (1) Path determination The process of obtaining path in routing table is called path determination. There are threedifferent methods to which router can learn path.i) Automatic detection of directly connected n/w.ii) Static & Default routingiii) Dynamic routing(2) Packet forwarding It is a process that is by default enable in router. The router will perform packet forwardingonly if route is available in the routing table. Static RoutingIn this routing, we have to use IP route commands through which we can specify routes fordifferent networks. The administrator will analyze whole internetwork topology and then specifythe route for each n/w that is not directly connected to the router.Steps to perform static routing(1) Create a list of all n/w present in internetwork.(2) Remove the n/w address from list, which is directly connected to n/w.(3) Specify each route for each routing n/w by using IP route command.Router(config)#ip route <destination n/w> <mask> <next hop ip>Next hop IP it is the IP address of neighbor router that is directly connected our router.Static Routing Example: -Router#conf terRouter(config)#ip route of static routing(1) Fast and efficient.(2) More control over selected path.(3) Less overhead for router.Disadvantages of static routing(1) More overheads on administrator.(2) Load balancing is not easily possible.(3) In case of topology change routing table has to be change manually. Page | 24
  25. 25. Alternate command to specify static routeStatic route can also specify in following syntax: -OldRouter(config)#ip route route serial 0Default RoutingDefault routing means a route for any n/w. these routes are specify with the help of followingsyntax: -Router(config)#ip route <next hop> Or <exit interface>To display routing tableRouter#sh ip routeTo check all the interface of a routerRouter#sh interface brief Dynamic RoutingIn dynamic routing, we will enable a routing protocol on router. This protocol will send itsrouting information to the neighbor router. The neighbors will analyze the information and writenew routes to the routing table. The routers will pass routing information receive from one router to other router also. Ifthere are more than one path available then routes are compared and best path is selected. Someexamples of dynamic protocol are: -RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPFTypes of Dynamic Routing ProtocolsAccording to the working there are two types of Dynamic Routing Protocols.(1) Distance Vector(2) Link StateAccording to the type of area in which protocol is used there are again two types of protocol: - Page | 25
  26. 26. (1) Interior Routing Protocol(2) Exterior Routing Protocol Autonomous systemAutonomous system is the group of contiguous routers and n/w, which will share their routinginformation directly with each other. If all routers are in single domain and they share theirinformation directly with each other then the size of routing updates will depend on the no. ofn/w present in the Internetwork. Update for each n/w may take 150 – 200 bytes information.For example: - if there are 1000 n/ws then size of update will be 200*1000 = 200000 bytesThe routing information is send periodically so it may consume a large amount of bandwidth inour n/w. Border Exterior Routing Routing Interior Routing AS AS 200 ASDomain 400 500ProtocolsDistance Vector RoutingThe Routing, which is based on two parameters, that is distance and direction is called DistanceVector Routing. The example of Distance Vector Routing is RIP & IGRP.Operation: - Page | 26
  27. 27. (1) Each Router will send its directly connected information to the neighbor router. Thisinformation is send periodically to the neighbors.(2) The neighbor will receive routing updates and process the route according to followingconditions: - (i) If update of a new n/w is received then this information is stored in routing table. (ii) If update of a route is received which is already present in routing table then route willbe refresh that is route times is reset to zero. (iii) If update is received for a route with lower metric then the route, which is already presentin our routing table. The router will discard old route and write the new route in the routing table. (iv) If update is received with higher metric then the route that is already present in routingtable, in this case the new update will be discard.(3) A timer is associated with each route. The router will forward routing information on allinterfaces and entire routing table is send to the neighbor. There are three types of timersassociated with a route.Configuring RIPRouter#conf terRouter(config)#router ripRouter(config-router)#network <own net address>Router(config-router)#network <own net address>---------------------------- Page | 27
  28. 28. Router(config-router)#exit R 1 via Configuring IGRPRouter(config)#router igrp <as no>(1 – 65535)Router(config-router)#network <net address>Router(config-router)#network <net address>Router(config-router)#exit Serial E1 modem Serial E1 2048 k 2048 k 256 k Page | 28
  29. 29. syncConfiguring following options in IGRP as same as in case of RIP: -(1) Neighbor(2) Passive interface(3) Timer(4) Distance (AD)(5) Maximum path Link State RoutingThis type of routing is based on link state. Its working is explain as under(1) Each router will send Hello packets to all neighbors using all interfaces.(2) The router from which Hello reply receive are stored in the neighborship table. Hello packetsare send periodically to maintain the neighbor table. Page | 29
  30. 30. (3) The router will send link state information to the all neighbors. Link state information fromone neighbor is also forwarded to other neighbor.(4) Each router will maintain its link state database created from link state advertisementreceived from different routers.(5) The router will use best path algorithm to store the path in routing table.Problems of Link State RoutingThe main problems of link state routing are: -(1) High bandwidth consumption.(2) More hardware resources required that is processor and memory (RAM)The routing protocols, which use link state routing are: -(1) OSPF(2) EIGRPEnhanced Interior Gateway Routing ProtocolFeatures: -* Cisco proprietary* Hybrid protocol Link State Distance Vector* Multicast Updates using Address* Support AS* Support VLSM* Automatic Route Summarization* Unequal path cost load balancing* Metric (32 bit composite) Bandwidth Delay Load Reliability MTU* Neighbor Recovery* Partial updates* Triggered updates* Backup RouteConfiguring EIGRPRouter(config)#router eigrp <as no>Router(config-router)#network <net addr.>Router(config-router)#network <net addr.>Router(config-router)#exit Page | 30
  31. 31. OSPF TerminologyAlready known topics in this: -(1) Hello packets(2) LSA (Link State Advertisement)(3) Neighbor(4) Neighbor table(5) Topology table (LSA database)Router IDRouter ID is the highest IP address of router interfaces. This id is used as the identity of therouter. It maintaining link state databases. The first preference for selecting router ID is given tothe Logical interfaces. If logical interface is not present then highest IP of physical interface isselected as router id. Highest ip is router id of a router is the group of routers & n/ws, which can share their routing information directly with eachother.AdjacencyA router is called adjacency when neighbor relationship is established. We can also sayadjacency relationship is formed between the routers.OSPF Hierarchical Model Area 0 Page | 31
  32. 32. br br br abr abr abr asb ar ar ar r ar ar arArea 20 Area 70 Area 90Area Router (Autonomous System Border Router – ASBR)A router, which has all interfaces member of single area, is called area router.Backbone Area Page | 32
  33. 33. Area 0 is called backbone area. All other areas must connect to the backbone area forcommunication.Backbone RouterA router, which has all interfaces members of area 0, is called backbone router.Area Border RouterA router, which connects an area with area 0, is called area border router.LSA Flooding in OSPFIf there are multiple OSPF routers on multi access n/w then there will be excessive no. of LSAgenerated by the router and they can choke bandwidth of the network. L K M N A B C DA B C DB A A A NeighborC C B BD D D CL K M NThis problem is solved with the help of electing a router as designated router and backupdesignated router.Designated Router Page | 33
  34. 34. A router with highest RID (router id) will be designated router for a particular interface. Thisrouter is responsible for receiving LSA from non-DR router and forward LSA to the all DRrouter.Backup Designated RouterThis router will work as backup for the designated router. In BDR mode, it will receive allinformation but do not forward this information to other non-DR router.Commands to configure OSPFRouter#conf terRouter(config)#router ospf <process no>Router(config-router)#network <net address> <wild mask> area <area id>Router(config-router)#network <net address> <wild mask> area <area id>Router(config-router)#exitWild Mask – Complement of subnet maskExample - Subnet mask Wild mask - subnet mask wild mask Page | 34
  35. 35. Area 0 R R 1 2 ospf 33Router(config-router)#network area 0Router(config-router)#network area 0Router(config-router)#exitR2Router(config)#router ospf 2Router(config-router)#network area 0Router(config-router)#network area 0Router(config-router)#exit Access Control ListACL are the basic security feature that is required in any network to control the flow of traffic.Most of time our network may have servers and clients for which traffic control is required. We can also use ACL to classify the traffic. ACLs are used in features like QOS (Qualityof Service), Prioritize traffic and interesting traffic for ISDN.Classification Access Control List: -Types of ACL based on Protocol: -(1) IP Access Control List(2) IPX Access Control List Page | 35
  36. 36. (3) Appletalk Access Control ListTypes of ACL based on Feature: -(1) Standard ACL(2) Extended ACLTypes of ACL based on Access mode: -(1) Numbered ACL(2) Named ACLTypes of ACL based on Order of rules: -(1) Deny, permit(2) Permit, denyIP Standard ACL (Numbered)In Standard ACL, we are only able to specify source address for the filtering of packets. Thesyntax to create IP standard ACL are: -Router#conf terRouter(config)#access-list <no> <permit|deny> <source>Router(config)#exit<source> Single pc host N/w Subnet ACL on interfaceRouter#conf terRouter(config)#interface <type> <no>Router(config-if)#ip access-group <ACL no.> <in|out>Router(config-if)#exit Internet Router Page | 36
  37. 37. Router(config)#access-list 25 permit 25 permit 25 permit 25 permit 25 permit serial 0Router(config-if)#ip access-group 25 outIP Standard ACL (Named)In Numbered ACL editing feature is not available that is we are not able to delete single rulefrom the ACL. In Named ACL editing feature is available.Router#config terRouter(config)#ip access-list standard <name>Router(config-std-nacl)#<deny|permit> <source>Router(config-std-nacl)#exitRouter#conf terRouter(config)#ip access-list standard abcRouter(config-std-nacl)#deny anyRouter(config-std-nacl)#exitTo modify the ACLRouter#conf terRouter(config)#ip access-list standard abcRouter(config-std-nacl)#no deny Page | 37
  38. 38. IP Extended ACL (Numbered)Extended ACL are advanced ACL. ACL, which can control traffic flow on the basis of fivedifferent parameters that are: -(i) Source address(ii) Destination address(iii) Source port(iv) Destination port(v) Protocol (layer 3/layer 4)The syntax to create Extended ACLRouter#conf terRouter(config)#access-list <no> <deny|permit> <protocol> <source> [<s.port>] <destination> [<d.port>]router(config)#exitTo display ACLRouter#show access-lists orRouter#show access-list <no>To display ACL applied on interfaceRouter#show ip interfaceRouter#show ip interface <type> <no>Router#show ip interface Ethernet 0Time-Based ACLsIn this you can specify a certain time of day and week and then identity that particular period bygiving it a name referenced by a task. The reference function will fall under whatever timeconstraints you have dictated. The time period is based upon the router’s clock, but it is highlyrecommended that using it in conjunction with Network Time Protocol (NTP) synchronization.Router#conf terRouter(config)#time-range no-httpRouter(config-time-range)#periodic <Wednesday|weekdays|weekend> 06:00 to 12:00Router(config-time-range)#exitRouter(config)#time-range tcp-yesRouter(config-time-range)#periodic weekend 06:00 to 12:00 Page | 38
  39. 39. Router(config-time-range)#exitRouter(config)ip access-list extended timeRouter(config-ext-nacl)#deny tcp any any eq www time-range no-httpRouter(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp any any time-range tcp-yesRouter(config-ext-nacl)#interface f0/0Router(config-if)#ip access-group time inRouter(config-if)#do show time-range Network Address TranslationNAT is the feature that can be enable in a Router, Firewall or a Pc. With the help of NAT, we areable to translate network layer addresses that are IP addresses of packets. With the help of PortAddress Translation, we are also able to translate port no.s present in transport layer header.There are two reasons due to which we use NAT: -(1) Conserve Live IP address On Internet, there are limited no of IP addresses. If our Pc wants to communicate on Internetthen it should have a Live IP address assigned by our ISP. So that IP address request will dependon no. of PCs that we want to connect on Internet. Due to this, there will be a lot of wastage in IP Page | 39
  40. 40. addresses. To reduce wastage, we can share live IP addresses between multiple PCs with the helpof NAT.(2) NAT enhances the network security by hiding PC & devices behind NAT.Working of NAT & PAT10.0.0.5 Internet10.0.0.6 Switc NAT h10.0.0.710.0.0.8 2 1080 2 1085 Port Translation 2 1100 1024 2 1024 Page | 40
  41. 41. Types of NATStatic NATThis NAT is used for servers in which one Live IP is directly mapped to one Local IP. This NATwill forward on the traffic for the Live IP to the Local PC in the n/w. Static NAT200.1.1.5 = Interne Route t r Live Local NATDynamic NAT is used for clients, which want to access Internet. The request from multipleclient IPs are translated with the Live IP obtained from the Pool. It is also called Pool BasedDynamic NAT. Pool => – address => 172.16.X.XExcept => Interne ttt Route Page | 41 r
  42. 42. Web Server DNS Full access 172.16.X.X NATRouter#conf terRouter(config)#int serial 0Router(config-if)#ip nat outsideRouter(config-if)#int eth 0Router(config-if)#ip nat insideRouter(config-if)#exitRouter(config)#ip nat inside source static nat inside source static tcp 80 80Router(config)#ip nat inside source static udp 53 53Router(config)#access-list 30 deny 30 deny 30 deny 30 permit anyRouter(config)#ip nat pool abc netmask nat inside source list 30 pool abc overload NAT + PATCommand for Basic NATRouter(config)#ip nat inside source list 30 interface serial 0 <exiting interface name>To display NAT translation Page | 42
  43. 43. Router#sh ip nat translations(after ping any address, it shows ping details)To clear IP NAT TranslationRouter#clear ip nat Translation *SECURING PRIVATE ENVIORNMENT BY USING NAT PROJECT REPORT Page | 43
  44. 44. The project is based on network addressing translation(nat).The beauty of configuring nat on routers is that it can helpusers access internet on private ip address which areotherwise excluded by internet service provider(isp).We have used inter VLAN technology to make work efficientbetween 3 different and independent organisations. Thevlans have been divided into web servers and internetclients.DESCRIPTIONWe have three organisations. Org1, org2 and org3.Each organisation comprises a router, to route the data fromand to isp. There are manageable switches in eachorganisation and we have created separate vlans for serversand internet clients.If we want the communication between the internet clientsand servers then we configure inter vlan concept on therouter. And if we want to block some internet clients cannotaccess our servers then we create acl for that particular user.These organisations are linked externally to an isp whichprovides live(public) ip addresses to each organisation, andisp also provides the internet connections to others. Page | 44
  45. 45. CONFIGURATIONFOR ORG1%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured frROUTER ORG1Router>enRouter#config tEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.Router(config)#hostname ORG1ORG1(config)#line console 0ORG1(config-line)#password netORG1(config-line)#loginORG1(config-line)#exitORG1(config)#line vty 0 4 Page | 45
  46. 46. ORG1(config-line)#password netORG1(config-line)#loginORG1(config-line)#exitORG1(config)#enable password netORG1(config)#enable secret net1ORG1(config)#int f0/0ORG1(config-if)#no sh%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to upORG1(config-if)#exitORG1(config)#int f0/0.1%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0.1, changed state toupRouter(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 2ORG1(config-subif)#ip nat insideORG1(config-subif)#ip address shORG1(config-subif)#exitORG1(config)#int f0/0.2ORG1(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 3ORG1(config-subif)#ip nat insideORG1(config-subif)#ip address shORG1(config-subif)#exitORG1(config)#int s0/0/0ORG1(config-if)#ip nat outsideORG1(config-if)#clock rate 64000ORG1(config-if)#ip address sh%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0/0/0, changed state to downORG1(config-if)#exitORG1(config)#ip route serial 0/0/0We have place our web server in the private area so that the internet client cannotdirectly access it. So, we have configured static nat and open port number 80(http)only. Page | 46
  47. 47. ORG1(config)#ip nat inside source static tcp 80 80In our organisation our clients want to access internet so we will configuredynamic nat with overload for clients.ORG1(config)#access-list 20 permit anyORG1(config)#ip nat pool netmax netmask255.255.255.240ORG1(config)#ip nat inside source list 20 pool netmax overloadORG1(config)#exitORG1#wrBuilding configuration...[OK]ORG1#SWITCH Page | 47
  48. 48. Switch>enSwitch#vlan database% Warning: It is recommended to configure VLAN from config mode, as VLAN database mode is being deprecated. Please consult user documentation for configuring VTP/VLAN in config mode.Switch(vlan)#vlan 2 name serverVLAN 2 added: Name: serverSwitch(vlan)#vlan 3 name clientsVLAN 3 added: Name: clientsSwitch(vlan)#exitAPPLY completed.Exiting....Switch#config tEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.Switch(config)#int f0/1Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 2Switch(config-if)#exitSwitch(config)#int range f0/2 - 3Switch(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 3Switch(config-if-range)#exitSwitch(config)#int f0/24Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunkSwitch(config-if)#exitSwitch(config)#exitSwitch#wrFOR ORG2ROUTERRouter>enRouter#config tEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.Router(config)#hostname ORG2ORG2(config)#line console 0ORG2(config-line)#password netORG2(config-line)#loginORG2(config-line)#exit Page | 48
  49. 49. ORG2(config)#line vty 0 4ORG2(config-line)#password netORG2(config-line)#loginORG2(config-line)#exitORG2(config)#enable password netORG2(config)#enable secret net1ORG2(config)#int f0/0ORG2(config-if)#no sh%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to upORG2(config-if)#exitORG2(config)#int f0/0.1%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0.1, changed state toupRouter(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 2ORG2(config-subif)#ip nat insideORG2(config-subif)#ip address shORG2(config-subif)#exitORG2(config)#int f0/0.2ORG2(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 3ORG2(config-subif)#ip nat insideORG2(config-subif)#ip address shORG2(config-subif)#exitORG2(config)#int s0/0/0ORG2(config-if)#ip nat outsideORG2(config-if)#clock rate 64000ORG2(config-if)#ip address sh%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0/0/0, changed state to downORG2(config-if)#exitORG2(config)#ip route serial 0/0/0ORG2(config)#ip nat inside source static 20 permit anyORG2(config)#ip nat pool netmax netmask255.255.255.240ORG2(config)#ip nat inside source list 20 pool netmaxORG2(config)#exit%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console Page | 49
  50. 50. ORG2#wrBuilding configuration...[OK]ORG2#SWITCHSwitch>enSwitch#vlan database% Warning: It is recommended to configure VLAN from config mode, as VLAN database mode is being deprecated. Please consult user documentation for configuring VTP/VLAN in config mode.Switch(vlan)#vlan 2 name serverVLAN 2 added: Name: serverSwitch(vlan)#vlan 3 name clientsVLAN 3 added: Name: clientsSwitch(vlan)#exitAPPLY completed.Exiting....Switch#config tEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.Switch(config)#int f0/1Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 2Switch(config-if)#exitSwitch(config)#int range f0/2 - 3Switch(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 3Switch(config-if-range)#exitSwitch(config)#int f0/24Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunkSwitch(config-if)#exitSwitch(config)#exitSwitch#wr Page | 50
  51. 51. FOR ORG3ROUTERRouter>enRouter#config tEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.Router(config)#hostname ORG3ORG3(config)#line console 0ORG3(config-line)#password netORG3(config-line)#loginORG3(config-line)#exitORG3(config)#line vty 0 4ORG3(config-line)#password netORG3(config-line)#loginORG3(config-line)#exitORG3(config)#enable password netORG3(config)#enable secret net1ORG3(config)#int f0/0ORG3(config-if)#no sh%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to upORG3(config-if)#exitORG3(config)#int f0/0.1%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0.1, changed state toupRouter(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 2ORG3(config-subif)#ip nat insideORG3(config-subif)#ip address shORG3(config-subif)#exitORG3(config)#int f0/0.2ORG3(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 3ORG3(config-subif)#ip nat insideORG3(config-subif)#ip address shORG3(config-subif)#exitORG3(config)#int s0/0/0 Page | 51
  52. 52. ORG3(config-if)#ip nat outsideORG3(config-if)#clock rate 64000ORG3(config-if)#ip address sh%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0/0/0, changed state to downORG3(config-if)#exitORG3(config)#ip route serial 0/0/0ORG3(config)#ip nat inside source static 20 permit anyORG3(config)#ip nat pool netmax netmask255.255.255.240ORG3(config)#ip nat inside source list 20 pool netmax overloadORG3(config)#exit%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by consoleORG3#wrBuilding configuration...[OK]ORG3#SWITCHSwitch>enSwitch#vlan database% Warning: It is recommended to configure VLAN from config mode, as VLAN database mode is being deprecated. Please consult user documentation for configuring VTP/VLAN in config mode.Switch(vlan)#vlan 2 name serverVLAN 2 added: Page | 52
  53. 53. Name: serverSwitch(vlan)#vlan 3 name clientsVLAN 3 added: Name: clientsSwitch(vlan)#exitAPPLY completed.Exiting....Switch#config tEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.Switch(config)#int f0/1Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 2Switch(config-if)#exitSwitch(config)#int range f0/2 - 3Switch(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 3Switch(config-if-range)#exitSwitch(config)#int f0/24Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunkSwitch(config-if)#exitSwitch(config)#exitSwitch#wrREFERENCES Wikipedia Google NETMAX TECHNOLOGIES CISCO Page | 53