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Session 4 improved crop management systems for sustainable cassava production in sub saharan africa by joy adiele

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Field research activity update on PhD proposal “Improved crop management systems for
sustainable cassava production in sub-Saharan Africa” by Joy Adiele

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Session 4 improved crop management systems for sustainable cassava production in sub saharan africa by joy adiele

  1. 1. Improved crop management systems for sustainable cassava production in sub-Saharan Africa Joy G. Adiele
  2. 2. Van Ittersum & Rabbinge, Field Crops Res. (1997) YIELD GAP Production ecological principles
  3. 3. nutrient-limited production situation © Wageningen University & ISRIC
  4. 4. Objectives  Quantify effects of optimized NPK combination when tested on poor soils and effects of micro-nutrient addition on nutrient use efficiency and yield  determine how K nutrition influences light and nutrient use efficiency of cassava, relative growth and death rate of the leaves, rate of development, and partitioning fractions  understand the dynamics of soil nutrient availability and uptake by cassava, in order to provide the right dose of fertiliser at the right time and increase the recovery rate  test and improve current cassava crop growth models in order to;  better accurately assess yield gaps,  test approaches to identify nutrient deficiencies  provide insight in fertilizer requirements that may lead to improved fertilizer blends
  5. 5. Agro-ecological map of Nigeria
  6. 6. Morphological assessments Intermediate harvests Final harvests Pre- planting soil sampling Post harvest soil sampling Materials & Methods 1 42.5 1280 Months after planting
  7. 7. Treatment acronyms Trt/plot number Treatment Nitrogen (kg N ha-1) Phosphorus (kg P ha-1) Potassium (kg K ha-1) Micro-nutrient S-Ca-Mg-Zn-B 1 N0PfKfMn 0 100 300 + 2 NfP0KfMn 300 0 300 + 3 NfPfK0Mn 300 100 0 + 4 NfPfKfMn 300 100 300 + 5 NfPfK1Mn 300 100 240 + 6 NfPfK2Mn 300 100 180 + 7 NfPfK3Mn 300 100 120 + 8 NfPfK4Mn 300 100 60 + 9 NfPfKfMn0 300 100 300 - 10 NOT full rate 150 40 180 - 11 NOT half rate 75 20 90 - 12 Control 0 0 0 -
  8. 8. Results 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar April May June July Aug Sept Oct BenueRainfall(mm) Aug 2016 - Oct 2017 Benue Limiting nutrients – N & P 4 MAP, NFPFKFMN0 - highest yield @ 10.33 fresh yield t/ha Final harvest- significant increase among all treatments NFPFKFMN0 - highest yield @ 70.05 t/ha. Control had the lowest yield of 27.02 t/ha  Second harvest - low yield increase
  9. 9. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar April May June July Aug Rainfallamount(mm) Sep 2016 - August 2017 Results Cross River Most limiting nutrients – N At ~4MAP, NFPFKFMN0 recorded the highest yield @ 23.84 fresh yield t/ha At final harvest, NFPFKFMN0 had the greatest yield at 113.5 t/ha. Control maintained the lowest yield of 26.25 t/ha
  10. 10. The NFPFKFMN0 maintained the highest fresh root yield of 126.5 t/ha at final harvest, with the control recording 31.17 t/ha, the lowest . The most limiting nutrient was K ResultsEdo Most limiting nutrients – K
  11. 11. Amongst the 3 location, Edo recorded the highest yield among the treatments, except in the treatment where K was limited. Results
  12. 12. Results Benue Cross river RootyieldtonsDM/ha RootyieldtonsDM/ha RootyieldtonsDM/ha Edo
  13. 13. The second year data of the trials are being collected. PhD field project will be concluded by June-July, 2018 Proposed PhD thesis defense comes up in June 2019 Way forward It is expected that both yields and the efficiency of nutrients applied will strongly improve and that the financial risk for farmers will be effectively reduced
  14. 14. Water Availability and Potassium Uptake of Cassava, Nigeria Rob van den Beuken
  15. 15. Water Availability and Potassium Uptake of Cassava, Nigeria Rob van den Beuken MSc student, WUR
  16. 16. Introduction  Water availability affects: – Nutrient availability – Crop nutrient demand  The response of cassava to water limitation is well researched: – Maintains root growth – Reduces leaf canopy – Partially closes its stomata
  17. 17. But...  The effect of water limitation on nutrient uptake of cassava is not well known  This research will focus on Potassium, because it is one of the main macro nutrients for cassava and strongly related to soil moisture  Potassium (K), plays a major role in:  translocating assimilates to the storage roots  Stomatal regulation
  18. 18. Research Question & Hypotheses Question: How does potassium uptake affect cassava growth in relation to soil moisture content in Nigeria? Hypotheses:  Soil moisture content strongly affects K uptake (demand and availability)  K uptake increases the maximum rooting depth (fibrous roots)  Transpiration is reduced when K uptake is low, because of the increasing stomatal resistance during daytime
  19. 19. Methodology  Set up a water balance based on soil physical properties:  Air dry, wilting point, field capacity, saturation soil moisture content  Rooting depth measurements  Stomatal resistance and leaf temperature measurements over time  Implement K uptake and findings in the LINTUL-Cassava model to see the overall effect on cassava growth
  20. 20.  Soil parameters:  Soil water characteristics (field capacity, wilting point, saturation): Pedotransfer functions  Maximum rooting depth, etc  LINTUL calibrated for cassava Summary LINTUL (Light Interception and Utilization):  Crop parameters:  Light use efficiency: 1.40 g biomass DM MJ−1 IPAR (Veltkamp, 1985), 1.5 g biomass DM MJ−1 IPAR (Ezui et al., 2017)  Light extinction coefficient,  Storage roots bulking initiation (40-45 days after planting for TME 419)  Root growth rate
  21. 21. Thank you! ?

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