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Session 2 3 Development of the Best Planting Practices Decision Support Tool

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Presentation highlighting the process and progress of developing the Summary of the field activities towards the development of the BPP DST
The field trials on BPP had initially a 4 factorial structure with three ploughing regimes followed by ridging versus flat soil and planting at two densities (10000 vs. 12500) and fertilizer application versus nil. This was reduced to three factors and a reduction in ploughing intensity. In the first and second year it transpired that weed interference as a consequence of initial soil tillage, was potentially a major cause of root yield variation and this required the integration of weed control as a factor, which happened in year 3. Further, farmers’ reasons for ploughing were not fully understood and may have confounded tillage intensity with soil fertility. The latest version of the BPP DST will require the inclusion of fallow length and vegetation characteristics to better assess the reasons for intensive ploughing and exclude recommendations of such practices in sites of different fallow and land use history.
For 2019 the BPP will form the base for the integration of weed control aspect into ACAI and this will likely improve the BPP DST through appropriate weed control recommendations and fine tune post emergence weed control requirements and measures as a function of previous tillage.

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Session 2 3 Development of the Best Planting Practices Decision Support Tool

  1. 1. Development of the Best Planting Practices (PP) Decision Support Tool (DST) – Version2 www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org
  2. 2. Overview www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Best Planting Practices DST: 1. Introduction (Busari Mutiu): • The PP use case • Learnings from the baseline • Summary of year 2 achievements 2. Field activities (Florence Olowokere): • Field activities: Best planting practices trials • Field trial results 3. Advances with the DST development (Stefan Hauser): • Modelling framework • Year1 – Year2 validation results • The Decision Support Tool 4. Validation exercises (Bashir Adesiyan and Stephen Olonade): • First impressions from ongoing validation exercises • Next steps and additional data needs
  3. 3. Overview www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Best Planting Practices DST: 1. Introduction (Busari Mutiu): • The PP use case • Learnings from the baseline • Summary of year 2 achievements 2. Field activities (Florence Olowokere): • Field activities: Best planting practices trials • Field trial results 3. Advances with the DST development (Stefan Hauser): • Modelling framework • Year1 – Year2 validation results • The Decision Support Tool 4. Validation exercises (Bashir Adesiyan and Stephen Olonade): • First impressions from ongoing validation exercises • Next steps and additional data needs
  4. 4. Introduction www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Best Planting Practices DST: • Specific purpose: recommend crop density, tillage (ploughing + ridging practices) and associated weed control that minimize total cost of production (without reducing yield) or maximize net revenue • Requested by: OYSCGA (NG) and CAVA-II (NG) • Other partners: - • Intended users: Extension Agents (EAs) and commercial cassava growers with access to tractors • Expected benefit: Root yield increased by 4 tonnes/ha or an equivalent cost saving of US$100/ha realized by 29,100 HHs, with the support of 266 extension agents, on a total area of 14,550 ha, generating a total value of US$1,455,000 • Current version: V2: estimates yield effects of tillage operations and calculates total cost and revenue based on default or user-defined cost of operations and price of roots • Approach: Decision tree model based on analysis of field trial data • Input required: Planting and harvest date, details on current practice, cost of operations (tillage and weeding), expected price of fresh roots, yield estimate (visual method) • Interface: Enketo webform running on a smartphone, tablet or PC (online use), and serving as a ‘hybrid’ between research tool and a practicable dissemination tool
  5. 5. Learnings from the baseline survey www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Baseline study: over 3,200 farmers’ fields characterized • Use of tractor for tillage only common in SW Nigeria; zero-tillage common in EZ of Tanzania • Mounds common in SW Nigeria; planting on flat very rare in LZ of Tanzania
  6. 6. Principles of the Best Planting Practices Tool www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org 1. Obtain details on current practice 2. Identify alternative options within given constraints 3. Evaluate to what extent the performance of alternative options is location-dependent, based on analysis of multilocational field trial data 4. If so, identify GIS (or other) predictor variables to estimate location-specific effects of tillage practices on cassava root yield 5. Convert yield effects to changes in gross revenue using price of roots (default values or user input) 6. Estimate total cost based on costs of operations (default values or user input) (assuming optimized land preparation can save on max. 1 weeding operation) 7. Recommend alternative options that either save on cost (without negative impact on yield) or maximize net revenue using a decision tree model The PP-DST is developed based on following steps and principles:
  7. 7. Principles of the Best Planting Practices Tool www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org What are the alternative options? 2. Increase or decrease the number of ploughing operations • Location-specific effects expected, related to texture and rainfall • Tillage intensity interacts with weed control (type, cost and timing) 1. Modify (increase) the crop density – learnings from CWMP: • Little impact on yield expected if crop stand is good • Important impact on weeding requirement 3. Ridging • Planting on flat not recommended if harvest during dry season • Ridging is not always expected to be necessary or advantageous • Ridging can save on max. 1 weeding operation
  8. 8. Principles of the Best Planting Practices Tool www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Modelling framework Are the effects of tillage (ploughing + ridging) dependent on field conditions? Evaluate through multilocational field testing covering target environments Can we predict these effects based on GIS information? Develop decision tree models
  9. 9. Principles of the Best Planting Practices Tool www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org What is current practice? – learnings from the RC survey Additional surveys on costing of operations (253 households across Oyo and Ogun states) 1. Cost of land preparation (tractor rent or labour) first ploughing 24200 Naira ha-1 second ploughing 19500 Naira ha-1 manual ridging 34000 Naira ha-1 tractor ridging 18350 Naira ha-1 2. Cost of weeding operations hoe weeding 29600 Naira ha-1 herbicide application 12200 – 23900 ha-1 (pre-emergence including herbicide) herbicide application 12400 – 22200 ha-1 (post-emergence including herbicide)
  10. 10. V1 version of the PP DST (end of 2017) www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org
  11. 11. V1 version of the PP DST (end of 2017) www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org PP-DST packaged as a simple enketo webform, with details on current practice and cost of operations as only inputs (for now). Introduction Current practice Cost of operations Recommendations
  12. 12. Overview www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Best Planting Practices DST: 1. Introduction (Busari Mutiu): • The PP use case • Learnings from the baseline • Summary of year 2 achievements 2. Field activities (Florence Olowokere): • Field activities: Best planting practices trials • Field trial results 3. Advances with the DST development (Stefan Hauser): • Modelling framework • Year1 – Year2 validation results • The Decision Support Tool 4. Validation exercises (Bashir Adesiyan and Stephen Olonade): • First impressions from ongoing validation exercises • Next steps and additional data needs
  13. 13. Best Planting Practices Trials www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Evaluate effects of tillage and ridging, fertilizer and weed control method 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 2 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © Nil 3 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 4 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 5 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 6 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 7 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 8 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 9 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 10 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 11 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 12 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 13 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 14 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 15 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 16 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 17 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © Fertilizer 18 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 80 19 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 20 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 21 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © Nil 22 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 23 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 24 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 25 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 26 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 27 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 28 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 29 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 30 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 31 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 32 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 33 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 34 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © Fertilizer 35 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 36 80 © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 29.6 Flat Ridged Flat Ridged Single plowing Zero Plowing HerbicideFarmer'schoice Weed control “Farmers’ choice” Manual, mechanical or herbicide versus “Optimal weed control with herbicide” Round up - pre tillage, Primextra - pre emergence and Round up - post emergence, if required Fertilizer: 75:18:90 kg/ha NPK Density: high = 12,500 ha-1 2016 – 2017 BPP-1 = 24 trt. 2017 – 2018 BPP-2 = 16 trt.
  14. 14. Best Planting Practices Trials www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Sampling frame: maximize representativeness across target AoI Cluster number Presence Currently existing trials Oyo Ogun 6 mostly in Oyo 3 0 Eruwa, Ori Ire, Atiba 7 Oyo and Ogun 2 1 Ido & Igbo Ora 1 all in Oyo 3 0 Saki East, Saki West 11 Oyo and Ogun 2 Around Odeda 9 all in Ogun 2 Ikenne 8 all in Ogun 2 Ipokia 8 7 Proposed number of cassava clusters Cluster number Proportion (%) Area (Ha) Cumulative proportion 6 23.04 704,479 23.04 7 18.94 579,095 41.99 1 15.27 466,958 57.26 11 13.06 399,291 70.32 9 7.26 221,880 77.58 8 6.77 206,847 84.34 5 3.87 118,351 88.21 13 3.27 99,960 91.48 10 2.88 87,977 94.36 14 2.25 68,793 96.61 12 2.14 65,442 98.75 2 0.78 23,923 99.54 4 0.46 14,084 100.00 3 0.004 131 100.00
  15. 15. Best Planting Practices Trials www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Current overview of trials and status of trials - Nigeria Nigeria BPP-1 2016 BPP-2 2017 BPP-3 2018 State planted harvested planted harvested planted Harvested Oyo 45 43 44 31 38 Ongoing Ogun 52 23 40 37 4 Ongoing Total 97 66 84 68 42 Ongoing Primary tillage × Secondary tillage × Planting density × Fertilizer Primary tillage × Secondary tillage × Weed control × Fertilizer Primary tillage × Secondary tillage × Weed control
  16. 16. Best Planting Practices Trials www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Impressions and learnings from the field – some pictures Farmers generally don’t want to plant their cassava using zero tilled land. Weed control is more difficult under zero-tillage, non-ridged fields More frequent herbicide-based weed control needed under zero-till, non-ridged fields.
  17. 17. Results 2016 – 2017 (BPP-1) Best Planting Practices Trials www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org PD = planting density • 10,000 plants ha-1 • 12,500 plants ha-1 Fertilizer • F0 = nil • F1 = NPK (75:20:90) Primary tillage • ZT = zero-till • SP = single plough • DP = double plough Secondary tillage • FL = planted on flat • RG = planted on ridges Largely independent effects of planting density (+ 1.6 t/ha), fertilizer (+ 4.3 t/ha), and primary tillage (+2.0 t/ha for single plough, + 3.5 t/ha for double plough) Effects of tillage were highly site-specific, and not related to soil texture or rainfall conditions. Possibly related to interactions with weed intensity/severity and method of weed control?
  18. 18. Results 2017 – 2018 (BPP-2) Best Planting Practices Trials www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org WC = weed control method • FC = farmer’s current practice • HB = herbicide-based weed control Fertilizer • F0 = nil • F1 = NPK (75:20:90) Primary tillage • ZT = zero-till • SP = single plough • DP = double plough Secondary tillage • FL = planted on flat • RG = planted on ridges Independent effect of fertilizer (+2.6 t/ha), no effect of ridging after a single ploughing operation, and herbicide weed control less effective under zero-tillage. Effects of tillage remain highly site-specific, and not related to soil texture or rainfall conditions. Best predictor is the overall yield level of the field…
  19. 19. Results 2017 – 2018 (BPP-2) Best Planting Practices Trials www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org WC = weed control method • FC = farmer’s current practice • HB = herbicide-based weed control Fertilizer • F0 = nil • F1 = NPK (75:20:90) Primary tillage • ZT = zero-till • SP = single plough • DP = double plough Secondary tillage • FL = planted on flat • RG = planted on ridges Little benefit from primary or secondary tillage under low-yielding conditions (<15 t/ha), and negative effects of herbicide-based weed control. Many farmers abandoned zero-tillage plots! No difference between weed control methods under high-yielding conditions, and increased yield with increased tillage intensity. Best option determined by cost of ploughing, ridging and weeding…
  20. 20. Results 2016 – 2017 (BPP-1) + 2017 – 2018 (BPP-2): common treatments Best Planting Practices Trials www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Primary tillage • ZT = zero-till • SP = single plough Secondary tillage • FL = planted on flat • RG = planted on ridges Consistent overall effects by primary and secondary tillage by yield conditions across both years. The effect of ridging remains to a large extent site-dependent (sd = 3.2 t/ha between fields), and unclear what drives these differences. Possibly related to weed types and weed severity. → BPP-3 + closer investigations through interactions with CWMP
  21. 21. Overview www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Best Planting Practices DST: 1. Introduction (Busari Mutiu): • The PP use case • Learnings from the baseline • Summary of year 2 achievements 2. Field activities (Florence Olowokere): • Field activities: Best planting practices trials • Field trial results 3. Advances with the DST development (Stefan Hauser): • Modelling framework • Year1 – Year2 validation results • The Decision Support Tool 4. Validation exercises (Bashir Adesiyan and Stephen Olonade): • First impressions from ongoing validation exercises • Next steps and additional data needs
  22. 22. How are these results fed into the DST? www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Can this variation in effects of tillage be predicted? Tillage only makes sense under high-yielding conditions… Can farmers estimate what conditions to expect in their field? Primary tillage • ZT = zero-till • SP = single plough Secondary tillage • FL = planted on flat • RG = planted on ridges
  23. 23. How are these results fed into the DST? www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Align with other use cases: picture-based estimates of current yield 0-3 tonnes/acre 3-6 tonnes/acre 6-9 tonnes/acre 9-12 tonnes/acre 12-15 tonnes/acre Tillage unlikely to increase yield Tillage likely to increase yield Tillage intensity depends on relative cost of ploughing, ridging and weeding
  24. 24. Validation exercises – pilot study www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org • Currently 137 farmers across SW Nigeria involved in pilot validation exercise… • Supervised by trained extension agents, and coordinated by primary development partners (OYSCGA) • NARS teams of agronomists assist in training and monitoring. • DSTs and all data collection through a suite of ODK forms
  25. 25. Validation exercises – overview www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Valid DST forms submitted: 225 Current yield estimate >4 tonnes per acre: 162 (72%) Established trials: 137
  26. 26. Validation exercises – overview www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org What is being recommended? Primary tillage T0 = zero-tillage T1 = single plough T2 = double plough Secondary tillage FL = planting on flat RG = planting on ridges Current practice Recommended practice Primary tillage Secondary tillage Primary tillage Secondary tillage
  27. 27. Validation exercises – overview www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org What is being recommended? Most common combinations… Primary tillage T0 = zero-tillage T1 = single plough T2 = double plough Secondary tillage FL = planting on flat RG = planting on ridges Currentpractice Recommended practice T0-FL T0-RG T2-FL total T0-RG 2 10 9 21 T1-FL 5 10 11 26 T2-FL 4 3 22 29 total 11 23 42 Increase in tillage intensity: 35% No change: 34% Decrease in tillage intensity: 31%
  28. 28. Validation exercises – overview www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Why these 3 recommendations? Zero-tillage, planting on flat, if… Cassava root price = low Ridging cost = high and > tillage cost Zero-tillage, planting on ridges, if… Cassava root price = medium Ridging cost = medium and ≈ tillage cost Double plough, planting on flat, if… Cassava root price = high Ridging cost = medium and > tillage cost 11% 23% 42%
  29. 29. Validation exercises – overview www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Expected impact on total cost and net revenue Net revenue increases of 50-200 USD/ha… • through cost-saving, when T0-FL or T0-RG is recommended • through investments of 50-200 USD/ha in a second ploughing operation (T2-FL)
  30. 30. Overview www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Best Planting Practices DST: 1. Introduction (Busari Mutiu): • The PP use case • Learnings from the baseline • Summary of year 2 achievements 2. Field activities (Florence Olowokere): • Field activities: Best planting practices trials • Field trial results 3. Advances with the DST development (Stefan Hauser): • Modelling framework • Year1 – Year2 validation results • The Decision Support Tool 4. Validation exercises (Bashir Adesiyan and Stephen Olonade): • First impressions from ongoing validation exercises • Next steps and additional data needs
  31. 31. Validation exercises – impressions from the field www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org
  32. 32. Key Activities www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Training-of-Trainers • Objective : Training of trainers who will train the farmers • Date : April 2018 • Location : Saki, Ido, IITA • Audience: EAs + lead farmers and Npower Agro Step-down training • Objective : • to enlighten farmers on new innovative ways of planting • to train farmers on land preparation and spacing • Date and Location: Farmer’s field • Audience: EAs and Farmers
  33. 33. Key Activities www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Apply DSTs • Objective: obtain recommendations, and show forth the work that is been assigned for the validation exercise • Date and Location: household farms • Audience: EAs Coordinate farmer’s tillage operations Objective: organize farmer’s tillage operations and land preparation to meet validation exercise’s specification, and provide farmers more understanding on innovative ways of cassava planting and land management • Date and Location : Farmer’s field • Audience : EAs and Farmers
  34. 34. Key Activities www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Planting Objective: monitor planting of the validation exercise following DST recommendation and monitor plots for intermittent weeding as and when necessary • Date and Location : various farms • Audience: EAs and farmers Gapping Objective: replant missing or non-germinated stands to meet up with the targeted numbers of planting on the field • Date and Location : 4 weeks after planting and various farms • Audience: EAs and farmers
  35. 35. Testimonies from farmers www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org • I have learnt about spacing of 0.8m x 1m. • I have learnt how to document my farming activities (e.g., planting date). • I have learnt about replacement of non-sprouted cassava. • I have learnt about monitoring of different parameters (like plant height) on cassava field. Shuaib Abdul-Azeez – OYSCGA OY
  36. 36. Testimonies from Extension Agents www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org The following are what I have learnt from the BPP validation trial: • Use of herbicide for weed control. • Cassava planted on ridges performs better than the one planted on flat. • Double-plough is better than single-plough. Adesiyan Bashir – OYSCGA OY
  37. 37. Key Activities www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Training-of-Trainers • Objective: To train the trainers who are to train the Extension agents on the process of DST validation in order to improve them. • Date: 11th-13th April,2018. • Location: Alumni Building Secretariat Hall, FUNAAB. • Audience: IITA Team, NARS/FUNAAB, Block Extension Officers, OGUN ADP, CAVA 2 team, and AMREC. Step-down training • Objective: Understand the principles of the validation exercise towards development of the DSTs to provide better recommendation to farmers and EAs. • Date: 7th - 8th May, 2018 • Location: Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme ,Headquarter, Idi-Aba, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. • Audience: NARS/FUNAAB Team, Block Extension Officers, Identified Extension Agents working with Ogun ADP, CAVA 2 team, Adesanya A. A (AMREC-FUNAAB), and Abdul-Azeez Ismail – Private Extension Agent (Imeko-Afon)
  38. 38. Key Activities www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org Familiarization with the tools and the exercise • All coordinators download all tools relevant for their use case (SP/HS and/or PP) • Follow a process of registering all participating EAs and households (HHs), equipping them with ID cards. • EA field activities include monitoring using ODK forms for harmonized data collection.
  39. 39. Testimonies from farmers www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org • I learnt about cassava spacing of 0.8m x 1m. • I have learnt the importance of planting fresh cassava cuttings as the plot planted with fresh cuttings looks more beautiful than the old cuttings. • I have realized that double plough + ridges is better than zero-tillage. Simeon Fabiyi – CAVA II OG
  40. 40. Testimonies from Extension Agents www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org I have learnt the following • Cassava spacing of 0.8m x 1m against 1m x 1m. • Gapping. • Timely and frequent weeding. • Importance of planting fresh cassava cuttings. • Cassava monocrop performs better in the field than when it is mixed with another crop. Adebiyi Paul – CAVA II OG
  41. 41. Learning from development partners www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org What have we learned so far? 1. Engagement with EAs • Good human relations are important! • Close monitoring of EAs is needed, and remuneration is key… • EAs are now familiar with the use of smartphones but continued training is necessary • EAs have increased their skills in good agricultural practice 2. Process of the validation • Increased knowledge on land preparation and tillage operation, plant spacing (and space between each ridges), gapping, the use of herbicides in cassava and the potential of new cassava varieties • The exercise serves as “theory of change” to deliver the improved practices and strengthens interactions between Extension Agents and farmers • Farmers are eager to use the BPP-DST if well packaged for the enhancement of higher productivity and increased income 3. Recommendation from the tool • It makes farming easier for the farmers • Its an eye-opener to the farmers • The DST can serve as an improvement to the CAVA-II advisory services program
  42. 42. Thank you very much !!! Questions and discussion www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org | www.acai-project.org

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