Ubuntu for extreme beginners


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  • We'll discuss some basics for about 30 minutes, then move on to computers and run Ubuntu Linux for the first time. We'll run Ubuntu from a “Live CD” which means no changes will be done to the existing system. We'll have a look at the running system, explain the GUI and basic use of Ubuntu.
  • Operating system makes your hardware function and allows you to do things with the hardware. MS DOS and FreeDOS are disk operating systems – meaning they only provide access to disks and execution of COM and EXE files. They allow to run one process at a time. You may remember that in the old days you had to pick the graphics and sound card type before staring a game: the drivers were included in the game itself! *NIX-like and modern Windows systems provide functionality that all applications share: access to hardware, shared libraries, dynamic library loading, multiprocessing... GNU/Linux: Linux is an open source kernel – provides that shared functionality. But it provides it by utilizing GNU software: compilers, shells, core libraries.
  • Linux was mostly used by computer geeks because it gave them freedom to hack around the operating system, build strange device drivers and see source code of all software running on their system. ...until Canonical announced Ubuntu. They focused on making Linux look user friendly and provide all the functionality an average computer user would require. Ubuntu is used daily in many organizations, mostly powering the server environment, but is becoming very popular with casual computer users.
  • Adding applications to Ubuntu can be done in several ways: through official and unofficial software repositories, developer repositories, source code. Main configuration for Linux systems resides in etc folder on file system root. Software sources can be configured using System -> Administration -> Software sources, command line or by editing /etc/apt/sources.list Proxy configuration may be required: System -> Preferences -> Network proxy
  • Ubuntu for extreme beginners

    1. 1. Ubuntu for extreme beginners Matija Obreza, Software Development Service
    2. 2. Session overview <ul><li>Duration: 2h </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Ubuntu </li></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Installing software </li></ul><ul><li>Software alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul>
    3. 3. Ubuntu <ul><li>Is an operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOS: Disk Operating System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is a distribution of GNU/Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is a variant of Debian distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very powerful package management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But focused on end-users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux for masses </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Reasons to use Ubuntu <ul><li>Free software, no licensing fees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free as in freedom, not only free as “free beer” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid alternatives to software you use daily </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF generation built in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gimp instead of Adobe Photoshop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenOffice.org for MS Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MonoDevelop instead of MS Visual studio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eclipse for Java, C, C++ development </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Ubuntu LiveCD <ul><li>Allows to try out Ubuntu </li></ul><ul><li>No changes to existing system </li></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu Desktop edition </li></ul><ul><li>Booting Live CD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO -> Burn to CD -> Boot from CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO -> Convert to USB -> Boot from USB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu Desktop edition running </li></ul><ul><li>LiveCD does not require login </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Username ubuntu , no password </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Ubuntu Desktop <ul><li>Panels </li></ul><ul><li>Applets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Menu bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Window list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workspaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Session indicator </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Ubuntu desktop basics <ul><li>Navigating the desktop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubuntu menus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logout </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where's my stuff? Places. Home folder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nautilus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rest of the file system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network settings with NetworkManager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System configuration and administration </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Give it a try!
    9. 9. Hands-on training <ul><li>Boot into Live CD </li></ul><ul><li>Change desktop background to solid color </li></ul><ul><li>Change screen resolution to 800x600 and back </li></ul><ul><li>Create a text file on Desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Find text file using Nautilus </li></ul><ul><li>Browse http://www.iita.org </li></ul><ul><li>Open a MS Word document </li></ul><ul><li>Generate PDF </li></ul>
    10. 10. Moving on!
    11. 11. Users, groups and permissions <ul><li>User accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier permissions management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Root account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly disabled, must use sudo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Root access” to the system means entire access to system </li></ul><ul><li>Act as super-user </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompted for own password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be member of group admin </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Installing applications <ul><li>Ubuntu Software center </li></ul><ul><li>Software sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repositories: main, universe, restricted, multiverse, backports, PPAs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Installing from shell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aptitude, apt-get </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The Usual Suspects <ul><li>Word processor: OpenOffice.org Writer </li></ul><ul><li>Mail client: Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Browser: Firefox </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets: OpenOffice.org Calc </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations: OpenOffice.org Impress </li></ul><ul><li>Bittorrent: Deluge, Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Photo management: F-Spot </li></ul><ul><li>Music collection: Rhytmbox </li></ul><ul><li>Live CD has limited number of installed applications </li></ul>
    14. 14. Hands-on training <ul><li>Add account for yourself to the system </li></ul><ul><li>Switch user </li></ul><ul><li>Try installing an application </li></ul><ul><li>Find other user's home directory with Nautilus </li></ul><ul><li>Protect your home directory (Permissions) </li></ul><ul><li>Switch back to ubuntu user </li></ul><ul><li>Grant yourself system admin rights </li></ul><ul><li>Switch to yourself and install something </li></ul>
    15. 15. Shell basics
    16. 16. shell <ul><li>This is the scary bit </li></ul><ul><li>Can do everything </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like DOS </li></ul><ul><li>“ Terminal” </li></ul><ul><li>sudo – do something as super-user </li></ul><ul><li>Most instructions on Internet will involve executing some commands through shell </li></ul><ul><li>Commands: ls, ps, top, cd, pwd, kill, reboot, poweroff, man, cp, mkdir, rmdir </li></ul>
    17. 17. Hands-on training: Navigation and files <ul><li>Start the terminal </li></ul><ul><li>What's the current directory? </li></ul><ul><li>Create a folder “training” </li></ul><ul><li>Navigate to folder </li></ul><ul><li>Create “README” file in “training” folder </li></ul><ul><li>Create “deleteme.txt” file </li></ul><ul><li>Remove deleteme.txt file </li></ul><ul><li>Wipe “training” folder </li></ul><ul><li>Find help for using command rmdir </li></ul>
    18. 18. Hands-on training: aptitude, apt-get <ul><li>Launch aptitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install “bsdgames” package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove “bsdgames” package </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Install “bsdgames” package using apt-get </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find instructions for apt-get </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install the package with apt-get </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove package with apt-get </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Updating available software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Update with apt-get </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Hands-on training: Processes <ul><li>Using terminal, find running processes with ps command </li></ul><ul><li>Launch gedit from the menu </li></ul><ul><li>Find PID (process ID) of gedit </li></ul><ul><li>Kill gedit process using kill command </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signals: TERM, HUP, KILL, USER1, USER2 </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Ready to install?
    21. 21. Installing Ubuntu <ul><li>Ubuntu editions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Netbook: for small screen computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop: no LVM during installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server: no GUI during installation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Installing from CD/DVD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO install images, Live CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burn and boot from CD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Installing from USB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert ISO to bootable USB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boot from USB </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Installation process <ul><li>http://www.ubuntu.com/desktop/get-ubuntu </li></ul><ul><li>Follow instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Installation worries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To dual-boot or not to dual-boot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partitioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dual boot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate Windows and Ubuntu partitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boot loader (Grub) </li></ul></ul>