West African Fruit Fly Initiative              Jean-François Vayssières, Antonio Sinzogan,              Jean-Franç     Vay...
 In 2006, estimated cultivated mango areas were ~ 2 300 ha  (90% grafted (2 070 ha) and 10% non grafted (230 ha)). Graft...
 Alien species:probably originated fromIndia and Sri Lanka. Species highlypolyphagous (targets:more than 40 species offr...
November 24th 2009   Jean-François Vayssières et al..   IITA - R4D - Ibadan
=> Cultural by grafted ealier cv on late cv...=> Prophylactic by collected damaged fruits…=> Biological control with weave...
• A similar asian species, Oecophylla smaragdina, has been used  in S.E. Asia by the growers 2000 years ago: this is the o...
Ecology andbehaviour of theAfrican weaver antare not well knownand should beimproved underdifferentapproaches: Agro-ecolo...
• Weaver ant rarely capture fruit fly adults. This  type of predation could be observe after many  observations in the fie...
Loss assessment in 2005 (end of April) Ant abundance           Nil                  low                  medium         Hi...
 In dpt of Borgou (Benin) most of growers have adopted weaver ants against fruit flies since 2005. Some of them have intr...
 To write new leaflets, and new articles.  To participate to rural video projections.  Leaflets will be translated in l...
 Very economic; very industrious; self maintain & self   regeneration… Save up growers time and labor by being permanent...
West African24th 2009 Initiative   November Fruit Fly              Jean-François Vayssières et al..   IITA - R4D - Ibadan
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The impact of the red ants on the mango fruit fly species

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Ecology and behaviour of the African weaver ant are not well known and should be improved under different approaches:
-Agro-ecological
-Socio-economic
-Technical

Published in: Technology, Self Improvement
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The impact of the red ants on the mango fruit fly species

  1. 1. West African Fruit Fly Initiative Jean-François Vayssières, Antonio Sinzogan, Jean-Franç Vayssiè Apollinaire Adandonon, Ousmane Coulibaly, Paul Van Coulibaly, Mele (IITA-CIRAD-ARC Cotonou). (IITA-CIRAD- Cotonou).November 24th 2009 Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan
  2. 2.  In 2006, estimated cultivated mango areas were ~ 2 300 ha (90% grafted (2 070 ha) and 10% non grafted (230 ha)). Grafted mango losses in 2006...........................3,4 t/ha Non grafted mango losses in 2006....................2,2 t/ha Total grafted mango losses in 2006 .......................7 038 tonnes Total non grafted mango losses in 2006.................. 506 tonnes Estimated grafted mango losses in 2006......... 422 280 000 FCFA Estimated non grafted mango losses in 200... 12 650 000 FCFA TOTAL....434 930 000 FCFA = 663 000 € = ~ 966 000 US$November 24th 2009 Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan
  3. 3.  Alien species:probably originated fromIndia and Sri Lanka. Species highlypolyphagous (targets:more than 40 species offruit crops in Benin). Exotic species withhigh bioticpotentialities (> thanthose of native species). November 24th 2009 Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan
  4. 4. November 24th 2009 Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan
  5. 5. => Cultural by grafted ealier cv on late cv...=> Prophylactic by collected damaged fruits…=> Biological control with weaver ants (generalist predators).=> Biological control with micro-wasps (native or exotic parasitoid species).=> Biological control with entomopathogens.=> Integrated Pest Management with GF 120 spot TTT, other bait sprays, MAT…=> Post-harvest TTT with hot-water TTT. November 24th 2009 Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan
  6. 6. • A similar asian species, Oecophylla smaragdina, has been used in S.E. Asia by the growers 2000 years ago: this is the oldest example of biological control.• The australian growers also are using Oecophylla smaragdina in their orchads with efficacy (Peng, 2005).• In Africa, Oecophylla longinoda is a generalist predator of different types of insectes; a colonies of 12 nests could carry 45 000 preys per year (Dejean, 1991).• The control of mango fruit fly species in West Africa is not still really achieved...!!!• So, it was relevant to launch the study on african W.A. in 2005. November 24th 2009CIRAD-IITA-WARDA’ team Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan
  7. 7. Ecology andbehaviour of theAfrican weaver antare not well knownand should beimproved underdifferentapproaches: Agro-ecological Socio-economic Technical. November 24th 2009 Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan
  8. 8. • Weaver ant rarely capture fruit fly adults. This type of predation could be observe after many observations in the field....• Weaver ant use to capture fruit fly larvae (L 3)• KEY POINT : Female of fruit fly avoid laying eggs by detecting the territories of enemy ants through mainly chemical cues (pheromones) left by ants on fruits they have patrolled on...November 24th 2009 Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan
  9. 9. Loss assessment in 2005 (end of April) Ant abundance Nil low medium High Nb trees 85 178 77 40 Nb nests/ tree 0 1à4 5à8 >8 Loss due to FF 24.1 ± 1.3a 15.4 ± 0.9b 7.0 ± 0.9c 0.8 ± 0.4d Losses caused by fruit flies depend on ant abundance on the tree. The lower the ant abundance the higher the damage. High abundance of ants on the mango trees reduce considerably losses caused by fruit flies.November 24th 2009 Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan
  10. 10.  In dpt of Borgou (Benin) most of growers have adopted weaver ants against fruit flies since 2005. Some of them have introduced Oecophylla colonies…  In other dpt of Benin, other experiments and F.F.S. are planned in 2010. Visits in orchards of Borgou where this control method is working is also planned.  In other countries of West African Fruit Fly Initiative workshops, F.F.S., different tests are planned with growers associations, NARS and extension services...November 24th 2009 Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan
  11. 11.  To write new leaflets, and new articles.  To participate to rural video projections.  Leaflets will be translated in local languages (Fon, Dindi, Bariba, Yoruba in Benin, Mossi in Burkina, Bambara in Mali, Wolof in Senegal, Puular and Soussou in Guinea, Dioula in Côte d’Ivoire…).  Available: one leaflet (WAFFI n°= 5) in FV & EV, 4 articles (JEE, IJPM 2, PE), and 1 in R4D on this issue.November 24th 2009 Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan
  12. 12.  Very economic; very industrious; self maintain & self regeneration… Save up growers time and labor by being permanent in the orchards. Weaver ant are widespread in all West Africa from St Louis to Lagos, from sahelian zone to Guinean zone, even they are more abundant in Guinean and Soudanian zones. Natural enemies free of charge and available all the time …! November 24th 2009 Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan
  13. 13. West African24th 2009 Initiative November Fruit Fly Jean-François Vayssières et al.. IITA - R4D - Ibadan

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