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Soybean and cowpea seed production

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importance and classes of seeds
establishment and management of seed fields
quality control

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Soybean and cowpea seed production

  1. 1. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org SOYBEAN AND COWPEA SEED PRODUCTION Baffour Asafo-Adjei IITA, Ibadan Aug. 12, 2015
  2. 2. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org
  3. 3. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org
  4. 4. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org OUTLINE • Introduction (Importance and Classes of seeds) • Establishment and management of seed fields • Harvesting and postharvest conditioning of seeds • Quality control
  5. 5. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org INTRODUCTION • The yield (genetic) potential of a crop resides in the seeds. • Seed is therefore the most important input that determines the productivity of any crop • Access and use of quality seeds of improved varieties are crucial for food and income security at household, community and national levels.
  6. 6. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org CLASSES OF SEED Breeder Seed Small pure seed quantity directly produced by the originating plant breeder or institution. Basic (Foundation) Seed The progeny of breeder seed or pre-basic seed Certified Seed Progeny of foundation seed
  7. 7. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org ESTABLISHMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SEED FIELDS • Similar to grain crop field except that seed fields require more care and quality standards must be met before seeds can be certified by the mandated institution/organization.
  8. 8. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org ESTABLISHMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SEEDS FIELDS Establishment of seed field: • Choice of varieties/seed source • Site selection and Land preparation • Planting: Where, when and how to plant Management of fields: • Roguing, • Fertilizer application, • Weed control, diseases, insects and other pests control measures
  9. 9. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org CHOICE OF VARIETIES/SEED SOURCE • Produce seeds of recommended released varieties • The varieties must be among the those that are most sought after by farmers – These may be existing varieties or new varieties with higher yield potential and /or has special traits of importance. • Purchase foundation seeds from approved sources
  10. 10. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org CHOICE OF VARIETIES/SEED SOURCE  Research institutions have the mandate to produce breeder seeds of varieties they develop. They may also produce foundation seeds of their varieties if the law allows it.  Private seed companies and public institutions may also be given approval by law to produce foundation seeds.  Certified seed producing entities (companies, FBOs, NGOs etc.) should buy foundation seeds from approved sources only to produce certified seeds.
  11. 11. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Approved sources of foundation seeds of cowpea and soybean in Nigeria and Ghana Crop Approved Sources/Institutions Cowpea Nigeria: IAR, IAR&T, and IITA Ghana: GLDB, CRI (?) & SARI (?) Soybean Nigeria: IAR, NCRI-Badeggi & IITA Ghana: GLDB, CRI (?) & SARI (?)
  12. 12. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org CHOICE OF VARIETIES/SEED SOURCE Contd. Make sure that: • Seeds packages/bags bear appropriate certification label indicating name of producer, date of production/packaging, purity and germination percentage. • Seeds not ready to be used should be stored properly in the cold room if available or in a cool dry place to prevent deterioration and loss of viability
  13. 13. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org PLANTING • Where to plant (Site selection) • When to plant • How to plant
  14. 14. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org WHERE TO PLANT: SITE SELECTION • Site selection is crucial in seed production. A bad choice reduces the potential yields of seeds. • Very important to consider climate (especially rainfall), soil type and topography (slope) of the area among other factors.
  15. 15. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org SITE SELECTION contd. Choose areas:  With deep well drained fertile soils  That are fairly flat – with gentle slopes  That are easily accessible  That are well isolated from fields planted to same species - especially for cross pollinated crops  Where possible, that have easy access to water – that may be needed to spray pesticides. • Avoid areas that have large shady trees, ant hills and termite colonies
  16. 16. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org LAND PREPARATION  Land preparation is important because it influences seed germination, seedling establishment and plant vigour.  Poor land preparation can lead to soil erosion, poor weed control, water logging conditions, incidence of diseases and poor yields.  Prepare land such that seed bed or soil is loose to ensure good aeration, good moisture holding capacity and is free from weeds
  17. 17. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org LAND PREPARATION Three Main Methods - Manual land preparation (Machetes & hoes) - Mechanised land preparation (use of tractors and animal traction) - Minimum Tillage/Zero Tillage (application of glyphosate at a rate of 3-5l/ha)
  18. 18. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org LAND PREPARED BY TRACTOR: PLOUGHED, HARROWED AND MARKED / RIDGED
  19. 19. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org WHICH METHOD TO CHOOSE?  All three methods of land preparation have advantages and disadvantages.  Choice of method may depend on the nature of the land/field, financial resource of seed producer and availability of facilities to support the method chosen.
  20. 20. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org WHEN TO PLANT? • When do farmers in your area normally plant their soybean? • When does the rainy season start, stabilize and end in your operational area? • What is the growth duration of your variety - early, medium or late maturing?
  21. 21. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org WHEN TO PLANT? cont.  Knowledge about the climatic conditions in your area should guide you to determine the best time to plant soybean/cowpea and harvest good quality seeds.  Always plant soybean/cowpea such that there will be adequate rain throughout the growth of your crop and that maturity will coincide with the end of the rains for good yield of good quality seeds.
  22. 22. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org PLANTING: When to Plant Agro-ecology Early maturity Medium/late maturity Guinea Savanna zone (SGS & NGS) Soybean: Mid-June - End of July Early June – Early July Late July – Early Aug. Cowpea: Early - Mid-Aug. Derived Savanna and Forest zones Soybean: Mid-July – Mid-August Early July – early August Cowpea: Early - Mid-Sept. Early Sept.
  23. 23. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org GERMINATION TEST Always conduct germination test on your seed one week before planting.  If germination is 85% or more, plant using recommended seeding rate.  If germination is less than 85% but greater than or equal to 60%, adjust seeding rate accordingly  If germination is less than 60%, get new seed or double the seeding rate
  24. 24. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org PLANTING: How to plant Soybean and cowpea are self pollinated specie with negligible outcrossing. However a minimum isolation distance of 5m must be maintained between adjacent fields. • Plant when soil is moist preferably after a good rain. • Plant in rows using recommended spacing either on the flat or on ridges. • Plant at proper depth (3 – 5cm) and cover properly.
  25. 25. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org PLANTING: How to plant contd. Recommended inter row spacing It varies depending on maturity and growth habit of the variety. For soybean: Use wider row width of 75cm for medium and late maturing varieties and semi-erect early varieties. Use narrow row width of 60cm for early erect varieties For cowpea: Use wider row width of 60cm for prostrate & semi-erect medium maturing varieties and prostrate early varieties. Use narrow row width of 50cm for early erect and semi-erect varieties
  26. 26. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org PLANTING: How to plant contd. Plant using the recommended inter & intra row spacing  After germination, thin plants to the desired within row spacing or refill gaps 2 WAP. Thinning and refilling must be done when soil is moist or after a good rainfall.
  27. 27. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org RECOMMENDED SPACING FOR SOYBEAN VARIETIES Spacing Early Varieties Medium Varieties Between rows (cm) 60 60 60 75 Within row (cm) 5 10 15 5 Seeds/hill 1 2 2 1 Expected plant pop. / ha 333,300 333,300 222,200 266,700
  28. 28. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org RECOMMENDED SPACING FOR COWPEA VARIETIES Spacing Early Varieties Prost. E & S-E Medium Varieties Between rows (cm) 60 50 60 50 Within row (cm) 20 20 20 20 Seeds/hill 2 2 2 2 Expected plant pop. / ha 166,667 200,000 166,667 200,000
  29. 29. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org MANAGEMENT OF SEED FIELDS Key activities in the management of seed fields  Roguing  Application fertilizer at recommended rate  Control weeds  Control diseases, insect pests and other pests as and when necessary
  30. 30. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org MANAGEMENT: Roguing • Removing unwanted plants(off-types, diseased and damaged plants from the seed field as a way of maintaining the genetic & physical purity of the variety. • Done from seedling stage to harvest time. • Must be thorough to meet certification standards (0.5% off-types for Certified seeds)
  31. 31. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org MANAGEMENT: Fertilizer application  Fertilizer requirements for soybean and cowpea depend on fertility of the soil. No fertilizer is required on fertile soils  Apply fertilizer on poor soils or continuously cropped fields with little or no fertilizer applied  Apply fertilizer at planting or 7 – 10 days after germination
  32. 32. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org MANAGEMENT: Fertilizer application cont. Recommended fertilizer rates Inorganic fertilizer Organic fertilizer Apply 2-3 bags (100-150kg) NPK (15- 15-15) per ha and 2 bags (100 kg) Single Super Phosphate (SSP) per ha The above inorganic levels add up to 15-23 kg N/ha, 30-38kg P2O5/ha and 15-23kg K2O/ha. Cow dung: Apply 3t/ha. Poultry manure: Apply 4t/ha Compost: Apply 5t/ha
  33. 33. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org MANAGEMENT: Weed control Weeds can cause yield losses because they compete with soybean for nutrients, water and sunlight and may harbour pests and diseases. Keep seed fields weed-free especially during the first six weeks after planting Weeds may be controlled manually using hoes/machetes, and also by using herbicides.
  34. 34. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org MANAGEMENT: Weed control • Manual: If land was well prepared, two hand weeding 3wap and 5-6wap will give adequate weed control since crop canopy may have closed by 7–8wap • Chemical: If glyphosate was used in land preparation or a recommended pre-emergence herbicide was applied they give good weed control in first 3wap. Only one hand weeding 5-6wap may be required plus selective weeding if necessary Note: Seek advice from your weed scientists on the correct weedicide to use and the rate of application
  35. 35. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org MANAGEMENT: Diseases control Few important soybean diseases in Nigeria. • Viruses: Soybean mosaic and soybean yellow mosaic viruses • Bacteria: Bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae), Bacterial pustule (Xanthomonas spp.) • Fungi: Frogeye leaf spot, Purple seed stain and Soybean rust
  36. 36. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org MANAGEMENT: Diseases control Contd. • Root-knot nematodes: • Current recommended soybean and cowpea varieties are resistant/tolerant to most of the important diseases • Integrated disease management approach – Use resistant/tolerant varieties, clean treated seeds and adopt good crop management practices such as timely planting, correct spacing, proper weed control and timely harvesting.
  37. 37. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org SOYBEAN VIRAL DISEASES
  38. 38. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org SOYBEAN MOSAIC VIRUS
  39. 39. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org SOYBEAN BACTERIAL DISEASES Bacterial Pustule Bacterial blight
  40. 40. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org CERCOSPORA LEAF SPOT (PURPLE STAIN)
  41. 41. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org FROG EYE LEAF SPOT
  42. 42. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org RED LEAF BLOTCH
  43. 43. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org SOYBEAN RUST
  44. 44. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org SOYBEAN ROOT KNOT NEMATODE
  45. 45. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org MANAGEMENT: Insect pests control Soybean has few insect pest problems in W. Africa compared to cowpea.  Pod-sucking bugs (PSBs) and leaf-eating caterpillars may cause serious yield losses if not controlled.  Control them by applying Cymethoate super at a rate of 1l/ha (100 ml/15 l water) or Diamethoate or Perfekthion at 2l/ha (200 ml/15 l water).  The insects are easier to spot in the morning than midday or evening.
  46. 46. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org PSB Damage  Pod sucking bugs suck sap from the developing pods and seeds causing them to shrivel and drop-off  Inspect fields regularly for PSBs when pod elongation starts  Spray insecticide when you find 1 adult or large nymph per meter row
  47. 47. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org COWPEA APHIDS ANDFLOWER THRIPS Flower bud thrips
  48. 48. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org MANAGEMENT: Rodents and Birds control • Rodents (especially rats, mice and wild rabbits) can cause serious damage by eating the seedlings and green pods. Rodent damage is most common when fields and their surroundings are weedy. • Birds (such as doves, partridges and crows) also pick seeds after planting; eat cotyledons or seedlings and immature seeds in pods. • Scare rodents and birds (where possible), especially early in the morning and evenings and keep your farm and its immediate vicinity free from weeds.
  49. 49. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org HARVESTING • Your knowledge of the varieties maturity and the time you planted should give you an idea about the expected time to harvest • The crop is matured and ready for harvesting when over 95% of pods turn brown/gray/tawny (mature pod color). At this stage, most of the leaves may have shed, and seeds feel harder when felt between your fingers, and pod rattles when shaken
  50. 50. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org HARVESTING Cont. • Harvest promptly when the crop is matured. • Harvest at mid-morning or late in the afternoon when pods are dry (not dump or too dry to shatter). • Harvest manually (soybean - by cutting plants at soil level or uprooting them; cowpea – by picking matured pods). Spread harvested plants on a clean flat dry area or on tarpaulin and thresh when pods are dry enough for threshing.
  51. 51. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org WHY HARVEST PROMPTLY? • Avoid field weathering that result in seed deterioration • Avoid diseases and prevent pest attack and infestation • Prevent shattering • Minimize loss of crop to bush fire, theft and destruction by animals • Ensure good quality seed and better economic returns.
  52. 52. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org POST-HARVEST PROCESSING / CONDITIONING It involves the following sequence of activities: • Threshing of harvested dry soybean/cowpea (at 14 -16% moisture content) • Further drying of seeds to 8 - 12% moisture content • Cleaning of seeds • Grading or sorting out seeds according to size. • Treating seeds with recommended seed treatment chemical • Bagging/packaging of seeds in varying quantities
  53. 53. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org THRESHING: OLD FASHION WAY?
  54. 54. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org LOCALLY MANUFACTURED MULTI PURPOSE THRESHER
  55. 55. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org SEED CONDITIONING: CLEANING PROCESS
  56. 56. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org REHABILITATED SEED PROCESSING PLANT AT IBADAN
  57. 57. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org QUALITY CONTROL • The Regulatory Agency and seed producers have the collective responsibility of ensuring that only good quality seeds are produced and marketed. • They must play their respective roles diligently at all times to ensure good quality seeds are produced for sale.
  58. 58. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org QUALITY CONTROL: ROLE OF REGULATORY AGENCY  Responsible for enforcing compliance to regulations governing seed production in the country  Only seeds that meet regulatory requirements should be certified  Ensure F/S used to produce C/S are from approved sources (check certification tag or purchase receipts as proof)
  59. 59. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org QUALITY CONTROL: ROLE OF REGULATORY AGENCY  Inspect site for seed production to confirm field is properly isolated from fields of other varieties of the same crop and at planting to ascertain seed source .  Inspect fields at flowering and harvesting periods to confirm off-types, diseases infected and damaged plants are removed (proper roguing done).  Test seeds for purity and germination
  60. 60. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org QUALITY CONTROL: ROLE OF REGULATORY AGENCY Prepare and issue inspection report after each inspection. If all requirements are met, certify seed and tag accordingly.
  61. 61. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org QUALITY CONTROL: ROLE OF SEED PRODUCERS Make sure:  Foundation seed is purchased from approved sources  Seed fields are properly isolated  You remove off types, diseases infected and damaged plants from seed fields  Proper weed, diseases and insect pest control measure are taken to maintain clean and healthy seed fields
  62. 62. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org SEED TESTING • Objective is to assess the quality of seeds for sowing • Minimize risk of farmers using seeds that do not have the capacity to produce a good crop. • May be conducted on raw seed, freshly conditioned seed or seed that has been storage for some time
  63. 63. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org SEED TESTING Contd. It involves sampling and analysis for • Seed purity, to determine percentage by weight of other varieties, other crops & weed seeds, inert materials etc. • Germination capacity - most important method used by Certification Agencies • Moisture content • Seed health testing
  64. 64. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org THANK YOU

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