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Soil Microbiology!

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Presentation during IITA R4D week 2015 (23 - 27 Nov. 2015). By: Danny Coyne.

Published in: Science
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Soil Microbiology!

  1. 1. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Soil Microbiology! Danny Coyne 24th November 2015 (R4D Week 2015)
  2. 2. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Soil Microbiology! Lots and lots of people IITA + R4D Week, Ibadan, November, 2015
  3. 3. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium
  4. 4. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium
  5. 5. A member of CGIAR consortium THE UNCONVENTIONAL
  6. 6. The Soil “If we are to feed growing populations and cope with climate change, we need accurate information on the state of Africa's soils” Nteranya Sanginga TSBF-CIAT On the announcement of a $18 million project to map soils
  7. 7. A member of CGIAR consortium Soil Biodiversity AMF Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi
  8. 8. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Soil Biodiversity AMF Benin
  9. 9. AMF species biodiversity potential?? Total identified: 8 genera 59 species Six new species described: Racocetra beninensis n.sp. Racocetra tropicana n.sp. Acaulospora sieverdingii n.sp Acaulospora minuta n.sp. Acaulospora spinosissoma n.sp. Acaulospora fossa n.sp. Revision of the Glomeromycotes, with description of two new families and eight new genera and organization of glomoid species BOTANISCHES INSTITUT DER UNIVERSITÄT BASEL (SCHWEIZ)
  10. 10. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Soil Biodiversity
  11. 11. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Our knowledge of BENEFICIAL soil biota in Africa?? Soil Biodiversity
  12. 12. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Production growth will need to come from intensification In Africa
  13. 13. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Maize-legume farming systems • 20% of the cultivated area Maize-legume crisis • Soil fertility • Pests and diseases • Low productivity
  14. 14. A member of CGIAR consortium
  15. 15. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Enhancing legume productivity  Major efforts through two projects • Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa (N2Africa) • Institutionalization of quality assurance and dissemination of high quality commercial products (COMPRO-II)
  16. 16. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium • Prospecting for Rhizobia: – What is there • Selection for performance strains/species : – best bets • Local adaptation and suitability: − From best bet to ‘best fits’ Rhizobiology
  17. 17. Progress in rhizobiology e.g. Kenya Bio-prospecting Preliminary screening Greenhouse assessment Competitive abilities Field testing 208 isolates 186 100 24 16
  18. 18. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Response to rhizobia Cowpea biomass
  19. 19. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Optimizing N levels However Soil Total Nitrogen %
  20. 20. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium COMPRO  >100 products evaluated  ~ 3000 trials in 2015  mainly bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides,  ≥ 90% have been found sub- standard or ineffective Promotion of quality products through COMPRO and N2Africa increase farmer confidence and adoption of biological products
  21. 21. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium N2Africa Product registration : NAFDAQ approval in 2015
  22. 22. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium endophytes Spore suspension drench Biological enhancement of planting material
  23. 23. A member of CGIAR consortium endophytes Delivery of microbial inoculants with endophytes without endophytes
  24. 24. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium
  25. 25. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Striga www.iita.org
  26. 26. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Striga Wilts
  27. 27. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Striga Wilts
  28. 28. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Striga Wilts Root Rots
  29. 29. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Striga Wilts Root Rots Etc…………
  30. 30. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Root-knot nematodes Effective partnerships
  31. 31. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Tropical root-knot nematodes Targeting  Species delimitation is problematic because they are the result of hybridization! new species? A C A A C C new species? A C A A C C new species? A C A A C C sister species A C C T G G sister species A C C T G G sister species A C C T G G other species1 A T C A G C other species1 A T C A G C other species1 A T C A G T other species2 C T C A G C other species2 C T C A G C other species2 C T C A G C
  32. 32. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Molecular identification of root-knot nematodes in Africa Benin Kenya Nigeria Tanzania Uganda
  33. 33. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Molecular identification of root-knot nematodes in Africa Targeting Pagan, C., Coyne, D., Carneiro, R., Kariuki, G., Luambana, N., Affokpon, A., and Williamson, V. M. 2015. Mitochondrial haplotype-based identification of ethanol-preserved root-knot nematodes from Africa. Phytopathology 105:350-357 Janssen, Karssen, Verhaeven, Coyne and Bert. 2015. Mitochondrial coding genome analysis of tropical root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne) supports haplotype based diagnostics and reveals evidence of recent reticulate evolution. Scientific Reports Nature Effective partnerships
  34. 34. A member of CGIAR consortium THE UNCONVENTIONAL New Science to Tackle Persistent Problems
  35. 35. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium AMF A MICROBIAL REVOLUTION: improving mycorrhizal fungi to increase cassava productivity in Africa
  36. 36. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium AMF  Selection of progeny from parents with genetic variability AMF Inoculated Selection of the locus (SSU rDNA)  will support a greater range of responses in cassava
  37. 37. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Selection of the locus (SSU rDNA) THE UNCONVENTIONAL
  38. 38. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium THE UNCONVENTIONAL
  39. 39. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Novel Delivery - Protists  single-celled, e.g. ciliates, protozoans  ingest micro-particles or bacteria  move through unsaturated soils  can chemotact toward the root tips Protists
  40. 40. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Particulates may include: - beneficial bacteria or - encapsulated chemicals or - encapsulated nutrients Protists
  41. 41. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium  SO – can we exploit them for plant protection?  Viral nanoparticles serve as applications in medicine Red clover necrotic mosaic virus-based plant viral nanoparticle (PVN) carrier unconventional
  42. 42. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium PVN delivery www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium
  43. 43. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium enhanced delivery of anthelminthic compounds at low rates using PVN carrier Abamectin (Abm) is a strong biological pesticide BUT poor mobility in the soil PVN delivery
  44. 44. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Transgenic neuropeptide nematicides  Strongly protective against nematode infection  Neuropeptide genes coordinate crucial behaviors unconventional
  45. 45. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Neuropeptides Delivery by Rhizobacteria & Microalgae
  46. 46. Re-cap
  47. 47. Productivity – yield gaps Keating et al., 2010 Production growth will need to come from intensification In Africa
  48. 48. Sustainable Intensification of smallholder farming systems in sub‐Saharan Africa
  49. 49. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Way forward ”……accurate information on the state of Africa's soils”  Biological control  Delivery - targeted  Quality control  Product development  at scale
  50. 50. It is not always what you see that matters

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