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Narrowing the Crop Yield Gap through Better Agronomy & Plant Health Management

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Presentation during IITA R4D week 2015 (23 - 27 Nov. 2015). By: David Chikoye.

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Narrowing the Crop Yield Gap through Better Agronomy & Plant Health Management

  1. 1. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Narrowing the Crop Yield Gap through Better Agronomy & Plant Health Management David Chikoye 23rd November 2015 (R4D Week 2015)
  2. 2. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Narrowing the Crop Yield Gap through Better Agronomy & Plant Health Management R4D Week 23 November 2015 Ibadan, Nigeria Plant Production & Health Management Strategic Plan 2012-2020
  3. 3. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium  Overview of PPHM strategy • Review strategic Objectives • Priority Research Areas • Highlights of selected activities • Emerging challenges  Five thematic presentations  Question & answer  Poster session Program outline
  4. 4. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium  SO1: Innovative crop management options  SO2: Environmentally friendly pest management options  SO3: Technology, knowledge and information sharing  S04: Partnerships and capacity development Strategic Objectives
  5. 5. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Priority research areas  Assess crop yield gap due to multiple stresses  Crop models and decision support systems  Physiological basis for crop adaptation to stressful conditions  Knowledge based weed management practices  Water & nutrient management options SO1: Crop Management Options
  6. 6. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Priority research areas  Pest risk assessment & phenology models  Diagnosis & surveillance of emerging pests and diseases  Management options for insect pests and diseases  Innovative methods for production of bio- pesticides SO2: Pest Management Options
  7. 7. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium  Integrated Striga management in maize  Weed management in cassava systems  Aflatoxin mitigation in maize and groundnuts  Emerging challenges Examples of progress to date
  8. 8. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium • Current maize yield (< 1.5t/ha) • Current cowpea yield (< 0.5t/ha)  Striga is a parasitic weed - maize, sorghum, millet and cowpea  S. hermonthica - infested 2.4 to 4 million ha of land in SSA under maize  Yield losses valued at US$ 383 million to US$ 1 billion Integrated Striga management
  9. 9. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Available Striga control technologies  Striga resistant/tolerant varieties (maize/cowpeas)  Cereal – legume rotation/intercrops  Herbicide resistant (IR) maize//seed coating  Biological control options Integrated Striga management
  10. 10. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Grain yield and Striga count of maize varieties following soybean (rotation) on farmers’ field with & without nitrogen in Kano, 2013 Treatment Year 1 Maize variety Year 2 Maize grain yield (kg/ha) Striga stand (#/ha) Without N With N Without N With N Maize Maize (FC) 209 2031 18563 2237 Soybean 2009 TZEE W 800 3333 16000 1045 Soybean 2009 EVDT STR W 975 3426 8107 1629 Soybean DT STR SYN2 W 1400 3386 800 495 Soybean IWD C2 SYN 1533 3767 4000 1229 Mean 1031 3240 7639 1243 SED 232*** 293*** 3807ns 430*** Integrated Striga management
  11. 11. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Performance of selected hybrids under artificial Striga infestation with and without herbicide treatment at two locations in 2014. Increase Increase Striga damage Hybrids With treatment Without treatment (%) With treatment Without treatment (%) (1-9) AS1412-16 4018 3413 18 5 9 -39 4 AS1412-14 3895 3223 21 5 17 -70 5 AS1412-6 3814 3210 19 7 12 -38 4 AS1412-12 3765 3277 15 1 5 -73 4 AS1412-24 3529 3052 16 2 15 -87 5 9022-13 (Tolerant) 0 2290 -100 0 68 -100 7 8338-1 (Susceptible) 0 704 -100 0 90 -100 8 Oba Super-1 (Commer.) 0 2116 -100 0 61 -100 8 Mean 2374 2809 4 26 6 LSD 1181 1152 9 32 2 CV 23 25 60 56 16 Grain yield infested (kg/ha) Emerged Striga count Integrated Striga management
  12. 12. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Biocontrol of Striga  Bioagent: F. oxysporum f.sp. strigae  Formulation: Foxy2 (West Africa) or FK3 (Kenya)  Attacks Striga at all its growth stages  Attacks only Striga  56 on farm trials in Kano and Bauchi (2014)  Striga tolerant & susceptible maize varieties Integrated Striga management Seed coating machine used (back view) Seed coating machine used (front view) Maize seeds in the of the coating machine before coating Maize seeds in the of the coating machine during coating
  13. 13. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Diseased emerged Striga plants 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Resistant Susceptible DiseasedStrigaplants(%) Farmer's choice Biocontrol b LSD (0.05) = 5.4 (***) LSD (0.05) = 8.1 (***) a b a Tolerant Diseased Striga plants Susceptible Integrated Striga management
  14. 14. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Striga damage symptoms on maize plants Striga damage rating on a scale of 1-9, where 1 = no damage symptoms and 9 = severe damage symptoms due to Striga (Berner et al., 1997) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Resistant Susceptible Strigadamagerating Farmer's choice Biocontrol a b a b LSD (0.05) = 0.3 (***) LSD (0.05) = 0.36 (***) SusceptibleTolerant Integrated Striga management
  15. 15. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium BC efficacy under SS AEZ on farm (26 locations, 15 with resistant, 11 with susceptible) 95TZE COMP4 C3 F2TZE Comp.5-W C7 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 Resistant Susceptible Maizegraimyield(kgha-1) Farmer's choice Biocontrol b LSD (0.05) = 245 (***) a a LSD (0.05) = 282 (***) b Tolerant Susceptible Integrated Striga management Maize grain yield (kg ha-1)
  16. 16. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Farmer controlBC + tolerant variety On-farm Biocontrol Technology farmer evaluation trial in Bauchi
  17. 17. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium ww.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Hand weeding using simple implements (4, 8 & 12 wap) 250-500 man hours/ha High crop losses due to delayed weeding Need to modernize weeding practices!!! Weed management in cassava systems
  18. 18. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium 18 Weed control efficacy of PRE+ POST- emergence herbicides in cassava at 10 WAP Ibadan Abeokuta Makurdi Herbicides _________________(%)_______________ 1 Cobra + Select Max 97.9 82.3 80.9 2 Envoke 97.3 82.9 86.5 3 Maister Power 97.9 84.3 84.3 4 Maister WG 97.3 82.3 82.0 5 Pre emergence only 80.1 70.3 76.8 6 Hoe weeded 84.1 77.5 79.1 Weed management in cassava systems
  19. 19. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium  Herbicide residual analysis in tubers and leaves  Environmental fate of promising herbicides  Integration of best agronomic with chemical control  Training on herbicide application technology and safe use Weed Management in Cassava Systems Future activities
  20. 20. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Aflatoxin mitigation in Africa Strain development in progress Products under testing in farmers’ fields Product ready for registration Product registered Senegal Burkina Faso Ghana Nigeria Kenya Tanzania Mozambique Zambia Rwan da Malawi Burundi Ugan da The Gambia  Aflatoxin-toxic metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus fungus  Maize & groundnut most prone  Human health: liver cancer, immune-suppression, stunted growth, death  Negatively impacts trade
  21. 21. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Farmers treating maize and groundnut fields with Aflasafe Aflatoxin reduction in corn Harvest 2009-2015 (5 countries) 83% Storage 2009-2011 (3 countries) 87% Carry-over 2009-2011 (1 country) 79% Aflatoxin reduction in groundnuts Harvest 2009-2015 (5 countries) 92% Storage 2009-2011 (2 countries) 86%
  22. 22. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium Emerging pests  Pesticide resistance in Maruca  Alectra in soybeans  Maize lethal necrosis disease  Banana fungal wilt (TR4)  Yam tuber beetles  Spittle bugs on maize  Papaya mearlybug (cassava) New challenges
  23. 23. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium  New emerging & invasive species: we are alert and ready !  Continue addressing the old problems (striga, weeds…)  Strategic implementation workshop (Jan-March 2016) New challenges
  24. 24. www.iita.orgA member of the CGIAR consortium  Physiology (Canon)  Simulation modeling (Kamara)  CBSD (Legg)  MLN (Kumar)  Crop/livestock integration (Larbi) Next Presentations

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