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A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org
MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF
SOYBEAN
Baffour Asafo-Adjei
IITA, Ibadan
July 28, 2...
A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org
OUTLINE
• Introduction
• Botany and structure of soybean plant
• Growth stages o...
A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org
INTRODUCTION
• Importance
Why is soybean important?
• Geographic Distribution
Ho...
A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org
INTRODUCTION
Importance
• Soybean is the most important grain legume in the worl...
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INTRODUCTION contd.
2012 Soybean production (FAO 2015)
Region/Country Area (Ha) ...
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INTRODUCTION contd.
Geographic Distribution
 Currently grown in various environ...
A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org
A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org
BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT
Botany
• Cultivated soybean (Glycin max) i...
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BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT contd.
Botany
• Some of the wild species m...
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BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT
Structure of soybean
plant
• Cultivated so...
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BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT
Structure of soybean plant
• There are two...
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BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT
Determinate
• Vegetative growth of termina...
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BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT
Root
• Consists of a taproot that may go d...
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BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT
Leaves
• Two main types: Primary and
Trifo...
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BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT
Inflorescence
• Soybean has a typical papi...
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BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT
Pod
• Pods are borne in clusters on short
...
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GROWTH STAGES
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DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES
Stage Stage Title Description
VE Emergence Coty...
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DESCRIPTION OF REPRODUCTIVE STAGES
Stage Stage
Title
Description
R1 Beginning
bl...
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DESCRIPTION OF REPRODUCTIVE STAGES
Stage Stage
Title
Description
R5 Beginning
se...
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DESCRIPTION OF REPRODUCTIVE STAGES
V2
• Fully developed
trifoliate leaf at node
...
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DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES
V5
• Five nodes on main
stem with fully
develop...
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DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES
R1
• One open flower at any
node on main stem
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DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES
R2
• Open flower at one of
the two uppermost
no...
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DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES
R3
• Pods 5 mm long at one
of the four uppermos...
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DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES
R4
• Pods 2 cm long at one
of the four uppermos...
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DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES
R5
• Seeds 3 mm long in a
pod at one of the fou...
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DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES
R6
Pod containing a green
seed that fills the p...
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DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES
R7
• One normal pod on
main stem that has
reach...
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DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES
R8
• 95% of pods have
reached their matured
pod...
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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Growth:
May be defined as a gain in
dry matter production...
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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Genetic or Internal factors
• Resistance tolerance to bio...
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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Genetic or Internal factors
Breeding for resistance /tole...
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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Environmental or external factors
• Biological: Diseases,...
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IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOYBEAN GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
Light
• The effect ...
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IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOYBEAN GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
Temperature
• Plant...
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IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOYBEAN GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
Temperature
• Veget...
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IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOYBEAN GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
Photoperiod
• Soybe...
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IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOYBEAN GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
Moisture
• Soybean ...
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IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOYBEAN GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
Soil
The physical, ...
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THANK YOU
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Morphology and Physiology of Soybean

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Botany and structure of soybean plant
growth stages of soybean plant
growth and development of soybean plant

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Morphology and Physiology of Soybean

  1. 1. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF SOYBEAN Baffour Asafo-Adjei IITA, Ibadan July 28, 2015
  2. 2. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org OUTLINE • Introduction • Botany and structure of soybean plant • Growth stages of soybean plant • Growth and development
  3. 3. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org INTRODUCTION • Importance Why is soybean important? • Geographic Distribution How widely is it produced?
  4. 4. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org INTRODUCTION Importance • Soybean is the most important grain legume in the world in terms of production and use. • It is important in Africa and Nigeria for three key reasons. - Employment and incomes to people (farmers, processors, marketers) - Nutrition and health benefits - Role in sustainable farming systems (N2 organic carbon, cereal striga management)
  5. 5. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org INTRODUCTION contd. 2012 Soybean production (FAO 2015) Region/Country Area (Ha) Yield (Kg/Ha) Production (Tonnes) World 105,018,859 2,295 240,971,130 Africa 1,776,591 1,179 2,094,382 W. Africa 723,748 963 696,705 Nigeria 668,300 973 650,000 Ghana ? ? ?
  6. 6. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org INTRODUCTION contd. Geographic Distribution  Currently grown in various environments throughout the world.  Extensively cultivated in tropical Brazil; sub-tropical Central America and Southern USA; temperate Northern USA and Canada, and sub-arctic Sweden and Siberia  Introduction of soybean in most African countries is very recent (mostly in the 20th century).
  7. 7. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org
  8. 8. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT Botany • Cultivated soybean (Glycin max) is an annual crop. • It belongs to the family Leguminosae • Sub - family Papilionoideae and tribe Phaseolae. • It is a diploid with chromosome number 2n=2x=40. • Some of the wild and semi-wild relatives e.g. G. falcata and G. latifolia are also diploid • Others such as G. tabacina and G. tomentella are tetraploids (2n = 4x = 80).
  9. 9. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT contd. Botany • Some of the wild species may have genes controlling useful traits that may be lacking in the cultivated specie • It has not been easy to transfer such traits Into cultivated soybean due to the difficulty in obtaining fertile/viable seed from Inter- specific hybridization.
  10. 10. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT Structure of soybean plant • Cultivated soybean is generally an erect, sparsely branched bush type – unlike the spreading sometimes vinery characteristics of wild and semi-wild species
  11. 11. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT Structure of soybean plant • There are two types of stem growth habit and floral initiation in soybean. • These are the determinate and indeterminate types. • Most of the varieties cultivated in the tropics are determinate while those in the temperate regions are indeterminate
  12. 12. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT Determinate • Vegetative growth of terminal bud ceases when it becomes an inflorescence. • Flowering occurs about the same time along the length of the plant, hence pod and seed development and maturation occur uniformly throughout the plant. • Terminal leaves are of the same size as those at the bottom of the main stem. Indeterminate • Plant may have achieved less than half its final height when it starts flowering. • Plant continues to grow taller while flowering also continue. • Flowering/pod and seed development are spread over a longer period • Pod and seed development on lower parts of the plant are more advanced than those at the top. • They do not have terminal inflorescence. • Terminal leaves are smaller than those which are lower on the plant
  13. 13. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT Root • Consists of a taproot that may go deep into the soil depending on cultural conditions • The root system is usually in the top 30- 60 cm of soil with about 80-90 of dry weight occurring in the top 15 cm of the soil. • Nodules may be visible 10 days after planting if the appropriate rhizobia are present in the soil. Stem • Well-developed main stem, may have 0-6 lateral branches and grow to a height of 20 cm to over 100 cm depending on variety and cultural/environmental conditions Structure of soybean plant
  14. 14. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT Leaves • Two main types: Primary and Trifoliate leaves. • The primary leaves are ovate with 1- 2 cm length petioles and a pair of stipules at its point of attachment to the stem • The trifoliate leaves are alternate and have long petioles. Leaflets have entire margins and are broadly ovate to elliptic-Ianceolate in shape Primary and Trifoliate leaves
  15. 15. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT Inflorescence • Soybean has a typical papilionaceous flower. • It consists of a tabular calyx with five sepal lobes; a corolla made up of a standard petal, two lateral wing petals, and two anterior keel petals. • Nine of the ten stamens are fused leaving the posterior one separate • The pistil is made of an ovary that contains 1-5 ovules, a style that accrues towards the standard and a capitate stigma. • Pollination occurs before the flower opens Soybean flowers
  16. 16. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org BOTANY AND STRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PLANT Pod • Pods are borne in clusters on short stalks, pubescent and of varied colours depending on cultivar. They may be straight or slightly curved, about 1 cm in width and 3-7 cm long when matured Seeds • Matured soybean seed may be spherical in shape or may be flattened and elongated to various degrees depending on variety • Seed size may range from 5 - 40 g per 100 seeds with most varieties between 10 and 20 g per 100 seeds
  17. 17. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org GROWTH STAGES
  18. 18. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES Stage Stage Title Description VE Emergence Cotyledon above soil surface VC Cotyledon Unifoliate leaves unrolled sufficiently so that leaf edges are not touching V1 First -node Fully developed leaves at unifoliate node V2 Second-node Fully developed trifoliate leaf at node above the unifoliate V3 Third-node Three nodes on main stem with fully developed leaves beginning with the unifoliate node V(n) nth.-node n number of nodes on main stem with fully developed leaves beginning with the unifoliate
  19. 19. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF REPRODUCTIVE STAGES Stage Stage Title Description R1 Beginning bloom One open flower at any node on main stem R2 Full bloom Open flower at one of the two uppermost nodes on main stem with a fully developed leaf R3 Beginning pod Pods 5 mm long at one of the four uppermost nodes on main stem with fully developed leaf R4 Full pod Pods 2 cm long at one of the four uppermost nodes on main stem with fully developed leaf
  20. 20. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF REPRODUCTIVE STAGES Stage Stage Title Description R5 Beginning seed Seeds 3 mm long in a pod at one of the four uppermost nodes on main stem with fully developed leaf R6 Full seed Pod containing a green seed that fills the pod cavity at one of the four uppermost nodes on main stem with fully developed leaf R7 Beginning maturity One normal pod on main stem that has reached its mature pod colour R8 Full maturity* 95% of pods have reached their matured pod colour * 5-10days of dry weather are required after R8 for seeds to have <15% moisture content
  21. 21. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF REPRODUCTIVE STAGES V2 • Fully developed trifoliate leaf at node above the unifoliate
  22. 22. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES V5 • Five nodes on main stem with fully developed leaves beginning with the unifoliate
  23. 23. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES R1 • One open flower at any node on main stem
  24. 24. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES R2 • Open flower at one of the two uppermost nodes on main stem with a fully developed leaf
  25. 25. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES R3 • Pods 5 mm long at one of the four uppermost nodes on main stem with fully developed leaf
  26. 26. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES R4 • Pods 2 cm long at one of the four uppermost nodes on main stem with fully developed leaf
  27. 27. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES R5 • Seeds 3 mm long in a pod at one of the four uppermost nodes on main stem with fully developed leaf
  28. 28. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES R6 Pod containing a green seed that fills the pod cavity at one of the four uppermost nodes on main stem with fully developed leaf
  29. 29. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES R7 • One normal pod on main stem that has reached its mature pod colour
  30. 30. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org DESCRIPTION OF VEGETATIVE STAGES R8 • 95% of pods have reached their matured pod colour
  31. 31. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
  32. 32. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Growth: May be defined as a gain in dry matter production. It is affected by two main factors. • Genetic or Internal factors, and • Environmental or external factors
  33. 33. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Genetic or Internal factors • Resistance tolerance to biotic (e.g. diseases/insects), and abiotic (e.g. heat/shade and soil pH/ nutrient toxicity). • Enzyme activity • Rate and type of various biochemical reactions (e.g. photosynthesis, respiration, partitioning of assimilates) • Cell differentiation etc
  34. 34. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Genetic or Internal factors Breeding for resistance /tolerance to biotic & abiotic stresses are major breeding objectives of most soybean programs – cost effective / efficient, sustainable & environmentally friendly.
  35. 35. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Environmental or external factors • Biological: Diseases, Insects, weeds and soil micro- organisms (e.g. Nitrogen fixing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria mycorrhiza) • Climatic: Light, temperature, water, day length, gases (C02, O2, SO2, Cl etc.) • Soil: Texture, structure, organic matter content, CEC, pH, Nutrient availability
  36. 36. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOYBEAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Light • The effect of light on plant growth is expressed primarily through photosynthesis and other related processes. • Reduced radiation reduces photosynthetic rates and consequently dry matter accumulation • In a soybean field, leaves near the surface of the canopy intercept more light than lower leaves. Vertical leaf orientation is also known to enhance light interception when leaf area index (LA I) is greater than 3.0. • Varieties with vertical leaf orientation would thus be expected to be more productive because light interception is improved and photosynthetic activity is also increased. Breeding implications?
  37. 37. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOYBEAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Temperature • Plant growth depends on several biochemical processes taking place in the plant. The rates at which these processes take place are influenced by temperature. • Different biochemical processes require different optimum temperature e.g. the optimum rate of photosynthesis in Individual soybean leaves is achieved at about 35°C to 40°C. Respiration however continues to increase above these temperatures. On the other hand the optimum temperature for dry matter accumulation is about 30°C. • Effect of temperature depends also on the stage of crop development. Seed germinates between 10°C -40°C however, low soil temperature at planting results in low germination and seedling development. Seed developed in hot weather ( > 33°C) tend to have poor germination, while seed viability deteriorates rapidly when stored in warm temperature ( >30°C) conditions.
  38. 38. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOYBEAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Temperature • Vegetative growth is affected by both soil and air temperatures. Soil temperatures of about 22°C - 27°C are considered the most favourable for soybean root growth • Flowering pod and seed development: Flowering is poor below 200 C and increases up to about 320C beyond which flower abortion results. • Generally high temperature and excessive heat tend to increase flower and pod abortion
  39. 39. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOYBEAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Photoperiod • Soybean is naturally a short day plant but cultivars differ in critical day- length requirements. • Photoperiod affects plant height and the number of nodes produced. Both characters increase with increasing day length • Thus, cultivars adapted to the long-day (14-16hrs) summer conditions in the temperate regions will be shorter, have fewer nodes, flower earlier and will produce less dry matter when planted in tropical environment (shorter day lengths 12 hrs.). • Conversely, cultivars adapted to the tropics when planted in temperate environments, grow taller, produce more nodes and flowering is delayed until the day length shortens
  40. 40. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOYBEAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Moisture • Soybean will experience water stress when there is either excess moisture in the soil or there is a deficit in available soil moisture. • Excess soil moisture injures root system by reducing aeration, and soil moisture deficit results in dehydration of the shoot. • Soybean requires about 580g of water per gram of dry matter produced • For soybean seed to germinate, it has to imbibe about 500g I kg of dry weight. Thus both low soil moisture content and excessive soil moisture will result in poor germination
  41. 41. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOYBEAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Soil The physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil affect plant growth and development. Soybean requires a well-drained loamy soil for proper growth • Heavy soils impede seed emergence, resulting in poor stands root development is also restricted. Light or loamy soils however encourage good root development • Sandy soils low in organic matter, have low moisture holding capacity and plants growing on such soils tend to experience drought stress. Soybean requires the 16 essential elements for its growth and development. Absence or non-availability of any of these elements results in abnormal or sub-normal plant growth. Plants show characteristic nutrient deficiency symptoms.
  42. 42. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org THANK YOU

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