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Matching ISFM options with livelihood resources and objectives

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Presentation during IITA R4D week 2015 (23 - 27 Nov. 2015). By: Piet van Asten, Mateete Bekunda, Lotte Klapwijk, Asamoah Larbi, Nester Mashingaidze, Flemming Nielsen and Godfrey Taulya .

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Matching ISFM options with livelihood resources and objectives

  1. 1. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.orgwww.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Matching ISFM options with livelihood resources and objectives Piet van Asten, Mateete Bekunda, Lotte Klapwijk, Asamoah Larbi, Nester Mashingaidze, Flemming Nielsen and Godfrey Taulya 24th November 2015 (R4D Week 2015)
  2. 2. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org Matching ISFM options with livelihood resources and objectives lessons from CIALCA, PASIC CCAFS, and Africa- RISING Piet van Asten Mateete Bekunda Lotte Klapwijk Asamoah Larbi Nester Mashingaidze Flemming Nielsen Godfrey Taulya
  3. 3. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.orgNote: Potential is not the problem Closing the yield gap requires understanding households
  4. 4. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org 1. ISFM focuses primarily at interventions at plot level 2. Adoption of ISFM is a decision often taken at household level 3. Impact is only achieved if many households adopt – this requires enabling factors at community and national level Targeting and scaling ISFM With thanks to Anna Sole for picture design
  5. 5. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org Targeting ISFM options the ABC of achieving impact at scale 1. Agro-ecological challenges and opportunities a. Understand yield loss factors b. Quantify potential impact of ISFM options 2. HH resources available / challenges / objectives a. HH livelihood capitals (N, P, F, H, S) b. Typologies – FS and FSS concepts 3. Identify the best-fit technologies / entry-points a. Learn from the ‘positive deviants’ b. Understand diversity in response 4. Understand farmers attitudes a. Aspirations b. Gender preferences c. Perceptions and knowledge 5. Enabling factors at community level a. Community-level farmer groups b. Input-output market actors (incl. knowledge) 2. Household surveys  human environment 3. Match ISFM options biophysical x socio-economic 4. Farmers attitudes aspiration, gender, perception 5. Enabling factors at community level 1. Agronomic surveys / models  natural environment
  6. 6. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org Household survey from Arua district, Uganda With thanks to Mark van Wijk and Monica Kansiime Fertilizer Manure Soil and water conservation?
  7. 7. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org With thanks to Just van der Wolf Household resource availability ‘Rich’ and ‘Poor’ farmers invest in different enterprises Paddy rice wetlands Potato altitude Livestock grazing land Coffee bimodal rainfall Maize Maize
  8. 8. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org The role of off-farm income With thanks to Just van der Wolf More wealthy -> enterprises that require: • Land: access / tenure • Time: longer-cycle enterprises • Risk: more risky enterprises
  9. 9. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org Value cost ratios of fertilizer investment confirm the behavior of the ‘rich’
  10. 10. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org Adoption of CSA practices in West Africa
  11. 11. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org Less market orientation = Less intensification
  12. 12. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org Resource-demanding ISFM options are more adopted by the ‘rich’ 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Lowest Lower Middle Higher Highest % farmers using synthetic fertilizer on coffee in West Kenya Asset groups With thanks to Lydia Wairegi and Mica Bennett
  13. 13. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org Intensification often in the middle group! Evidence from : • Rwanda • Burundi • Congo • Kenya (banana) • Ghana (cocoa)
  14. 14. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org Resource mapping understanding HH capitals Livelihood capitals Example from UG cofee farmers • Only 20% of farmers have coffee as their primary business • Livestock is not important – manure is not really an option Ghislaine Bongers et al.
  15. 15. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org Tools for targeting How do you We can target! • Value chain -> 80% produce by 20% of farmers. Focus on rich. • Forget ISFM for those trapped in poverty • Quick tools/approaches to ‘classify’ farmers and identify options – FGD – communities can classify themselves – HH questionnaire – Key informants – Participatory modeling
  16. 16. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org THANK YOU! Landcruiser versus bicycle Adapt your choice to environment and resource availability Luhihi highway petrol station

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