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Maize agronomy for increasing productivity

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Importance of maize

Constraints to maize production

Basic requirements for maize production

Agronomic management practices

Harvest and post-harvest management

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Maize agronomy for increasing productivity

  1. 1. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org S. Meseka Maize Breeder Maize improvement program Iita-ibadan, Nigeria Maize agronomy for increasing productivity Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  2. 2. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Outline of presentation • Importance of maize • Constraints to maize production • Basic requirements for maize production • Agronomic management practices • Harvest and post-harvest management Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  3. 3. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org  The most important cereal crop in sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria & staple food for >1.5 billion people (SSA, LAmer & Asia)  Fresh maize serves as good source of cash, with Nigeria as leading country in Africa  Food industry – Nestle, and others  Feed industry in West Africa including Nigeria Importance of maize Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  4. 4. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org  Maize production is faced with several challenges:  The lack of good seed (quality seed vs grain)  Pests and diseases (Stemborers, Streak, Blights, Rust)  Weeds including Striga  Soil degradation and low fertility (Low N, Acid soils, etc)  The lack of fertilizers & other agro-chemicals  Lack of funding/ source of loan Constraints to maize production Stemborer Streak Low Nitrogen Striga Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  5. 5. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Constraints to maize production Climatic fluctuations (Drought, Heat, Flood)  The lack of implements Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  6. 6. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Constraints to maize production Other constraints  the lack of labour force  the lack of good market  low market value Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  7. 7. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Basic requirements for production  Know your production environment(s) – rainy forestry, savannas (northern/southern guinea/Sud. savanna)  Type of maize seed – OPV/ Hybrid & source  Optimum time of planting & management practices  Other inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides) & source  The use (home consumption) and market (local/ regional) Storage facility Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  8. 8. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Basic requirements for production  Rainfall - quantity, distribution and duration  enough total annual rainfall to support crop: planting – harvest Relative humidity – low RH at harvest time for good quality grains Soils – fertile and well drained soils give good yields Site selection - crucial for the success of maize production  accessibility into the farm/ field – input & product transportation  avoid sandy areas, steep slopes, fields planted to maize previously Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  9. 9. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Agronomic management practices  Land preparations  Important determinant of yield  good land preparations ensures soil aeration, moisture holding capacity  poor land preparation can lead to soil erosion, high weed population Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  10. 10. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Germination test using plastic bowls Seed Germination Tests Agronomic management practices Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  11. 11. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Agronomic management practices  Planting time/ sowing date – essential management tool  decline in yield can be attributed to very early / late planting  plant at optimum time when rains are stable  Method of planting - row planting  hand hoe  bamboo peg  Jack planter  Plant populations  spacing between rows (75 – 80 cm)  spacing between hills (25 – 50 cm) Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  12. 12. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Maize Morphology Agronomic management practices Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  13. 13. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Agronomic management practices  Weeds control – good weed is essential for high grain yield  Weeds compete with maize crop for sunlight, nutrients, water, space  Hand weeding is expensive; – pre- & post-emergency herbicides Timely weeding Weeds & droughtTime to weed No weeding & Fertilizer Late weeding Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  14. 14. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Agronomic management practices  Fertilizer application  maize plant must be supplied with adequate nutrients (NPK)  5 bags of compound fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) at planting/ 2 WAP  3 bags of urea (N) 5-6 WAP as top-dressing UREA Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  15. 15. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Agronomic management practices  Pest & Disease control  Maize steak virus (MSV)  Leaf blight  Rust  Downy mildew  Stemborer (Best, phrynx, etc) Use of resistant varieties/ hybrids Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  16. 16. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.org Harvest and post-harvest management Harvest - optimum time when stem have dried and grain moisture 20%  Also determined by black sport at the base of kernel  Threshing - important for cleaning, sorting and grading  Storage – transitional period - market Implementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016
  17. 17. A member of CGIAR consortium www.iita.orgImplementer Induction training 16 – 18/3/2016

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