IPM for cowpea         Manuele Tamò         insect ecologist   R4D week, Nov 25, 2009International Institute of Tropical A...
Strategic vision for cowpea IPM (5-10 years)Preventive side:• Host plant resistance (incl. transgenics)• Conservation biol...
The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata        International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agr...
Insect resistant cowpea – conventional breeding    • no reliable sources of resistance in crossable species    • wide cros...
Table 2  Performance of cowpea Breeding Lines in Ibadan During the Second Season                     (September to Novembe...
The Bt-protein is found in most green                   organs of transgenic cowpea                    1    2        3    ...
Bt-mediated effect on M. vitrata parasitoids                                                             - using different...
Prospective NTO studies on M. vitrata natural enemiesOther parasitoids to be studied:-Trichogrammatoidea eldanae          ...
Strategy for deploying biocontrol agents:Exotic parasitoids:• overall reduction of the population pressure,particularly on...
Ecology studies               Major alternative host plants in moist savannas of West AfricaPterocarpus santalinoides    L...
Population ‘migration’ of M. vitrata based on availabledata from light traps and host plant surveys: implicationfor contro...
Which biocontrol agents?                  Local natural enemies of Maruca vitrata in West AfricaBraunsia kriegeri         ...
Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)On-going biological and ecological studies     12                    ...
Experimental releases                                                                …but no direct evidence              ...
A serial killer: Maruca vitrata NuclearPolyhedrosis Virus (MaviMNPV)       International Institute of Tropical Agriculture...
MaviNPV: lab and cage studies at IITA-Benin                                                                  treatement   ...
Strategy for deploying biocontrol agents:Exotic parasitoids:• overall reduction of the population pressure,particularly on...
A. taragamae and MaviMNPV flying together !           +                                                                  =...
Presence of MaviMNPV OB in larvae of Maruca vitrata as a       function of different contamination methods using 2h and 24...
‘IPM model’ for Maruca vitrataNovel BC agents                                MR-cowpea                                    ...
New BMZ project: large biodiversity of M. vitratanatural enemies in Asia and maybe in South America         International ...
Pulses-CRSP project: M. vitrata rearing for nationalprograms and farmer groups         International Institute of Tropical...
M. vitrata happily feeding on germinatingcowpea grains       International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut in...
Rearing methodology with germinating cowpea grains is 25-30x lessexpensive than standard artificial diet for the same larv...
The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thys., Thripidae) Photo: G. Goergen                        Intern...
Host plant resistanceCultivars                             Damage index                           First season            ...
Biodiversity studies: natural enemies of M. sjostedti                                                              Larval ...
Parasitism rates of M. sjostedti larvae by C. menes on                   selected host plants V. unguiculata              ...
Discovery of the thrips parasitoid Ceranisus femoratus in                  CameroonImportant parasitism rates on wild host...
Laboratory rearing very labour intensive and expensive                      2 mm         International Institute of Tropic...
In-field mass rearing on Tephrosia candida        International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international...
Megalurothrips sjostedtiEstablishment of the exotic thrips parasitoid Ceranisusfemoratus 4 years after the initial release...
Large dataset from Benin,          comparing multi-year data          before releases and 4 years          data after the ...
Ecological impact: up to 43% reduction of thrips populationon wild host plantsEconomic impact: on-going collaboration with...
IPM approach for flower thrips- Host plant resistance in available germplasm- Improved biological control:   On wild hosts...
Cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora     International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture ...
Aphid colonies                                       destroyed by                                       Neozygites freseni...
New ‘serendipitously’ introduced biocontrol agent:    Lysiphlebus testaceipesSo far observed in Benin and Ghana, not in Ni...
New technology for FFF?Solar-powered MP3 players- FFF can now be augmentedwith messages regarding theagricultural issues b...
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IPM for cowpea

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Insect resistant cowpea – conventional breeding,Strategy for deploying biocontrol agents,IPM approach for flower thrips

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IPM for cowpea

  1. 1. IPM for cowpea Manuele Tamò insect ecologist R4D week, Nov 25, 2009International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  2. 2. Strategic vision for cowpea IPM (5-10 years)Preventive side:• Host plant resistance (incl. transgenics)• Conservation biological controlCurative side:• Inoculative and augmentative biological control• Bio-pesticides• Synthetic insecticides International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  3. 3. The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  4. 4. Insect resistant cowpea – conventional breeding • no reliable sources of resistance in crossable species • wide crosses unsuccessful • use of susceptible varieties possible with chemical control 2 spray No spray Variety Grain Fodder Grain Fodder (kg/ha) (kg/ha) (kg/ha) (kg/ha) IT90K-277-2 2697 2219 549 3236 IT95K-231-1 2235 2619 312 3043 IT95K-193-12 2020 1513 496 1462 Dan lla (Local) 1407 3050 14 3677 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  5. 5. Table 2 Performance of cowpea Breeding Lines in Ibadan During the Second Season (September to November) of 1998______________________________________________________ Spray No Spray _______________________Cowpea Line Total seed Good seed Total seed Good seed IP yield (kg/ha) yield (kg/ha) yield (kg/ha) yield(kg/ha)___________________________________________________________IT95M-268-1-4 1530.7 1377.4 1479.5 1350.8 2IT95M-305-1 1479.5 1313.6 1328.6 1190.2 2IT95M-190-4 1539.1 1348.2 1303.2 1123.6 2IT95M-7 1567.0 1520.7 1256.1 1192.7 3IT95M-190-1 1349.0 1233.6 1192.7 980.2 2IT95M-309-1 1490.3 1450.3 1177.3 1091.5 2IT95M-249-1 1502.8 1425.7 1127.7 935.6 2TVU14476 (CK) 1207.3 1120.2 994.8 915.6 3IT86D-715 (CK) 1034.4 876.8 673.1 574.3 2IT86D-719 (CK) 1012.3 821.4 614.3 457.6 2LSD 5% 310.4 303.3 380.8 355.2CV % 16.1 17.1 24.1 25.1 1__________________________________________________________*IPE = Pod evaluation index International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  6. 6. The Bt-protein is found in most green organs of transgenic cowpea 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 75 Kd 50 Kd * Cry 1Ab 37 Kd Pet YL OL SEP PET Poll Pod Imm Mat Seed SeedCourtesy: T.J. Higgins, CSIRO *LSU International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  7. 7. Bt-mediated effect on M. vitrata parasitoids - using different doses of Cry1Ab toxin on Phanerotoma leucobasis- Parasitoid egg inserted in M.vitrata egg, but development ofparasitoid larva only in late 1-stinstar- substantial mortality of developingparasitoids only when exposed toLD95 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  8. 8. Prospective NTO studies on M. vitrata natural enemiesOther parasitoids to be studied:-Trichogrammatoidea eldanae (egg, local)- Braunsia kriegeri (larva, local)- Pristomerus sp. (larva, local)- Bracon sp. (larva, local)- Dolichogenidea sp. (larva, local)- Testudobracon sp. (larva, local)- Apanteles taragamae (larva, exotic)- Bassus aper (larva, exotic)- Nemorilla maculosa (larva, exotic) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  9. 9. Strategy for deploying biocontrol agents:Exotic parasitoids:• overall reduction of the population pressure,particularly on wild host plants during the off-seasonMaviMNPV:• to be used like a biopesticide for inundativebiological control e.g. once pheromone derivedthreshold is reached International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  10. 10. Ecology studies Major alternative host plants in moist savannas of West AfricaPterocarpus santalinoides Lonchocarpus cyanescens Lonchocarpus sericeus Tephrosia candida International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  11. 11. Population ‘migration’ of M. vitrata based on availabledata from light traps and host plant surveys: implicationfor control strategies International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  12. 12. Which biocontrol agents? Local natural enemies of Maruca vitrata in West AfricaBraunsia kriegeri Phanerotoma leucobasisMaruca vitrata larval parasitism rates on different host plants in Benin 50 40 Phanerotoma leucobasis 30 Braunsia kriegeri 20 10 0 Lc Ls Ps Pp Tp Vu International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  13. 13. Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)On-going biological and ecological studies 12 0.7 10 0.6 0.5 8 0.4mx lx 6 0.3 4 0.2 2 0.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 days Over 60% parasitism on Sesbania in Taiwan International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  14. 14. Experimental releases …but no direct evidence of establishment yet on wild vegetation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  15. 15. A serial killer: Maruca vitrata NuclearPolyhedrosis Virus (MaviMNPV) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  16. 16. MaviNPV: lab and cage studies at IITA-Benin treatement % mortality (OB/ha) 0.1000 9,12 c 2.1009 24,43 bc 2.1010 35,55 bc 2.1011 56,25 ab 2.1012 75,00 a 2.1013 87,92 a International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  17. 17. Strategy for deploying biocontrol agents:Exotic parasitoids:• overall reduction of the population pressure,particularly on wild host plants during the off-seasonBiopesticide MaviMNPV:• to be used like a biopesticide for inundativebiological control International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  18. 18. A. taragamae and MaviMNPV flying together ! + = !!!!! International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  19. 19. Presence of MaviMNPV OB in larvae of Maruca vitrata as a function of different contamination methods using 2h and 24h virus exposure time. Exposure time Treatmentstr 2h 24 h Control 0b 0b Ovipositor 0,91 a 0,96 a Whole body 0,94 a 0,97 a Diet 0,90 a 0,98 a P>F <0,0001*** <0,0001***Mechanical transmission using detached ovipositor and glasscapillaries demonstrated.Another important discovery: at temperatures <25 C co-infectedlarvae will be killed by the virus before parasitoids can form a cocoon International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  20. 20. ‘IPM model’ for Maruca vitrataNovel BC agents MR-cowpea Biopesticides as tools in IRMAlternative hostplans (BC and IRM) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  21. 21. New BMZ project: large biodiversity of M. vitratanatural enemies in Asia and maybe in South America International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  22. 22. Pulses-CRSP project: M. vitrata rearing for nationalprograms and farmer groups International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  23. 23. M. vitrata happily feeding on germinatingcowpea grains International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  24. 24. Rearing methodology with germinating cowpea grains is 25-30x lessexpensive than standard artificial diet for the same larval output level !!! International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  25. 25. The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thys., Thripidae) Photo: G. Goergen International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  26. 26. Host plant resistanceCultivars Damage index First season Second seasonMoussa local 2.06 c 3.42 cdSewe 2.06 c 3.42 bcSanzisabinli 2.13 c 1.93 dTVu 1509 (RC) 2.38 c 3.25 cdIT90K-277-2 4.88 b 3.67 cdKVx404-8-1 4.88 b 4.67 bIT91K-180 5.06 b 5.75 aTVx 3236 5.13 b 5.17 bVita7 (SC) 7.56 a 7.59a International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  27. 27. Biodiversity studies: natural enemies of M. sjostedti Larval parasitoid: Ceranisus menes Walker Predator: Orius albidipennis Reuter 0.5 mmEgg parasitoid: Megaphragma sp. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  28. 28. Parasitism rates of M. sjostedti larvae by C. menes on selected host plants V. unguiculata 31754P. santalinoides 7590 L. sericeus 8357 L. cyanescens 5671 T. candida 8222 0 1 2 3 4 5 % International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  29. 29. Discovery of the thrips parasitoid Ceranisus femoratus in CameroonImportant parasitism rates on wild host plants V. unguiculata 5841 C. pubescens 130 2315 T. candida D. guineensis 1110 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  30. 30. Laboratory rearing very labour intensive and expensive 2 mm International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  31. 31. In-field mass rearing on Tephrosia candida International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  32. 32. Megalurothrips sjostedtiEstablishment of the exotic thrips parasitoid Ceranisusfemoratus 4 years after the initial releases in threecountries International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  33. 33. Large dataset from Benin, comparing multi-year data before releases and 4 years data after the releases 250 200 150 100 50 0 Lonchocarpus Lonchocarpus Pterocarpus Tephrosia Tephrosia sericeus cyanescens santalinoides bracteolata candidaAverage number of M. sjostedti larvae per inflorescence ofdifferent host plant (blue: period 1992-95, red: period2005-2007) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  34. 34. Ecological impact: up to 43% reduction of thrips populationon wild host plantsEconomic impact: on-going collaboration with agro-economists for developing ex-ante impact assessmentmodels International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  35. 35. IPM approach for flower thrips- Host plant resistance in available germplasm- Improved biological control: On wild hosts: Ceranisus femoratus On cowpea: Amblyseius swirskii- Biopesticides: entomopathogens botanical extracts International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  36. 36. Cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  37. 37. Aphid colonies destroyed by Neozygites fresenii in the Oueme valley (Benin) during ‘harmattan’ conditionsInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  38. 38. New ‘serendipitously’ introduced biocontrol agent: Lysiphlebus testaceipesSo far observed in Benin and Ghana, not in Niger and Burkina yetInteractions studies on-going International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  39. 39. New technology for FFF?Solar-powered MP3 players- FFF can now be augmentedwith messages regarding theagricultural issues beingaddressed.- Such devices can be takenback to the communitieswhere the messages can beplayed repeatedly (biggestadvantage over rural radiomessages which are oftenplayed only once) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org

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