Improving the water and nutrient useefficiency of crops in dry savanna andSahel regions of Africa                         ...
Limited Natural Resources for Small Scale Farmers                   Soil moisture                   - Short growing season...
Introduction of Appropriate Variety                    - Case study in Radi and Danja villages in Niger -                 ...
How Improve the Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency                      Reduce water loss                                  ...
How Improve the Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency                      Reduce water loss                                  ...
Farmer Participatory Varietal Selection (FPVS)                       - More rapid and cost-effective way to identifying   ...
Stability of Farmers’ Choice                       Stable?                       Environmental effect?                    ...
Trial Sites in Maradi and Zinder Region of Niger Rep.2008-2009                               Sarkin housa        ToumniaRa...
FPVS ActivitiesNo name            3 selections x 3 replications   Questionnaire
Materials Selected for FPVS
Stably Selected Genotypes              IT00K-1148                      Early-medium maturing cowpea                      B...
Specific Preference in Particular Village                                    Percentage of farmer selected more than 2 and...
Selection Criteria Focused criteria for the farmers’ selection in FPVS                           - Grain yield is highly i...
Environmental Effects on Farmers’ ChoiceFarmer’s preference on maturity in two years selection                            ...
Specific Criteria – Important, but Difficult                                              Farmer’s selection on the resist...
Further Challenges – AVEC-BF ProjectAppropriate Varieties of Early maturing Cowpea for Burkina FasoAVEC-BF sites          ...
AVEC-BF Framework  Focus on village level cycle for further expand to region level                             SNS     Inp...
AVEC-BF 2010               FPVS at 5 villages                   - Over 400 farmers attended               Training of seed...
Appropriate knowledgeAppropriate                                 via Farmers’ schoolvariety                         Traini...
How Improve the Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency                      Reduce water loss                                  ...
Marker Assisted Backcross Breeding for Striga resistance                         Two SCAR markers available for Striga rac...
Marker VerificationCowpea genotypes (60) tested on - Two Striga seeds at Nigeria - Four Striga seeds at NigerCurrent resul...
No Polymorphism in Several Crosses         Popular genotypes, IT00K-1148 and IT90K-372-1-2 did not show         polymorphi...
Comparison of 5 Back-Cross Pops with and without MAS        With MAS             Without MASF2BC3F2BC2
With MAS  F2BC3 populations         Results of pot evaluation for Striga resistance at F1BC3                              ...
Further Challenges – New markersLG1(middle)    9.5                 SNP markers available                                1_...
Moderate Resistance to Striga gesnerioides?                                   “Moderate Resistance” is frequently seen    ...
Seed Density Does not Affect Striga Resistance    600mg Striga seed = 80,000 germinable seeds (at 62% germination rate)   ...
No Effect of Drought and Low Fertility Stresses  Susceptible line (IT98D-1399)                                            ...
Mechanism?                                           Hyper-sensitive reaction                                             ...
Reciprocal Grafting Method                  Shoot stock                    - Striga resistant                    - Striga ...
Double Root Grafting MethodMain plant- Striga resistant- Striga susceptible                                               ...
Striga Resistance - Root Localized Mechanisms
Further Challenges – NEDO Project                           Osaka University Metabolom on Striga resistance (Jan 2010 – De...
How Improve the Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency                      Reduce water loss                                  ...
Phenotyping of Drought Resistance                         Phenotyping                              Multi-location field tr...
Selection of Parents for High x High Crosses                   Selected genotypes were used for breeding program
G x E Analysis on 50 Genotypes Biomass yield                                         Wet                                  ...
G x E Analysis on 16 GenotypesGrain yield                                 Magaria, Maradi, Chinzana                       ...
Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping                                                                UCR                         ...
Mechanisms to Maintain the Growth under Drought                                   Grain Yield = 5.890 + (0.0508 x Stomatal...
Root Distribution Traits                           4 weeks of                           stress period
Root Length in Various Soil Depth                         A                             Deeper rooting is one of the      ...
Under Root Size Limited Condition                                                      Kyushu Univ        Diurnal change o...
Flower Abortion - Reduction of Pod Number                                                      Kyushu Univ                ...
Further ChallengesAccurate phenotyping     - Selection of more suitable parents     - Physiological trait base QTLs     - ...
Capacity Building           Training programs              - Introduction of Marker Assisted Selection strategy into      ...
For Farmers’ Happy Face            Thank You !!
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Improving the water and nutrient use efficiency of crops in dry savanna and Sahel regions of Africa

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How to improve Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency,Farmer Participatory Varietal Selection,Phenotyping of Drought Resistance

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Improving the water and nutrient use efficiency of crops in dry savanna and Sahel regions of Africa

  1. 1. Improving the water and nutrient useefficiency of crops in dry savanna andSahel regions of Africa S. Muranaka International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  2. 2. Limited Natural Resources for Small Scale Farmers Soil moisture - Short growing season 1200 - Rainfall 1000 Unevenly distributed Annual rainfall (mm) 800 Unpredictable 600 Unstable 400 200 0 1960 1968 1976 1984 1992 2000 2008 Year Soil fertility - Low soil fertility - Low input level - Limited soil moisture - Competition Crops Weeds Parasitic weed
  3. 3. Introduction of Appropriate Variety - Case study in Radi and Danja villages in Niger - Grain yield obserbed in 4 farmers fields of Niger Rep Grain yield (kg / ha) Field ID IT98K-205-8 IT99K-573-2-1 Local line Danja 1 292 (442) 653 (988) 66 (100) Danja 2 131 (305) 231 (539) 43 (100) Radi 1 507 (447) 363 (319) 113 (100) Radi 2 254 (115) 575 (261) 220 (100) - What is “appropriate” genotype ? - Where to get “appropriate” traits ? - How to select “appropriate” genotypes ?
  4. 4. How Improve the Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency Reduce water loss Resistance to S. gesnerioides Reduce nutrient loss High WUE Identification of “appropriate” genotype in farmers’ fieldWater Nutrient High NUE High WUE Resistance to drought Capturing nutrient via root development High N2 fixation
  5. 5. How Improve the Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency Reduce water loss Resistance to S. gesnerioides Reduce nutrient loss High WUE Identification of “appropriate” genotype in farmers’ fieldWater Nutrient High NUE High WUE Resistance to drought Capturing nutrient via root development High N2 fixation
  6. 6. Farmer Participatory Varietal Selection (FPVS) - More rapid and cost-effective way to identifying farmer-preferred cultivars if a suitable choice of cultivators exists - Enhances the diffusion and adoption of varieties developed - Provide important feed back to breeders on their performance under local cropping systems
  7. 7. Stability of Farmers’ Choice Stable? Environmental effect? Other effect? Strong / weak points?
  8. 8. Trial Sites in Maradi and Zinder Region of Niger Rep.2008-2009 Sarkin housa ToumniaRadiDanja TessouaMagaria Radi TchadouaToumnia Danja Magaria2009TchadouaSarkin housa MinjibirTessoua
  9. 9. FPVS ActivitiesNo name 3 selections x 3 replications Questionnaire
  10. 10. Materials Selected for FPVS
  11. 11. Stably Selected Genotypes IT00K-1148 Early-medium maturing cowpea Brown, rough, small seed with brown eye Susceptible to S. gesnerioides IT99K-573-2-1 Early maturing cowpea White, rough, medium seed with black eye Resistant to S. gesnerioides IT90K-372-1-2 Early-medium maturing cowpea White, rough, medium seed with brown eye Susceptible to S. gesnerioides IT98K-205-8 Extra early maturing cowpea White, rough, medium seed with black eye Resistant to S. gesnerioides
  12. 12. Specific Preference in Particular Village Percentage of farmer selected more than 2 and 3 pairs from different replication in the FPVS - Farmer can stably select their preferred genotype International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  13. 13. Selection Criteria Focused criteria for the farmers’ selection in FPVS - Grain yield is highly important in almost all farmers - Relatively lower importance of seed color and size - Higher importance of maturity in 2009?
  14. 14. Environmental Effects on Farmers’ ChoiceFarmer’s preference on maturity in two years selection Extra early maturing lines such as IT98K-205-8 gained higher importance in drought yearFarmer’s preference on seed color in two years selection Stable criteria, such as seed color, texture, size, plant type and so on.
  15. 15. Specific Criteria – Important, but Difficult Farmer’s selection on the resistance to S. gesnerioides in two years selection - Important criteria, resistance to S. gesnerioides may be difficult for farmers to evaluate in the field Breeder’s decision using tools up taking farmers’ preference such as FPVS- Presented in 5th World Cowpea Conference- Manuscripts will be ready shortly.
  16. 16. Further Challenges – AVEC-BF ProjectAppropriate Varieties of Early maturing Cowpea for Burkina FasoAVEC-BF sites Target country: Sofe Burkina Faso Project duration: Pathili Samboaga April 2010- March 2013 Donor: Saria Rango MAFF, Japan Puni
  17. 17. AVEC-BF Framework Focus on village level cycle for further expand to region level SNS Input market Input market Grain marketSeed market Seed producer Grain producer Training Farmers school - Cultivation method - Safe chemical use - Certification system - Fertilizer application - Variety selection - Storage method Grouping - Basic economics - Effective production - Various varieties - Easier marketing Equipment support - Splay machine - Protection materials Linking with markets Social analysis Appropriate variety FPVS Baseline study - Selection of suitable materials - basic understanding cowpea roll - Understanding farmers’ preference Impact assessment Breeding for better - Target site vs counterfactual site - Adding missing farmers’ preferable traits
  18. 18. AVEC-BF 2010 FPVS at 5 villages - Over 400 farmers attended Training of seed producer: 15 farmers participating (15ha) Theoretical training at Saria in April On-farm training with IT98K-205-8 Farmers’ school: Trainers’ training (10 trainers) Tow classes in each village were held Equipment support (sprayer, protector)
  19. 19. Appropriate knowledgeAppropriate via Farmers’ schoolvariety Training of seed producer Input Higher income (fertilizer, chemical) (150,000CFA/ha) High yield (1500kg/ha) High quality Strengthened seed production Escape from drought Current Low income (40,000CFA/ha) Cowpea production by small scale farmers Low yield (600kg/ha) Drought stress Low quality (mixed, insect damage) Continuation of low input (no-fertilizer, no-chemical)-Low output agriculture
  20. 20. How Improve the Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency Reduce water loss Resistance to S. gesnerioides Reduce nutrient loss High WUE Identification of “appropriate” genotype in farmers’ fieldWater Nutrient High NUE High WUE Resistance to drought Capturing nutrient via root development High N2 fixation
  21. 21. Marker Assisted Backcross Breeding for Striga resistance Two SCAR markers available for Striga race SG3 developed by M. Timko’ lab - MahSE2 - 61R Striga susceptible, but popular in Niger - IT00K-1148 - IT90K-372-2-1 - IT89D-574-57 - TN 246-80 F1BC1 populations developed for testing of MAB practice for Striga resitance S/N Population P1 (female) P2 (male) BC1 (male) 1 IT09ST-1 IT98K-409-4 X IT90K-372-1-2 X IT90K-372-1-2 2 IT09ST-2 IT98K-205-8 X IT89KD-574-57 X IT89KD-574-57 3 IT09ST-3 IT98K-205-8 X IT90K-372-1-2 X IT90K-372-1-2 4 IT09ST-4 IT98K-205-8 X TN256-80 X TN256-80 5 IT09ST-5 IT00K-1148 X IT98K-409-4 X IT98K-409-4 6 IT09ST-6 IT98K-205-8 X IT00K-1148 X IT00K-1148 7 IT09ST-7 IT98K-409-4 X IT00K-1148 X IT00K-1148 8 IT09ST-8 IT89KD-574-57 X IT98K-205-8 X IT98K-205-8
  22. 22. Marker VerificationCowpea genotypes (60) tested on - Two Striga seeds at Nigeria - Four Striga seeds at NigerCurrent results - Marker efficiency 76% - All collected Striga seed are SG3The result will be updated - New 100 genotypes tested for SG3 - FTA method for cross check
  23. 23. No Polymorphism in Several Crosses Popular genotypes, IT00K-1148 and IT90K-372-1-2 did not show polymorphism with resistant parents in both MahSE2 and 61R
  24. 24. Comparison of 5 Back-Cross Pops with and without MAS With MAS Without MASF2BC3F2BC2
  25. 25. With MAS F2BC3 populations Results of pot evaluation for Striga resistance at F1BC3 Total plant No. of plants S/N Population no. tested Resistant Susceptible % of Resistance 1 IT09ST-2 66 20 46 30% 2 IT09ST-3 129 20 109 16% 14% increase F2BC2 populations Results of pot evaluation for Striga resistance at F1BC2 Total plant No. of plants S/N Population no. tested Resistant Susceptible % of Resistance 1 IT09ST-4 51 15 36 29% 2 IT09ST-6 83 14 69 17% 3 IT09ST-7 112 15 112 13% 12-16% increase- Reported on GCP annual report 2009
  26. 26. Further Challenges – New markersLG1(middle) 9.5 SNP markers available 1_0473 3037_209 3037 9 27.9 1 ACA-CAT-8 1_1382 5720_199 5720 9 27.9 1 7.8 1_0008 6430_319 6430 9 27.9 1 AGG-CTT-2 1_0235 439_560 439 9 28 1 1.7 1.7 OA19 1_1460 13665_260 13665 9 28.4 1 OY1a 1_0752 17133_1134 17133 9 29.4 1 1.1 OE16 5.5 1_0158 1989_448 1989 9 32.3 1 AAC-CAA-5* 1_0137 3958_104 3958 9 32.3 1 1.5Rsg 1-1 1_0276 1339_101 1339 9 46.3 1 3.7 OI2bRsg 2-1 1_0958 7548_1327 7548 9 46.3 1Rsg 4-3 ACT-CAA-8* 1.1 OE9 1_1069 677_709 677 9 48.4 1 1.2 1_0948 9779_613 9779 9 48.4 1 OZ13b 1.2 ACA-CAG-4* 0.0 2.5 ATC-CTA-10* 12.2 High-throughput genotyping (SNP) ATG-CAC-1* 6.3 5.3 AGA-CTA-9 - Phenotyping data on SG3 1.3 0.0 D1301b - SR population for QTLs AAC-CTT-11 0.0 1.3 AAC-CTT-13 AAC-CTT-9 - 60+100 lines for association analysis 0.5 OC16a 1.7 S05G04i SNP markers for SG3 resistance - Identification of probable different race - 24 genotypes for field identification
  27. 27. Moderate Resistance to Striga gesnerioides? “Moderate Resistance” is frequently seen in field evaluation - Unstable mechanisms - High Striga seed density ? - Environmental factor ? High Low Break down of resistance due to high Striga Striga hermonthica seed density hermonthica seed density had been reported in Striga resistant Sorghum varieties How about in cowpea?
  28. 28. Seed Density Does not Affect Striga Resistance 600mg Striga seed = 80,000 germinable seeds (at 62% germination rate) Stable in high seed density
  29. 29. No Effect of Drought and Low Fertility Stresses Susceptible line (IT98D-1399) Stable mechanism under - High seed density - Drought - Low soil fertility - Enhance the effect of drought For field evaluation - Highly infested condition - Importance of weed control - Importance of purity of seed - Wide border row- Reported at AA annual meeting, Nov. 2009, Khartoum, Sudan- Manuscript is under internal review for submission
  30. 30. Mechanism? Hyper-sensitive reaction - Any signaling via shoot such as auto- regulation of nodule? - Stimulation of Striga seed related? Probably No Left: B301 (Striga resistant) Right: IT98K-461-4 (Striga susceptible)
  31. 31. Reciprocal Grafting Method Shoot stock - Striga resistant - Striga susceptible Root stock - Striga resistant - Striga susceptible Striga attachments were observed only on the root derived from Striga susceptible genotype
  32. 32. Double Root Grafting MethodMain plant- Striga resistant- Striga susceptible Main plant (Striga susceptible) Grafted root (Striga resistant) Grafted root - Striga resistant - Striga susceptible No Involvement of Shoot Mechanisms- Reported at AA?SATREPS seminar, Sept. 2010, Awaji, Japan- Manuscript had submitted to Journal of Plant Physiology
  33. 33. Striga Resistance - Root Localized Mechanisms
  34. 34. Further Challenges – NEDO Project Osaka University Metabolom on Striga resistance (Jan 2010 – Dec 2014) Low data GC-MS Metabolic pathwayMini rizotronSamples at different stages Understanding of mechanisms
  35. 35. How Improve the Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency Reduce water loss Resistance to S. gesnerioides Reduce nutrient loss High WUE Identification of “appropriate” genotype in farmers’ fieldWater Nutrient High NUE High WUE Resistance to drought Capturing nutrient via root development High N2 fixation
  36. 36. Phenotyping of Drought Resistance Phenotyping Multi-location field trials Field experiment at Minjibir Pot experiment Root cylinder experiment
  37. 37. Selection of Parents for High x High Crosses Selected genotypes were used for breeding program
  38. 38. G x E Analysis on 50 Genotypes Biomass yield Wet Dry Ibadan condition have much smaller environmental effect on differentiate the genotypes
  39. 39. G x E Analysis on 16 GenotypesGrain yield Magaria, Maradi, Chinzana Kano, Nampula Ruace Soil type?
  40. 40. Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping UCR Plant materials Nigeria - 339 Burkina Faso - 189 Senegal - 155 USA - 200 Phenotyping for delayed senescence at the early vegetative stage provides sufficient precision to map grain yield and biomass QTL- Presented in 5th World Cowpea Conference- Manuscript is now internal reviewing for submission
  41. 41. Mechanisms to Maintain the Growth under Drought Grain Yield = 5.890 + (0.0508 x Stomatal conductance) (P < 0.001) 40 R = 0.521 Maintenance of higher stomatal 30 conductanceGrain Yield (g.plant-1) 20 Deeper rooting? 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Stomatal conductance (m mol m-2 s-1)
  42. 42. Root Distribution Traits 4 weeks of stress period
  43. 43. Root Length in Various Soil Depth A Deeper rooting is one of the factors, but there are other factors B B contributing to drought resistanceRoot length (cm) C Resistant Susceptible
  44. 44. Under Root Size Limited Condition Kyushu Univ Diurnal change of stomatal conductance 120 IT98K-205-8 Day 1 100 Day 3 Drought resistant IT98K-205-8 can 80 maintain higher stomatal conductance % control Day 5 under root size limited conditionDay 1 60 40 20 Day 7 0 8 10 12 14 16 Time 120 IT98K-555-1 100 Day 1 - Drastic decline in late afternoon 80 - No relation in Leaf WP - SC % control 60 Day 3 - Cavitation in vascular bundle? 40 Day 5 - Sensitivity to ABA signaling? 20 - Water absorption mechanisms? Day 7 0 8 10 12 14 16 Time
  45. 45. Flower Abortion - Reduction of Pod Number Kyushu Univ IT98K-205-8 IT99K-901-5 IT98K-238-2 (34.0±2.9) (35.5±1.6) (75.2±4.0) Reduction of peduncle water potential is linked with flower abortion and further reduction of pod number / grain yield loss Curently, detailed analysis with more genotypes and different stress levels is on going- Will be presented in 7th International AFAS Joint Symposium between Korea and Japan
  46. 46. Further ChallengesAccurate phenotyping - Selection of more suitable parents - Physiological trait base QTLs - Understanding environment effect using GxE analysisMore physiological analysis - Use of grafting method Delta 13C of non-irrigated plants - Root characteristics - Utilization of stable isotopes In collaboration with partners UCR JIRCAS Kyushu Univ Delta 13C of irrigated plants
  47. 47. Capacity Building Training programs - Introduction of Marker Assisted Selection strategy into national cowpea breeding programs (ICCAE, 2008, Sept- Oct) - Development of phenotyping network for drought and Striga resistance in cowpea (ICCAE, 2009 Oct – Nov) Trainees/students - S. Gonne (ICCAE, Trainee, IRAD, Cameroon, 2008) - T. Abudulaye (ICCAE, Trainee, INRAN, Niger, 2008-2009) - F. Kusi (ICCAE, Trainee, SARI, Ghana, 2008-2009) - M. Hayatu (Ph.D student, BUK, Nigeria, 2008-2010) - A. Eugene (Ph.D student, Wageningen Univ., Benin, 2006-2009) - W. Abdullahi (Gratuate student, BUK, Nigeria, 2009-2010) - T. Sakamoto (MSc student, Kyushyu Univ, Japan, 2010) - S. Nakamura (MSc student, Tokyo Univ Agric, Japan, 2010) - T. Wakabayashi (MSc student, Osaka Univ, Japan, 2010) and more.
  48. 48. For Farmers’ Happy Face Thank You !!

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