Improving agricultural productivity inthe rural-urban interface: Lessons for     Soil fertility research at IITA          ...
Outline•   Soil fertility & agricultural productivity in SSA•   SSA Agriculture - the rural-urban interface•   Nutrient re...
Low agricultural productivity in SSA•   Low inherent fertility•   Nutrient depletion•   Low per capital fertilizer use•   ...
The low performance of agriculture is the main  cause of its slow economic growthIt is the only region of the world where ...
Cereal Yields in Developing Regions 1960-2005         4.0         3.5                                                     ...
Nutrient Mining of Agricultural Land in Africa                        (kg/ha/yr)            1995-97                     20...
Fertilizer nutrient consumption per hectare of arable land in selected countries, 2002                                    ...
Increasing food demand…• Population growth  – Natural growth  – Rural urban migration
450400350                                                      Total300                                                   ...
Agriculture in the rural-urban interface• contributes to inner-urban food supply,• compensates for missing cool transport ...
Contribution of UPA to urban food supply                                          100   % contribution to specific food it...
Urban centres are nutrient sink• Provides opportunity for nutrient  recycling• Closing the nutrient loop• Enhance intensiv...
The fertilization equivalent of untreated organic solid waste    Nutrient             Contribution in kg / cap            ...
Resources in excreta                                            Nutrient in kg / cap year         Nutrient            In u...
Recycling ProcessFocus– Mixing ratio– Pathogen inactivation– Nutrient quality
Adequate processing reduce health riskDynamics of Ascaris eggs viability reduction during co-composing of faecal          ...
COMLIZER development- excreta based compost with minimum   fertilizer
Co-compost                       Quality      Concentration                       parameter                       (Unit)  ...
cumulative inflitration -Tuu tengli                                          10.07.2003             40             35     ...
Comparison of economic benefits between users’ and non-users’ of excretaapplication on farmlands in Krobo District, GhanaV...
Communicating results• Publications in several outlets  – Refereed journals  – International conferences  – Book chapters ...
Capacity buildingCo-supervision• Eight M.Sc• Two PhDsSeveral interns
Working with Donors•   French Ministry of Foreign Affairs•   SDC•   DGIS•   IDRC•   EC
Partnerships•   ARI – EAWAG, NRI, IHE-UNESCO•   NARES – Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone•   Policy makers•   Farmer organis...
Networking• International Network of Resource Centres  on urban agriculture and food security-  Regional Coordinator• SWIT...
Lessons for IITA Soils Research          Paradigm Shift Required• From management of part of soil resource base- Nutrient ...
Involving other stakeholders• Involving the necessary people through multi-  stakeholder processes and platforms:   –   Go...
ConclusionGiven these experiences, it should possible to transform the soil fertility research for development in IITA.
Thanks for your attention
Associated constraints• Lack of enabling policy environment• Single approach – mono sectoral• Too much focus on basic scie...
Improving agricultural productivity in the rural-urban interface: Lessons for Soil fertility research at IITA
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Improving agricultural productivity in the rural-urban interface: Lessons for Soil fertility research at IITA

841 views

Published on

Soil fertility & agricultural productivity in SSA,SSA Agriculture - the rural-urban interface,Nutrient recycling in peri-urban agriculture

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
841
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Improving agricultural productivity in the rural-urban interface: Lessons for Soil fertility research at IITA

  1. 1. Improving agricultural productivity inthe rural-urban interface: Lessons for Soil fertility research at IITA Olufunke Cofie (PhD) Candidate for the position of Soil Fertility Specialist
  2. 2. Outline• Soil fertility & agricultural productivity in SSA• SSA Agriculture - the rural-urban interface• Nutrient recycling in peri-urban agriculture• Lessons for IITA Soils Research• Conclusions
  3. 3. Low agricultural productivity in SSA• Low inherent fertility• Nutrient depletion• Low per capital fertilizer use• Low yield Low Investments …a cycle Low Low yield Income
  4. 4. The low performance of agriculture is the main cause of its slow economic growthIt is the only region of the world where per capita food production has been declining for the past three decades
  5. 5. Cereal Yields in Developing Regions 1960-2005 4.0 3.5 East and Southeast Asia 3.0 Latin America South Asia 2.5 mt/ha 2.0 1.5 Sub-Saharan Africa 1.0 0.5 0.0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Source: FAOSTAT.
  6. 6. Nutrient Mining of Agricultural Land in Africa (kg/ha/yr) 1995-97 2002-04 Source: IFDC- Africa loses $4billion/yr in soil nutrients
  7. 7. Fertilizer nutrient consumption per hectare of arable land in selected countries, 2002 (kg/ha) Netherlands Vietnam Japan UK China France Brazil USA India South Africa Cuba Benin Malawi Ethiopia Mali Burkina Faso Nigeria Tanzania Mozambique Guinea 60 Ghana 100 200 300 400 500 0 Uganda Source: FAOSTAT, from Borlaug, 2004
  8. 8. Increasing food demand…• Population growth – Natural growth – Rural urban migration
  9. 9. 450400350 Total300 Population250 Urbanization in West Africa Urban (in millions) Population200150 Rural100 Population50 0 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Urban population is becoming as large as the rural.
  10. 10. Agriculture in the rural-urban interface• contributes to inner-urban food supply,• compensates for missing cool transport and storage (required for perishable crops),• provides jobs, income and livelihoods.• provides opportunity for closing rural-urban nutrient flows
  11. 11. Contribution of UPA to urban food supply 100 % contribution to specific food item 80 60 40 20 0 UA PUA RA UA PUA RA UA PUA RA Accra Kumasi Ouagadougou City and source of food Pineapple Cabbage Lettuce Spring onion Garden egg Tomatoes
  12. 12. Urban centres are nutrient sink• Provides opportunity for nutrient recycling• Closing the nutrient loop• Enhance intensive agriculture in the peri-urban
  13. 13. The fertilization equivalent of untreated organic solid waste Nutrient Contribution in kg / cap year Nitrogen (as N) 0.55 – 1.1 Phosphorus (as P) 0.2 – 0.4 Potassium (as K) 0.55 Carbon (as C) 16 – 22
  14. 14. Resources in excreta Nutrient in kg / cap year Nutrient In urine In faeces Total Required for (500 l/year) (50 l/year) 250 kg of cereals 1Nitrogen (as N) 4.0 0.5 4.5 5.6Phosphorus (as P) 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.7Potassium (as K) 0.9 0.3 1.2 1.2Carbon (as C) 2 2.9 8.8 11.71 = the yearly food equivalent required for one person2 = indicative of the potential for soil conditioning, normally not designated a nu- trient Nutrient value of Excreta is high enough to produce food BUT with health risks !!!
  15. 15. Recycling ProcessFocus– Mixing ratio– Pathogen inactivation– Nutrient quality
  16. 16. Adequate processing reduce health riskDynamics of Ascaris eggs viability reduction during co-composing of faecal sludge and organic solids waste
  17. 17. COMLIZER development- excreta based compost with minimum fertilizer
  18. 18. Co-compost Quality Concentration parameter (Unit) N (g/kg) 11.9 2.3 P (g/kg) 16.2 4.8 K (g/kg) 17.0 4.7 Ca (g/kg) 35.1 8.7 Mg (g/kg) 7.9 2.0 Pb (mg/kg) 28 28 Cd (mg/kg) 0.4 0.1•Free from toxic heavy metals
  19. 19. cumulative inflitration -Tuu tengli 10.07.2003 40 35 y = 8.3846Ln(x) - 7.1975 30 25depth (cm) 20 15 y = 2.6036Ln(x) - 3.3556 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 time (minutes) Faecal Sludge treatment control
  20. 20. Comparison of economic benefits between users’ and non-users’ of excretaapplication on farmlands in Krobo District, GhanaVariable Users Cost/ ha ($) Non-users Cost / ha ($) Total revenue 918.56 606.54 Land Preparation 72.38 54.64 Hired labour 178.83 189.42 Seeds 10.32 7.71 Excreta / Fertilizer1 18.79 51.23 Chemicals 34.00 19.74 Total Variable Cost 314.32 322.74 Gross Margin 604.24 283.80 Fixed Cost 0.00 0.00 Depreciation 7.65 7.87 Family labour 112.21 80.37 Rent on land 70.90 48.22 Total Fixed cost 190.76 136.46 Net Income 413.47 147.351 Excreta apply to users whilst fertilizer apply to nonusers. The cost incurred onexcreta is for transporting the excreta to farm site. Source: Cofie et al 2007
  21. 21. Communicating results• Publications in several outlets – Refereed journals – International conferences – Book chapters – Newsletters
  22. 22. Capacity buildingCo-supervision• Eight M.Sc• Two PhDsSeveral interns
  23. 23. Working with Donors• French Ministry of Foreign Affairs• SDC• DGIS• IDRC• EC
  24. 24. Partnerships• ARI – EAWAG, NRI, IHE-UNESCO• NARES – Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone• Policy makers• Farmer organisations• NGOs• Private Sector
  25. 25. Networking• International Network of Resource Centres on urban agriculture and food security- Regional Coordinator• SWITCH consortium – Chair• SWISS NCCR – Senior member
  26. 26. Lessons for IITA Soils Research Paradigm Shift Required• From management of part of soil resource base- Nutrient Cycle Management.• From single use of resources- Recycling and Integrated organo-mineral cum cultural management practices• From disregard of soil resource base- fertility-sensitive farming practices
  27. 27. Involving other stakeholders• Involving the necessary people through multi- stakeholder processes and platforms: – Government Agency/Ministry – Funding Agency – Metropolitan Authorities – NGO’s – The private sector – Media – User Groups/associations – Emerging initiatives – AGRA etc• Coupled with social processes to move sustainable resource management across the research-policy- implementation interfaces
  28. 28. ConclusionGiven these experiences, it should possible to transform the soil fertility research for development in IITA.
  29. 29. Thanks for your attention
  30. 30. Associated constraints• Lack of enabling policy environment• Single approach – mono sectoral• Too much focus on basic science – too abstract for field application• Relevant stakeholders are often left out

×