Breeding the Next Generation of Cassava           Varieties for Africa:Approaches to Enhance Productivity and        Marke...
BackgroundAfrica is the most food insecure continentSevere stunting is estimated at 40% in childrenunder 5Complex food ins...
BackgroundDecreasing per capita food production characterizedby:  o Poor yielding varieties  o Biotic and abiotic stresses...
BackgroundCassava is the most important staple food in Africaafter maizeExpanding production in drought-prone areas idealf...
Garri Business in Nigeria is very well-established       and is a strong commercial activity
Cassava Transformation                     Ethanol   Flour                                    Modified Starch             ...
A Business Model ExampleIntegrated Cassava Project (ICP) implemented by IITAand Nigerian National partners     Pre-emptive...
A Business ModelGood knowledge of the producers to consumers continuumApplication of modern science and technology andconv...
Expectations for Improved Cassava              BreedingTechnologies             Productivity               Markets  Target...
Recent Activities and   Achievements
National Pre-release Trials: Multi – environment and On-farm Adaptive Trials                                    8-12 site...
National Pre-release Trials:     Multi-site Trials in 2008-09    1 NR 02/0007   9 TMS 01/1412    2 NR 02/0018 10 TMS 98/21...
National Pre-release Trials:                  On-farm Adaptive Trials in                           2009                   ...
National Pre-release Trials:                                    PC1 = 60.32%; PC2 = 24.54%; Total = 84.86%                ...
Officially Released Varieties in NigeriaAn active variety release and/or delivery pipeline12 varieties released within 3 y...
Mitigating the ‘Hidden Hunger’ in Africa   Breeding for micronutrient-dense varieties in   cassava   Micro-nutrient defici...
Yellow and light yellow garri is                                  very common and popular in                              ...
Variation for carotene content (µg/g)                            Location           Ibadan   Mokwa    Onne      Ubiaja   Z...
2        1.5                                                    Mokw a                                                   U...
Trait Correlations               Negative association               between dry matter               and carotene, Fe and ...
Candidates for Pre-release On-farm Adaptive Trials:          1.   TMS 01/1371          2.   TMS 01/1610          3.   TMS ...
Strategies for Reaching End-usersPromotion of yellow root cassava in Nigeriashould become a priority and farmers mutuallys...
Critical Next StepsTarget Areas: All cassava growing areasDeliverables:   Short term: Intermediate levels of total caroten...
Critical Next StepsCritical need for adaptive breeding of yellow-fleshvarieties with local elite linesNetworking for shari...
Adaptive Breeding: Clonal Evaluation Trials                2008-09                                     35%                ...
Impact of AchievementsNew Cassava initiatives in Nigeria on production andprocessing since 200240% increment in production...
Vision for the Cassava Sub-sectorImproved varieties that will drive down costs ofproduction, processing and marketingImpro...
ConstraintsPost-harvest physiological deteriorationLong breeding cycleChanging climateWide yield gapsInsufficient planting...
Constraints: pests and diseases Cassava Mosaic                Cassava Brown Disease                       Streak Disease  ...
Delayed post-harvest physiological deterioration F1hybrid of Manihot walkerae 14 days after harvest                       ...
Urgent Research NeedsDelayed post-harvest physiological deteriorationDrought toleranceEnhanced nutritional qualityMultiple...
Next Generation of VarietiesMultiple resistance genes for durable resistance to newpest threatsEnhanced nutritional conten...
Next Generation of VarietiesDrought resistantNutrient-use efficiencyHerbicide resistant (Round-up Ready)High dry matter yi...
Mechanisms for Delivery         A Breeding Tool Box:            Field-based breeding            Marker-assisted breeding  ...
Pyramiding Multiple Sources of CMD    Resistance Genes for MAS            D     18.5                 Y66                  ...
Achieving Set TargetsPre-breeding and BreedingCombining and fixing of new traits derivable fromprimary and secondary gene ...
Achieving Set TargetsEngaging private sector in the value chaindevelopment especially in marketsAdopting models and strate...
IndicatorsVarieties with long shelf lifeLittle or no yield loss due to water stressNovel starch typesEnhanced nutritional ...
Indicators  Aggressive dissemination of improved varieties  Cassava value chain development  Enabling government policies ...
Capacity BuildingRaising the next generation of cassava breeders,combining field-based and molecular breeding:  Partnershi...
ContingenciesContinued support from managementSupport from the CGIARSupport from the Nigerian and other Africangovernments...
Recent Externally – funded Cassava            Breeding Projects at NRCRI1.   Development of Low-Cost Marker Technologies f...
PartnershipsAfrican NARs            Farmers’ AssociationsAGRA                    Harvest PlusCORAF/WECARD            Gener...
ManyThanks!
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Breeding the Next Generation of Cassava Varieties for Africa: Approaches to Enhance Productivity and Market-Preferred Traits

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Expectations for Improved Cassava Breeding: Technologies,Productivity and Markets

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Breeding the Next Generation of Cassava Varieties for Africa: Approaches to Enhance Productivity and Market-Preferred Traits

  1. 1. Breeding the Next Generation of Cassava Varieties for Africa:Approaches to Enhance Productivity and Market-Preferred Traits Chiedozie Egesi, PhD 3rd April 2009, IITA, Ibadan
  2. 2. BackgroundAfrica is the most food insecure continentSevere stunting is estimated at 40% in childrenunder 5Complex food insecurity driven by: o Fast growing population o Primordial agricultural sector o Climatic change
  3. 3. BackgroundDecreasing per capita food production characterizedby: o Poor yielding varieties o Biotic and abiotic stresses o Low or zero inputs o Poorly organized marketsNew driving forces defining food production,consumption and marketsUrgent need for development and dissemination ofimproved crop varieties
  4. 4. BackgroundCassava is the most important staple food in Africaafter maizeExpanding production in drought-prone areas idealfor food security programmesClose to 100 million Nigerians eat cassava – basedfood at least once a dayStill a subsistence crop except for a few countriesFeatures as a suitable commodity to drive Africa’seconomic development
  5. 5. Garri Business in Nigeria is very well-established and is a strong commercial activity
  6. 6. Cassava Transformation Ethanol Flour Modified Starch Pharmaceuticals, Processing inputs Glue Cassava Industrial Starch (e.g., drilling)Livestock feed Processed foods
  7. 7. A Business Model ExampleIntegrated Cassava Project (ICP) implemented by IITAand Nigerian National partners Pre-emptive Management of Cassava Mosaic Disease in Nigeria Cassava Enterprises Development Project (CEDP) The entire cassava value chain developed as a business plan Need to replicate this kind of integrated project in other African countries
  8. 8. A Business ModelGood knowledge of the producers to consumers continuumApplication of modern science and technology andconventional breeding, as well as increased partnershipsDevelop and adapt science and technology, and find newgrowth markets for cassava
  9. 9. Expectations for Improved Cassava BreedingTechnologies Productivity Markets Target: Increased Production, Productivity, Profitability
  10. 10. Recent Activities and Achievements
  11. 11. National Pre-release Trials: Multi – environment and On-farm Adaptive Trials  8-12 sites for each trial yearly; a very broad range of agro- ecological zones  High rainfall, disease epidemics eg. CMD, CBB  Low rainfall, pest epidemics eg. CGM, drought tolerance  Need for diversified end-use products with better cooking or nutritional qualitiesRange: Humid forests, Savannasand Arid agro-ecozones  Specific adaptation of varieties; early maturity
  12. 12. National Pre-release Trials: Multi-site Trials in 2008-09 1 NR 02/0007 9 TMS 01/1412 2 NR 02/0018 10 TMS 98/2132 3 NR 03/0211 11 AR 37-108 4 NR 03/0174 12 AR 1-82 5 NR 03/0155 13 CR 12-45 6 TMS 01/1368 14 CR 36-5 7 TMS 01/1371 15 TMS 30572 8 TMS 01/1206 16 Local
  13. 13. National Pre-release Trials: On-farm Adaptive Trials in 2009 1. NR 01/0004 2. TMS 01/0040 3. TMS 00/0210 4. TMS 00/0203 5. CR 41-10
  14. 14. National Pre-release Trials: PC1 = 60.32%; PC2 = 24.54%; Total = 84.86% 1 ISHIA GU 0.8 Env1 0.6 98/0510 PC2 axis 0.4 GGE Biplot 0.2 97/3200 94/0026 97/4779 92B /00068 Analysis M 98/0028 97/0162 94/0561 95/0289 92/0326 419 4(2)1425 30572 96/0603 98/0505 M 98/0040 0 92/0057 97/2205 95/0379 92/0067 82/00058 94/0039 96/0523 95/0166 91/02324 97/4763 98/2226 99/6012 97/021 99/3073 1 98/0581 96/1642 -0.2 92/0325 97/4769 99/2123 92B /0006196/1 98/21 632 01 M 98/0068 98/0002 UM UDIKE Env2 OTOB I -0.4 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 PC1 axis Fast-tracked development and release of improved varieties with specific adaptation Identification of key mega-environments for optimal resource use
  15. 15. Officially Released Varieties in NigeriaAn active variety release and/or delivery pipeline12 varieties released within 3 years 2005 2006 2008 TMS 98/0581 NR 87184 NR 930199 TMS 98/0505 TMS 98/0002 TMS 96/1089A TMS 98/0510 TMS 96/1632 TMS 97/2205 TMS 92/0057 TME 419 TMS 92/0326
  16. 16. Mitigating the ‘Hidden Hunger’ in Africa Breeding for micronutrient-dense varieties in cassava Micro-nutrient deficiency is endemic especially in children and reproductive women in all the cassava growing regions of Nigeria Official estimates show that one third of Nigerian children under 5 are deficient in vitamin A A quarter of children under five are deficient in iron consumption
  17. 17. Yellow and light yellow garri is very common and popular in local markets. But the yellow colour is derived from palm oilYellow garri has higher pricepremium than white colour garriby 30-60% in Nigeria!
  18. 18. Variation for carotene content (µg/g) Location Ibadan Mokwa Onne Ubiaja Zaria Mean 4.51 5.38 4.11 5.18 5.61 Min 0.60 0.80 0.00 0.40 0.70 Max 8.90 11.0 9.40 9.30 9.40 SD 1.92 2.22 2.23 2.13 2.40 CV (%) 42 37 35 41 42
  19. 19. 2 1.5 Mokw a Ubiaja 1 01/1663 01/1331 01/1224 01/1371 0.5 TME1 01/1649 96/1089A Zaria 01/1413IPCA1 30572 Abuja 01/1442 91/02324 01/1335 0 90/01554 Warri 01/1412 01/1335 01/1235 94/0330Ibadan 01/1273 01/1404 01/1380 01/1610 01/1206 -0.5 94/0006 95/0379 01/1646 01/1277 01/1368 98/2123 -1 Ikenne -1.5 Onne -2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mean total carotenoid (ug/g) FW
  20. 20. Trait Correlations Negative association between dry matter and carotene, Fe and Zn contents. Linkage drag? But dry matter content is crucial for adoption Positive correlation between Fe, Zn and carotene
  21. 21. Candidates for Pre-release On-farm Adaptive Trials: 1. TMS 01/1371 2. TMS 01/1610 3. TMS 01/1277 4. TMS 01/1115 5. TMS 01/1412 6. TMS 01/1368 7. TMS 01/1663
  22. 22. Strategies for Reaching End-usersPromotion of yellow root cassava in Nigeriashould become a priority and farmers mutuallyshare valuable resourcesDiffusion of improved varieties is routine butshould be strengthenedFast-tracked combined Demonstration and On-farm adaptive trials an informal release strategyNational sensitization- Regulatory agencies: NAFDAC, SON, State ADPs, NSS, NGOs
  23. 23. Critical Next StepsTarget Areas: All cassava growing areasDeliverables: Short term: Intermediate levels of total carotene (8-10 ug/g FW) Medium term: At least 15 ug/g FWPartnerships with nutritionists, agronomists,etc.
  24. 24. Critical Next StepsCritical need for adaptive breeding of yellow-fleshvarieties with local elite linesNetworking for sharing of germplasm andinformation at regional (or sub-regional) levelDeliberate promotion of yellow roots for improvedhealth and livelihoodsDemonstration trials and Commercial scalemultiplication
  25. 25. Adaptive Breeding: Clonal Evaluation Trials 2008-09 35% 31% 26% 8% White Cream Light Yellow Deep Yellow Proportion of Pro-Vitamin A Germplasm (n = 543)
  26. 26. Impact of AchievementsNew Cassava initiatives in Nigeria on production andprocessing since 200240% increment in production from 2001 (32.07m MT) to2006 (45.72m MT) – FAOSTAT, 200715% increment in area under cultivation from 2001(3.3m Ha) to 2006 (3.81m Ha) – FAOSTAT, 200730 – 40% of cassava grown in Nigeria are improvedvarietiesStanding policy on 10% cassava composite flourAdoption of E-10 Policy for implementation25% decline in cassava mosaic disease incidence
  27. 27. Vision for the Cassava Sub-sectorImproved varieties that will drive down costs ofproduction, processing and marketingImprove the quantity and quality of cassavaproducts for diversified usesMaking cassava products competitive with otherraw materialsA major food and cash crop in Africa that willcause farmers to give more attention to their crophusbandry
  28. 28. ConstraintsPost-harvest physiological deteriorationLong breeding cycleChanging climateWide yield gapsInsufficient planting materialsEmerging pest and disease threatsUntapped marketsBulkiness and perishability
  29. 29. Constraints: pests and diseases Cassava Mosaic Cassava Brown Disease Streak Disease WhitefliesCassavamealybug Cassava bacterial Green spider blight mite
  30. 30. Delayed post-harvest physiological deterioration F1hybrid of Manihot walkerae 14 days after harvest MCOL 1505: 27.8% MBRA 337: 9.48% CW 429-1: 0% CM 523-7: 51.9%
  31. 31. Urgent Research NeedsDelayed post-harvest physiological deteriorationDrought toleranceEnhanced nutritional qualityMultiple resistance to pests and diseases (pyramiding)Nutrient responsivenessIndustrial high value root qualityGermplasm managementGenotype – neutral regeneration technologiesHerbicide resistanceEfficient and effective seed delivery systems
  32. 32. Next Generation of VarietiesMultiple resistance genes for durable resistance to newpest threatsEnhanced nutritional contents (micronutrients andhigh protein) in the storage rootsDelayed postharvest physiological deterioration ofrootsHigh starch yields (quantity and quality) per unit timeand areaLow cyanogenic potential
  33. 33. Next Generation of VarietiesDrought resistantNutrient-use efficiencyHerbicide resistant (Round-up Ready)High dry matter yield per unit time and areaIncreased sugar content of roots
  34. 34. Mechanisms for Delivery A Breeding Tool Box: Field-based breeding Marker-assisted breeding Genetic modificationA seamless continuum of all 3 will deliver varieties withattributes desired by different end-users and markets Other avenues: Induced mutations Ploidy manipulation
  35. 35. Pyramiding Multiple Sources of CMD Resistance Genes for MAS D 18.5 Y66 R Dist Marker rI18b cM Name 20.5 rJ1a rGY115 7.9 20.0 rGY9 rGY57 15.6 21.0 rGY1 rGY25 16.1 CMD2 21.2 rSSRY28 11.3 SSRY9 Ai19 Akano et al. 2001 23.9 SSRY3 16.2 CMD1 M SSRY23 Fregene et al. 2000 SSRY102 24.4 SSRY230 16.6 NS170 9.1 CMD3 Ns905 GY39 11.2 SSRY182 SSRY299 CIAT 2007
  36. 36. Achieving Set TargetsPre-breeding and BreedingCombining and fixing of new traits derivable fromprimary and secondary gene pools in elite parentsthrough inbreedingWide distribution of the new parents to NARs forbreeding with locally preferred resistant germplasmMAS will help in efficiently reducing breedingpopulation by selecting only those with desirable genesStrategic germplasm exchanges
  37. 37. Achieving Set TargetsEngaging private sector in the value chaindevelopment especially in marketsAdopting models and strategies such as CLAYUCA andThai Tapioca Development Institute (TTDI) in sub-regions in AfricaStrategic engagement and empowerment of NARs in allstages of product developmentPartnerships with relevant ARIs and CGIAR centers
  38. 38. IndicatorsVarieties with long shelf lifeLittle or no yield loss due to water stressNovel starch typesEnhanced nutritional statusIncreased nitrogen use efficiencyHigher dry matter yieldHerbicide resistance
  39. 39. Indicators Aggressive dissemination of improved varieties Cassava value chain development Enabling government policies Integration of field-based and molecular breeding as well as genetic modification Increased alliances between NARs, IARs and ARIsCassava Breeding Community of Practice forAfrica
  40. 40. Capacity BuildingRaising the next generation of cassava breeders,combining field-based and molecular breeding: Partnerships with AGRA Universities ACCI, Orange Free State Univ., South Africa WACCI, Univ. of Ghana Universities of agriculture Generation Challenge Programme (CoP)
  41. 41. ContingenciesContinued support from managementSupport from the CGIARSupport from the Nigerian and other AfricangovernmentsDevelopment agencies in agriculture
  42. 42. Recent Externally – funded Cassava Breeding Projects at NRCRI1. Development of Low-Cost Marker Technologies for Pyramiding Useful Gene from Wild Relatives of Cassava into Elite Progenitors (GCP)2. SSR Diversity of Elite Cassava Varieties in Nigeria (GCP)3. SSR Tagging of New Genes for Resistance to Cassava Mosaic Disease – Genotyping Support Service (GSS-GCP)4. Marker-Aided Development of Nutritionally Enhanced Cassava for Nigeria (GCP)5. Cassava breeding Community of Practice for Africa (GCP)6. Mutation Breeding (IAEA)
  43. 43. PartnershipsAfrican NARs Farmers’ AssociationsAGRA Harvest PlusCORAF/WECARD Generation Challenge ProgrammeASARECA CIATFARA Hellen KellerNEPAD IAEAIFAD EMBRAPAUSAID Private SectorBMGF Other ResearchersBioCassava Plus Other Stakeholders
  44. 44. ManyThanks!

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