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Germplasm collections, conservation, health                        documentation and distributionEC monitoring of Agrobiod...
Germplasm Collections                Over 28 000 Accessions               Major food crops of AfricaSeed cropsCowpeaBambar...
Germplasm collections            Crops        Number of accessions                          with passport data  Cowpea    ...
Germplasm origin                                                            Vigna                      Cowpea V. unguicula...
Germplasm origin                                                            Vigna                                         ...
Germplasm origin                                                       Vigna                     Wild Vigna 53 speciesGIS ...
Germplasm origin                       Soybean Glycine maxGIS unit -IITA                 USA      Available data: 93%
Germplasm origin                     Maize Zea maysGIS unit -IITA                        Benin - Togo                 Avai...
Germplasm origin                                  Yam 8 species                              Nigeria -Togo                ...
Germplasm origin                 Manihot esculenta                          NigeriaGIS unit -IITA   +Brazil and Australia
International Treaty and IITA obligationsGermplasm maintained in TRUST for the international community             1. Cons...
Germplasm conservationSeed cropsCowpeaBambara ground nut         Seed bankVigna wild relativesMaizeSoybeanAfrican yam bean...
Seed crop - Germplasm flow                                   21 000 accessions  Safeduplication               StorageDistr...
Seed crop – Germplasm flow  Safe                   Low stock                         Viability lossduplication            ...
Seed crop – Germplasm flow  Safe                   Low stock                         Viability lossduplication            ...
Seed crop - Regeneration and processing                                                                2007        Crop   ...
Seed crop - Virus Indexing                                                                       2007  Crop            Ind...
Seed crop - Safe duplication                     Svalbard (Norway)                           Crop   Processed/            ...
Seed crop - Safe duplicationLegumes        Saskatoon Research               Centre - CanadaMaize           CIMMYT - Mexico
Clonal crops
Clonal crops –                                                     Germplasm flow                 Field bank              ...
Clonal crops                  Field bank                                       Indexing In vitro introduction             ...
Germplasm flow                 Field bank                                      IndexingIn vitro introduction              ...
Germplasm flow                   Field bank                                        Indexing  In vitro introduction        ...
Germplasm flow                   Field bank                                        Indexing  In vitro introduction        ...
Germplasm flow                   Field bank                                        Indexing  In vitro introduction        ...
Germplasm flow                   Field bank                                                         Cryobanking           ...
Clonal germplasm - Conservation                                                                 2007Crops     Field       ...
Clonal crop – Cryopreservation                                                          2007Cassava 2 Cryopreservation app...
Clonal germplasm – Indexing                                                                   2007                        ...
Germplasm DocumentationIITA WEB SITE http://www.iita.org•Search enginePassport and characterization data•On line germplasm...
DistributionIITA/CGIAR genebanks – Multilateral system (MLS) Benefit SharingGermplasm available without restriction for fo...
Breadfruit Artocarpus                                                              Cassava Manihot              (Esculenta...
Distribution                                          Crops                          Agreement                            ...
Germplasm Distribution75% distributed in Nigeria over 20 yrs+ / 5% to the US                                              ...
Germplasm Distribution                         IITA genebank germplasm distribution 1985-2007                         1000...
Germplasm Distribution      Genebank distribution 2003-2007                  User type                                    ...
Germplasm new acquisition                                 Gap identification                MAIZE                        O...
Germplasm new acquisition                          Gap identification                Obvious                eco-geographic...
Collaboration with National Partners• University of Agriculture Abeokuta – Nigeria       • 1 Master and 1 PhD students• Un...
Global Conservation NetworkCGIAR level – Collective activities        •Common registry        •Genebanking best practices ...
THANK YOU
Germplasm origin                                                  MusaGIS unit -IITA                                      ...
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Germplasm collections,conservation, health documentation and distribution

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A presentation on germplasm collections(Seed crops,Clonal crops),conservation(Seed bank,Field and In vitro bank),documentation and distribution

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Germplasm collections,conservation, health documentation and distribution

  1. 1. Germplasm collections, conservation, health documentation and distributionEC monitoring of Agrobiodiversity and Root and Tuber Systems Programs May 27-29 IITA-Nigeria
  2. 2. Germplasm Collections Over 28 000 Accessions Major food crops of AfricaSeed cropsCowpeaBambara ground nutVigna wild relativesMaizeSoybeanAfrican yam beanClonal cropsYamCassavaMusa
  3. 3. Germplasm collections Crops Number of accessions with passport data Cowpea 15113 53% Bambara 1812 Wild vigna 1507 Soybean 1701 Maize 863 African yam bean 66 Cassava 3078 Yam 3200 Germplasm Musa 150 ‘in trust’ Total 27490Miscellaneous legumes 600
  4. 4. Germplasm origin Vigna Cowpea V. unguiculataGIS unit -IITA Nigeria – Burkina faso - India Available data 99%
  5. 5. Germplasm origin Vigna Bambara ground nut V. subterraneaGIS unit -IITA Available data 92% Nigeria – Cameroon –Ghana – Cote d’Ivoire – Zambia –Zimbabwe
  6. 6. Germplasm origin Vigna Wild Vigna 53 speciesGIS unit -IITA Nigeria – Congo – South Africa Available data 92%
  7. 7. Germplasm origin Soybean Glycine maxGIS unit -IITA USA Available data: 93%
  8. 8. Germplasm origin Maize Zea maysGIS unit -IITA Benin - Togo Available data: 82%
  9. 9. Germplasm origin Yam 8 species Nigeria -Togo rotundata 67% alata 25% bulbifera 2% cayenensis 2% dumentorum 1.6% esculenta 0.7% preusii 0.3% manganotianaGIS unit -IITA 0.25% Available data +99%
  10. 10. Germplasm origin Manihot esculenta NigeriaGIS unit -IITA +Brazil and Australia
  11. 11. International Treaty and IITA obligationsGermplasm maintained in TRUST for the international community 1. Conserve 2. Document 3. Distribute 4. Safe duplicate 5. Enrich with new diversity 6. Improve conservation
  12. 12. Germplasm conservationSeed cropsCowpeaBambara ground nut Seed bankVigna wild relativesMaizeSoybeanAfrican yam beanClonal cropsYam Field andCassava In vitro bankMusa
  13. 13. Seed crop - Germplasm flow 21 000 accessions Safeduplication StorageDistribution
  14. 14. Seed crop – Germplasm flow Safe Low stock Viability lossduplication Storage RegenerationDistribution
  15. 15. Seed crop – Germplasm flow Safe Low stock Viability lossduplication Storage RegenerationDistribution Indexing
  16. 16. Seed crop - Regeneration and processing 2007 Crop Processed/ StoredCowpea 1314Bambara 249Winged bean 257Green gram 183Sword bean 4African Yam B 170Wild vigna 257Soybean 230 Research: Genetic integrity Cowpea Gene flow study in progressMaize 19Total 2683
  17. 17. Seed crop - Virus Indexing 2007 Crop Indexed Virus-free % clean Cowpea 1532 (553 core) 1129 73% Bambara 245 (93 core) 140 57% Winged Bean 79 19 24% Total 1856 1288 69%Virus tested: Cucumber mosaic virus, cowpeamottle virus, southernbean mosaic virus, cowpeayellow mosaic virus, bean common mosaic virus Indexed by: ELISA, PCR, ICR-PCR or IC-RT-PCR
  18. 18. Seed crop - Safe duplication Svalbard (Norway) Crop Processed/ Stored Cowpea 4778 Bambara 269 Wild vigna 294 Soybean 673 Maize 499 Total 6513• International seed vault• Polar circle• Built in permafrost• Open 4 times a year
  19. 19. Seed crop - Safe duplicationLegumes Saskatoon Research Centre - CanadaMaize CIMMYT - Mexico
  20. 20. Clonal crops
  21. 21. Clonal crops – Germplasm flow Field bank 1 to 2 yearsIn vitro introduction 6 to 24 Subculture GENEBANK months
  22. 22. Clonal crops Field bank Indexing In vitro introduction Subculture GENEBANKBar codingIn progress
  23. 23. Germplasm flow Field bank IndexingIn vitro introduction Distribution Subculture GENEBANK
  24. 24. Germplasm flow Field bank Indexing In vitro introduction Distribution Subculture GENEBANK Safe duplicationNIGERIA Black boxBENIN
  25. 25. Germplasm flow Field bank Indexing In vitro introduction Distribution Subculture GENEBANK Subculture (Unit 2) RepatriationsNIGERIA Black boxBENIN
  26. 26. Germplasm flow Field bank Indexing In vitro introduction Distribution Subculture GENEBANK Subculture (Unit 2) RepatriationsNIGERIA Black boxBENIN Transfers
  27. 27. Germplasm flow Field bank Cryobanking Indexing In vitro introduction Distribution Subculture GENEBANK Subculture (Unit 2) RepatriationsNIGERIA Black boxBENIN Transfers
  28. 28. Clonal germplasm - Conservation 2007Crops Field In vitro In vitro Safe Presently maintenance Introduction Maintenance duplication duplicated transferredYam 3200 553 1544 259 1110Cassava 3078 476 2367 558 1895Musa 150 0 150 0 0Total 6428 1029 4177 817 3005 Research: Yam meristeming Yam somaclonal variation Low cost in vitro culture Sanitation Cryopreservation
  29. 29. Clonal crop – Cryopreservation 2007Cassava 2 Cryopreservation approaches tested on 50 accessions • Vitrification (DMSO/Glycerol/Ethylene glycol) • Encapsulation dehydration • Validation in progressMusaTechnology transfer – LeuvenCryobanking by the end of 2008
  30. 30. Clonal germplasm – Indexing 2007 Crop Indexed Virus-free % clean Cassava 204 172 84% Yam 192 42 21% Total 396 214 54%Virus tested:Yam mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, disoscorea alata bacilliform virusAfrican cassava mosaic virus, East African cassava mosaic virusIndexed by: ELISA, PCR Research: Virus detection at early stage (in vitro seedling) Sanitation
  31. 31. Germplasm DocumentationIITA WEB SITE http://www.iita.org•Search enginePassport and characterization data•On line germplasm request•On line inventory system (in progress)SINGER DATA BASESEARCH ENGINE (passport data only)http://www.singer.grinfo.net
  32. 32. DistributionIITA/CGIAR genebanks – Multilateral system (MLS) Benefit SharingGermplasm available without restriction for food and agriculture researchDistribution with SMTA if Annex 1 crop
  33. 33. Breadfruit Artocarpus Cassava Manihot (Esculenta only) Asparagus Asparagus Banana / Plantain - Musa(-textilis) Oat Avena Rice Oryza Beet Beta Pearl Millet Pennisetum Brassica complex Brassica et al. Beans Phaseolus (-polyanthus) Pigeon Pea Cajanus Pea PisumAnnexe 1 = 64 Chickpea Cicer Rye Secalecrops and Citrus Citrus Potato Solanum (- phureja)forages Coconut Cocos Eggplant Solanum Major aroids Colocasia, Xanthosoma (include Sorghum SorghumCrops that cocoyam, taro)humanity Carrot Daucus Triticale Triticosecaledepends on Wheat Triticum et al. Yams Dioscorea Finger Millet Eleusine Faba Bean / Vetch Vicia Strawberry Fragaria Cowpea et al. Vigna Sunflower Helianthus Maize Zea (-perennis, diploperennis, luxurians) Barley Hordeum FORAGES Sweet Potato Ipomoea Grass pea Lathyrus Lentil Lens Apple Malus
  34. 34. Distribution Crops Agreement Cowpea et al SMTA Material transfer Agreement Soybean MTA Maize SMTA Cassava SMTA Yam SMTA Musa SMTA African yam bean MTA Ensuring Safe-movement of Germplasm Visual inspection / blotter test / sedimentation Release pathogenGermplasm Germplasm Health Testing free-material ELISA / PCR / EM / Grow-out testsGenebank Breeding Seed treatment & fumigation (optional)
  35. 35. Germplasm Distribution75% distributed in Nigeria over 20 yrs+ / 5% to the US IITA - GIS Unit
  36. 36. Germplasm Distribution IITA genebank germplasm distribution 1985-2007 10000Accessions distributed 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 07 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 Year
  37. 37. Germplasm Distribution Genebank distribution 2003-2007 User type Commercial Company 12% Individual CGIAR (other than IITA) Unknown NARS University 17% IITA60%
  38. 38. Germplasm new acquisition Gap identification MAIZE Obvious eco-geographical gapsGIS Unit IITA
  39. 39. Germplasm new acquisition Gap identification Obvious eco-geographical gaps Cote d’Ivoire Non Mozambique IT parties South AfricaGIS Unit IITA (from FAO data April 08)
  40. 40. Collaboration with National Partners• University of Agriculture Abeokuta – Nigeria • 1 Master and 1 PhD students• University of Nigeria Nsukka – Nigeria • 1 master student• Centre National de Recherche Agronomique (CNRA) - Cote d’Ivoire • Expertise for genebank upgrading project• National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB), Ibadan, Nigeria • Consultation and training
  41. 41. Global Conservation NetworkCGIAR level – Collective activities •Common registry •Genebanking best practices •Performance indicatorsGlobal Crop Diversity TRUST •Global conservation strategies •Safe duplication of national collections Yam – Benin, Togo Cocoyam – Ghana, Cuba
  42. 42. THANK YOU
  43. 43. Germplasm origin MusaGIS unit -IITA Musa cuminata M. balbisian M. schizocarpa M. basjoo M. laterita M. peekeli Available data < 83%

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