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How Does Private Schooling Growth Affect
the Public System and Educational Equity?
IIEP Strategic Debate
October 4, 2017
P...
A public-private education system
Parents
Students
Teachers, principals
Education bureaucracy
(national, district, sub-dis...
Research Questions
• How and why do parents select schools? How do they
continue to engage with schools after choosing the...
Research Motivation and Perspective
• Choice a global trend and academic focus (charters, vouchers, home
schooling, privat...
Investigate key aspects of the choice debate
Expected Benefits and Concerns
5
References: Chubb and Moe (1990), Schneider,...
6
Research Design
& Context
Mustang
Chitwan
Kathmandu
Kavre
Dadeldhura
Supplementary
7
JhapaIn-depth
Research Design
field sites for primary data coll...
8
PRINCIPAL SURVEY (KATHMANDU, CHITWAN)
IN-DEPTH DATA SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
Kathmandu
Chitwan
National
DadeldhuraSarlahiMustan...
• Low-income, landlocked/difficult topography, high ethno-linguistic diversity
• Political instability, high migration
• P...
10
“Protests in private schools
over raising school fees”
“5 public schools displaced
due to shortage of students”
(Nagari...
11
Parent
decision-making
Why and how do parents select schools?
How do parents continue to exercise choice after
selectio...
12
Framing the process of parent decision-making
Schneider, Elacqua and Buckley (2006); Schneider,Teske and Marschall (200...
Financial constraints and children’s interest key to school selection
Child role in decision-making
“I had no idea about t...
“Average and above”
Public
Poor parents do not benefit from existing choice
“Below average”
Public
“Smaller”
Private
“Well...
15
Public sector
perspectives
How do public schools experience competition?
What are public schools doing in response to p...
16
Framing the process of
competitive effects on public schools
OutcomesExperiences of
Competition
Responses to
Competitio...
Extent of private sector growth, local
enrollment pressures, and how
officials perceive this competition.
Competition Meas...
18
144
463
pre-1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
67
92
pre-1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
Kathmandu District Chitwan ...
19Sources: Private school district records, Principal Survey
ChitwanKathmanduNepal
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
2006-07 07-08 08-0...
Response: some policy adoptions for competing
English medium Ties and belts
ABCs
Source: Principal Survey, 2011-12
Adopted...
Example:Adopting English medium ABCs
• Parental demand for English; what is attractive about private schools
• Public scho...
necessary conditions for productive responses
revenue
time
Resources
Community support
Principal’s Leadership
Child centri...
constraints to responding
revenue
time
No supplemental
revenueLack community support
Start from disadvantage
ABCs
English ...
Pervasive role of political instability
24
“Politically, all the teachers are divided.And so are the school management
com...
25Source: Qualitative datasets
A separation of roles for public and private schooling
All political party leaders’ childre...
26
Private sector
perspectives
What are the characteristics of the private schools in the sample?
What do private schools ...
0
100200300
qfee_gr1us68
pre-1980 1980s 1990s 2000s
Kathmandu schools – fee-based diversity
Private schooling trends
Priva...
0
50
100150200
qfee_gr1us68
pre-1980 1980s 1990s 2000s
Chitwan schools – narrower fee bands
Private schooling trends
Priva...
Private school characteristics
Why was the school started?
• Employment,“clean” investment, social motivations
How?
• Grou...
Need productive government role in private schooling
Private school demands
• View private schools positively, recognize c...
31
“Best” schools
how can one identify great schools, and what
makes them special?
32
Which are the schools identified as the “best” schools?
Survey Question: which are the best schools in the district?
(n...
33
What differentiates the best public schools?
Most frequently cited schools have better examination performance, and
per...
34
What works?
I don’t say things like I am a pure teacher and have no interest
in politics. I just don’t advertise and pr...
35Source: Qualitative datasets
Challenge of social prestige, even in the best public schools
We surveyed 100 local guardia...
36
Conclusions &
Implications
Circling back to the choice debate
Implications from the Nepal case
37
References: Chubb and Moe (1990), Schneider,Teske a...
• Build localized, process-based data systems learning from
other education data systems
o Existing data: integrate and in...
• Recruit effective principals: importance of good principals who can navigate the
political system
o Can effectively moti...
40
Global implications for the public system and equity
Can private growth make a positive difference?
• Yes, private expa...
41
Low and lower middle income countries (WB)
Landlocked countries Fragile political climate (EFA GMR;WB conflict report)
...
Should the global community invest in
for-profit chains that aim to provide private schools for the poor?
Locally grown so...
43
• Dissertation committee: Professors Emily Hannum, Richard
Ingersoll, Jere Behrman,Amita Chudgar
• Field research: Part...
works.bepress.com/pjoshi
• Joshi, P. (2014a). Continuing to exercise choice after school selection in Nepal.
International...
45
Thank you!
Comments: pjoshi@alumni.princeton.edu; p.joshi@unesco.org
46
Private market share, 2010-11
Mathscores,2010-11
0
20
40
60
80
100
-20 0 20 40 60 80 100
Private market share, 2010-11
...
47
Implications for the public system and educational equity
Historical developments
Growing distrust in government provis...
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Debate: How does private schooling growth affect the public system and educational equity?

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Speaker: Priyadarshani Joshi, researcher at the Global Education Monitoring Report
Discussant: Claire Galante, Project Manager at Agence Française de Développement
Moderator: Michaela Martin, Programme Specialist at IIEP-UNESCO

Wednesday, 4 October 2017, 4 p.m. to 6 p.m

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Debate: How does private schooling growth affect the public system and educational equity?

  1. 1. How Does Private Schooling Growth Affect the Public System and Educational Equity? IIEP Strategic Debate October 4, 2017 Priyadarshani Joshi Research Evidence from Nepal
  2. 2. A public-private education system Parents Students Teachers, principals Education bureaucracy (national, district, sub-district) Private school associations
  3. 3. Research Questions • How and why do parents select schools? How do they continue to engage with schools after choosing them? • What is the public sector’s experience of and response to private competition? • How do private school actors view their role in the education system? 3
  4. 4. Research Motivation and Perspective • Choice a global trend and academic focus (charters, vouchers, home schooling, private schools, etc.) • To focus on process: In developing countries, there is a lack of focus on “analyzing the processes through which schooling decisions are made, and how households interact with schools once they make that choice” (Srivastava) • To focus on local experiences: We need a better understanding of local education markets to understand how competition is experienced and whether there is any choice (Betts, 2009; Lubienski and Weitzel, 2010) 4
  5. 5. Investigate key aspects of the choice debate Expected Benefits and Concerns 5 References: Chubb and Moe (1990), Schneider,Teske and Marschall (2000), Lubienski andWeitzel (2010); Hsieh and Urquiola (2006); Levin (2002) Better match children to schools, more engaged and satisfied Sorting by income and ability (who chooses, who loses?) Face competitive pressures, and respond with improvement efforts Inappropriate to view as a market, difficult to incentivize reform Responsive to parental demands, need to provide quality Shifts focus from social good aspects of education; focus on getting “most desirable” Parental Choice Public schools Private schools
  6. 6. 6 Research Design & Context
  7. 7. Mustang Chitwan Kathmandu Kavre Dadeldhura Supplementary 7 JhapaIn-depth Research Design field sites for primary data collection in Nepal Sarlahi
  8. 8. 8 PRINCIPAL SURVEY (KATHMANDU, CHITWAN) IN-DEPTH DATA SUPPLEMENTAL DATA Kathmandu Chitwan National DadeldhuraSarlahiMustang Kavre Jhapa District-Level Private School Records (Kathmandu, Chitwan) National School Records National Exam Records Population Census QuantitativeSECONDARY SOURCES PRIMARY SOURCES Parent focus groups, surveys (6th grade) data Qualitative Living standards survey SLC study 2004 Research Design
  9. 9. • Low-income, landlocked/difficult topography, high ethno-linguistic diversity • Political instability, high migration • Private schooling growth fueled by demand and supply side factors • Public education reforms: per-child funding, decentralization Sources: Population Census 2011, National Examination Center records, EMIS national administrative records, NLSS surveys I, II and III the development of a two-tiered system Private Market Shares Student pass rates (High School Exams) 21 6 0 10 20 30 2005 06 07 08 09 2010 public private % Dalit (disadvantaged population) Country Context 3,3 7,8 12,7 31,6 48,2 52,1 0 20 40 60 1995-96 2003-04 2010-11 rural urban 47 90 0 20 40 60 80 100 1999-00 2004-05 2009-10 public private 9
  10. 10. 10 “Protests in private schools over raising school fees” “5 public schools displaced due to shortage of students” (Nagarik National Daily | May 15, 2011) (Nagarik National Daily | May 4, 2012) Issues with two-tiered education system
  11. 11. 11 Parent decision-making Why and how do parents select schools? How do parents continue to exercise choice after selection?
  12. 12. 12 Framing the process of parent decision-making Schneider, Elacqua and Buckley (2006); Schneider,Teske and Marschall (2000); Hirschman (1970); Srivastava (2007).
  13. 13. Financial constraints and children’s interest key to school selection Child role in decision-making “I had no idea about this school. She said that I will go to this school, and asked me for the admission fees. She came back and said that the school needs either the mother or father to come for admission. The next day I went to the school, and got her admitted there.” 13 62,7 13,3 72,0 21,3 66,7 69,7 54,2 4,2 0 20 40 60 80 Close to home Cheaper than others Academic quality English medium Private Public The top 3 reasons they selected the school (percent that chose each attribute) 10,7 20,4 27,3 22,6 14,7 26,4 0 10 20 30 High Ed Med Ed Low Ed No Ed Private Public Proportion of parents who chose child decision as one of the top 3 reasons for selecting the school How: through informal networks, local knowledge, and child interest N = 147 Why: proximity, ability to pay, “quality”, English medium
  14. 14. “Average and above” Public Poor parents do not benefit from existing choice “Below average” Public “Smaller” Private “Well-known” Private Focus groups - 2-3 public schools; 1-4 private schools in 6 locations parents most engaged and empowered Less engagement in more high demand schools Dissatisfaction on English education, and disciplinary aspects Schools not gauging parental satisfaction; parents not communicating dissatisfaction
  15. 15. 15 Public sector perspectives How do public schools experience competition? What are public schools doing in response to private competition? What are the factors that mediate public school efforts?
  16. 16. 16 Framing the process of competitive effects on public schools OutcomesExperiences of Competition Responses to Competition Motivations/ Constraints (Betts, 2009; Gauri,1998; Hess, Maranto and Milliman, 2001; Ni and Arsen, 2010; Lubienski andWeitzel, 2010; Ladd and Fiske, 2003; Rouse, Hannaway, Goldhaber and Figlio, 2007; Thapa, 2013; Zief, Maynard, Bradley, Keefe and Kralik, 2005)
  17. 17. Extent of private sector growth, local enrollment pressures, and how officials perceive this competition. Competition Measures (Objective and Subjective) The local experience of competition • Geographic proximity: How many private secondary schools are within a 1 km. walk from your school? (2011-12) • Market share: Percentage private enrollment in locality • Principal perception: Who are you competing with? (Name 3 schools) (2011-12) [Dummy variable: 1 = name at least 1 private school]
  18. 18. 18 144 463 pre-1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 67 92 pre-1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Kathmandu District Chitwan District year Numberofsecondarylevelschools Sources: Private school district records, Principal Survey public private Competitive experience – private school growth? More private schools
  19. 19. 19Sources: Private school district records, Principal Survey ChitwanKathmanduNepal 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 2006-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 2010-11 public private 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 2006-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 2010-11 public private 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 2006-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 2010-11 public private The data is restricted to schools that have data for 2006-07 to 2010-11. The sample includes 22,146 public schools and 1770 private schools in Nepal; 266 public and 554 private schools in Kathmandu; and 339 public and 84 private schools in Chitwan. Competitive experience – enrollment pressure? Lower enrollment
  20. 20. Response: some policy adoptions for competing English medium Ties and belts ABCs Source: Principal Survey, 2011-12 Adopted English medium of instruction: 73% Added ties and belts to school uniforms: 67% “private-mirroring” strategies Instructional time strategies EXAM Coaching TEST PREP Remedial classes REMEDIAL SLC Coaching 96% SLC coaching for weaker students: 45% Remedial classes for weaker students: 35%
  21. 21. Example:Adopting English medium ABCs • Parental demand for English; what is attractive about private schools • Public schools hope to stem the outflow of students by providing English medium ** sig. at 5% level; * sig. at 10% level Logistic Regression Results (Estimated odds ratios) Dependent variable: 1 = Adopted English medium Perception Measure (Mentioned at least 1 private school among competing schools) 2.21** Proximity Measure Medium competition 0.63 High competition 0.49* Interpretation: greater than 1: higher likelihood of adopting English compared to omitted category (no perceived competition; low competition) Does policy adoption vary by extent of competition? Source: Principal Survey, 2011-12 Kathmandu Chitwan Year transitioned to English medium of instruction, public secondary schools 0 10 20 30 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 0 10 20 30 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Rapid recent adoption of English medium 21 Principal perception measure may capture leadership motivation, instrumental for policy adoption
  22. 22. necessary conditions for productive responses revenue time Resources Community support Principal’s Leadership Child centric learning & Committed teams Bureaucratic support in adopting policies National District Resource CenterTeachers
  23. 23. constraints to responding revenue time No supplemental revenueLack community support Start from disadvantage ABCs English medium Lack Bureaucratic Support political party interference
  24. 24. Pervasive role of political instability 24 “Politically, all the teachers are divided.And so are the school management committees. And so is society.When you talk about children, they ask “whose child” they are and “which party” they belong to.” Deputy Director, Department of Education
  25. 25. 25Source: Qualitative datasets A separation of roles for public and private schooling All political party leaders’ children have gone to boarding (private) school. So, whoever is part of the intellectual and educated circle, they have all focused their (education related) attention on boarding school.The government/community school has become a place to play politics and get some additional respect ” “ School management committee member Questions posed to public school principals on challenges % agree • There are more politically appointed teachers who are not concerned with teaching in public schools 65.6 • Most of the parents of public school students do not understand the importance of education 59.4 Principals of public schools in locations with more private schools have higher likelihood of agreeing to these challenges.
  26. 26. 26 Private sector perspectives What are the characteristics of the private schools in the sample? What do private schools provide, in contrast to public schools? What do principals think the government role is, and should be?
  27. 27. 0 100200300 qfee_gr1us68 pre-1980 1980s 1990s 2000s Kathmandu schools – fee-based diversity Private schooling trends Private expansion seems to be more “market-like” in Kathmandu Public schools = $8.6 avg. (0 to $182); n = 145 Estimatedmonthlyandannualfees (InUS$),grade1,2011-12 Decade of establishment1st grade fee distribution 0 .002.004.006.008 .01 0 100 200 300 qfee_gr1us68 N = 607 27
  28. 28. 0 50 100150200 qfee_gr1us68 pre-1980 1980s 1990s 2000s Chitwan schools – narrower fee bands Private schooling trends Private school fees lower, more controlled in Chitwan - smaller size Public schools = $3.6 avg. (0 to $92); n = 67 Estimatedmonthlyandannualfees (InUS$),grade1,2011-12 Decade of establishment 0 .01.02.03 0 50 100 150 200 qfee_gr1us68 1st grade fee distributionN = 113 28
  29. 29. Private school characteristics Why was the school started? • Employment,“clean” investment, social motivations How? • Group got together to operate a school (2 to 53 shareholders) (esp. in Chitwan) • Takeover administrative control from other team esp. in Kathmandu – 150 requests for ownership changes in two year period (2010 and 2011) Who attends? • All strata; Most do not have the option to sort students – too much competition in city centers, too few children outside city centers Why more favored? • “it’s not that private schools are very good; it’s just that public schools are bad” • Sole provider of quality education (care, teacher effort, high stakes exam performance) – combination of factors are better 29
  30. 30. Need productive government role in private schooling Private school demands • View private schools positively, recognize contributions to national development • Support private schools (resources, monitoring, bigger private role) • Increase communication and reduce hostility • Develop a separate private education act to stabilize the sector and view private schools as education institutions and not companies 30
  31. 31. 31 “Best” schools how can one identify great schools, and what makes them special?
  32. 32. 32 Which are the schools identified as the “best” schools? Survey Question: which are the best schools in the district? (name up to 3 schools) Of the 212 public schools, 56 were identified as being among the best schools by other public school principals.Very few public schools were cited frequently school 1 23 B A
  33. 33. 33 What differentiates the best public schools? Most frequently cited schools have better examination performance, and perhaps as a result are in greater demand (higher enrolment, higher fees, entrance exams at the secondary level) We consider School B as a “guardian of all schools in this whole locality”. And we learn from them. “ ” Within-school functioning It is not enough for just us to improve – only one school improving is not enough. Need 10 to 20 to do well to bring children back to public school. We need to build confidence for this to happen. “ ” Vision for public schooling Targeting student performance Motivating teachers by leading through example Bigger student role in monitoring, providing suggestions Involving parents in monitoring, helping motivate students Strong reputation Private school principal:
  34. 34. 34 What works? I don’t say things like I am a pure teacher and have no interest in politics. I just don’t advertise and promote it. There are all kinds of [politically affiliated] teachers here – the reason the team is still well formed is because none of the teachers can say that the headmaster has particular favorites or is biased towards someone or the other because of their ideological orientation. I am aware of not letting that bias to be felt. ” “ Keep politics outside the classroom [Principal, School B] My three children passed from this school itself. I cannot send them to the private schools. It’s not that I don’t have the (financial) capacity, … but I have the confidence that all the children will pass from this community school with 1st or 2nd division results and make their own progress. Teach in public schools [Principal, School A] “ ”
  35. 35. 35Source: Qualitative datasets Challenge of social prestige, even in the best public schools We surveyed 100 local guardians – why don’t they come even though our results are good? We got three points of feedback. First our school has no English medium – that was the main issue. Second, they said that the students of the school are children who was dishes in other people’s homes, and we feared that they would spoil by being in bad company. And third, most of them said that – school B is a government school.The fear was that their social status would fall. Why not attractive to parents despite track record and reputation? ” “
  36. 36. 36 Conclusions & Implications
  37. 37. Circling back to the choice debate Implications from the Nepal case 37 References: Chubb and Moe (1990), Schneider,Teske and Marschall (2000), Lubienski andWeitzel (2010); Hsieh and Urquiola (2006); Levin (2002) • Better match children to schools, more engaged and satisfied? Yes, primarily middle class • Sorting? Yes, unregulated choice, based on financial capacity • Face competitive pressures, and respond? recent focus on “private mirroring” policies due to extreme enrollment pressures • Difficult to incentivize reform, inappropriate to view as a market? Yes, politics and loss of community support propel the public-private divide • Responsive to parental demands, need to provide quality – Yes, focus on test score outcomes, English medium • Focus on getting “most desirable”; shifts focus from social good aspects of education? – not all private schools super selective, but sorting and profit motive are concerns, private schools need govt attention Parental Choice Public schools Private schools
  38. 38. • Build localized, process-based data systems learning from other education data systems o Existing data: integrate and increase the accessibility of existing school- level data o New data: instructional and noninstructional policies, school financing, parental SES, different data system for private schools • Streamline roles of local level personnel • Improve teacher distribution and financing equity 38 Facilitating research and policymaking data and policies
  39. 39. • Recruit effective principals: importance of good principals who can navigate the political system o Can effectively motivate teachers and minimize political activities within school o Partner the best functioning public schools with public schools that require special assistance • Fight the perception battle o Need to switch mindset from “schooling for the poor” to accessible to the poor o Positive publicity – teachers and principals sending their children to the public schools have led to transformations in some examples • Collaboration focus o Politicians could be viewed more productively as strategic partners and not just “interference” – some districts have smoother operations [private sector] 39 What can, and has worked? “The plant is dry… It’s not dead yet. But, it has nothing – the leaves have fallen.You cannot give it too much water or fertilizer.You have to protect it from sun and water damages, and slowly improve its situation so that new leaves emerge again. Private school principal (on the public education system)
  40. 40. 40 Global implications for the public system and equity Can private growth make a positive difference? • Yes, private expansion increases opportunities for the middle to lower middle class – to choose schools; generate employment and contribute to society What are the effects on equity? • Loosely regulated systems will lead to significant negative consequences on equity Can the public sector benefit from private growth? • Public systems can suffer from stratification and then stigma; hard to reverse with specific reforms • To benefit public schools, public-private systems requires government commitment and collaborations, and well-timed interventions – hard to transform after long- term decay.
  41. 41. 41 Low and lower middle income countries (WB) Landlocked countries Fragile political climate (EFA GMR;WB conflict report) At least 10% private school enrollment (WDI – UNESCO UIS) Burkina Faso Central African Republic Chad Congo Republic Democratic Republic of Congo Côte d'Ivoire Ethiopia Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Pakistan Paraguay Philippines Togo Uganda Bolivia Nepal Global relevance – comparative possibilities
  42. 42. Should the global community invest in for-profit chains that aim to provide private schools for the poor? Locally grown solutions are important, Even more so in unequal societies 42
  43. 43. 43 • Dissertation committee: Professors Emily Hannum, Richard Ingersoll, Jere Behrman,Amita Chudgar • Field research: Participating schools, parents and officials; field research teams (quantitative survey; qualitative fieldwork) • Fieldwork and Secondary Data Approval: Department of Education (Nepal) • Funding: World Bank (Nepal), Dean’s Fellowship Penn GSE; Amherst College Fellowship for Further Graduate Study • My father, Janardan Joshi • Graphic design: AshutoshTamrakar • Family and friends Acknowledgements
  44. 44. works.bepress.com/pjoshi • Joshi, P. (2014a). Continuing to exercise choice after school selection in Nepal. International Journal for Educational Development (IJED), 37, 57-67. • Joshi, P. (2014b). Parent decision-making when selecting schools: the case of Nepal. UNESCO Prospects, Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, 44(3), 411- 428. • Joshi, P. (2016). Experiencing and responding to private competition: the importance of subjectivity and intermediate outcomes. Comparative Education Review, 60(3), 571-600. • Joshi, P. (2017). Identifying and investigating the “best” schools: A network-based analysis on Nepal’s public education system. Compare:A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 1-18. • Joshi, P. (2018a). Competitive effects (quality and sorting) of private competition on public school outcomes. Under review at IJED. • Joshi, P. (2018b). The political, bureaucratic and societal challenges faced by public schools in low-income countries. Under review at Journal of Development Studies • Joshi, P. (2018c). The role of the private schooling system in Nepal: private sector perspectives. In progress. 44
  45. 45. 45 Thank you! Comments: pjoshi@alumni.princeton.edu; p.joshi@unesco.org
  46. 46. 46 Private market share, 2010-11 Mathscores,2010-11 0 20 40 60 80 100 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Private market share, 2010-11 Relativemathscores,2010-11 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 0 20 40 60 80 100 r = -0.67r = 0.21 School-average math test scores Locality-average public school outcomes/ locality- average public and private school outcomes The relative outcomes are lower in high competition regions than in low competition regions No statistically sig. association between public school test scores and private market share Public school exam outcomes are slightly better in high private market share regions, but are relatively much worse than private schools
  47. 47. 47 Implications for the public system and educational equity Historical developments Growing distrust in government provision, private school growth fewer children and more focus on investing in children Parents choose by quality and financial capacity, determines social standing Over the long term, unregulated education systems lead to educational inequity, and public systems suffering from stratification and stigmatization • Private schools are unlikely to automatically induce public school improvements • Recent quasi-private policies suggests competitive & accountability pressures can incentivize changes cumulative effects sorting of students • Despite policy efforts, some public schools may not be able to improve outcomesIn high competition regions: • Despite policy efforts, some public schools may not be able to improve outcomes • Even if outcomes improve in some schools, other parents may not be interested (public-private gap too large) Over time, from sorting to stigma of public schooling

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